European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 151 No 4
February, 2019

Theoretical and Numerical Investigations of Displacements, Stresses and Strains around Hole Drilled in Anisotropic Block of Rock and Submitted to Internal Pressure: Application in Rock Breakage by Expansive Cement

Ndop Joseph, Mambou Ngueyep Luc Leroy, Nkenwoum Chebou Gael and Ndjaka Jean Marie Bienvenu
The rocks considered for the model exhibit an orthotropic elastic behavior. We used Ansys Inc. software which is a code based on the finite element method. By this method, we studied the influence of the stresses generated by the expansive cement in a block of rock with one, two and nine circular(s) hole(s). The analysis of redistribution and magnitude of stress and displacement allowed us to estimate the maximum stresses and displacements around the borehole. The numerical results show that the intensity of stress redistribution for a rock with orthotropic elasticity is higher than for an isotropic mass. The results obtained also show that the staggered mesh offers better cracking compared to the square mesh.
Keywords: Hole; Stress, Finite Element Method; Rock; Orthotropic; Elasticity.

Geophysical Study Contribution to the Rio Del Rey Sedimentary Basin based on Aeromagnetic Data Interpretation

Alain Rodrigue Nzeuga, Françoise Enyegue à Nyam, Robert Nouayou and James Derek Fairhead
The complex tectonics of coastal sedimentary basins results from the great geodynamic activity of the Earth planet from the Cretaceous to the Neogene. Among these basins, we have that of Rio Del Rey the tectonics of which highlights the fault system responsible of the fracturing of its base during the opening process of the South Atlantic. Using the filtering operations applied on the map of the total magnetic intensity field, a structural map showing the main faults will be drawn based on the analysis of the local maximums of the horizontal gradient of the total magnetic intensity field reduced to pole and analysis of the local maximums of the analytical signal of the total magnetic intensity field. The use of aeromagnetic data for the characterization of the structures of this basin gives many informations that the results of previous studies did not take into consideration. A quantitative study of anomalies along a profile on the map of the total magnetic intensity field reduced to the pole shows the presence of strongly magnetized bodies. These results justify the granito-gneissic nature of the Precambrian basement and the perfectly induced nature of magnetism in this basin. A table of the fracturing directions and the rosace of the structural directions have been drawn up to correlate the results of the Euler’s deconvolution map. Finally, a comparison of the results obtained shows that the fracturing of the basement of the Rio Del Rey basin took place along two major directions. The complexity of the structural map compared to the one drawn up by Dumort in 1968 shows that these results could serve as a guide and open up other lines of research in the future..
Keywords: Aeromagnetic, reduction to pole, horizontal gradient, analytical signal, lineaments, faults, basaltic intrusion

Impact of Qualitative Classification of Public Budget Expenditure on the Efficiency of the External Control Units in Jordan: Field Study

Abedalfattah Zuhair Al-Abedallat, Hamdan Moh’D Al –Hiyasat and Naseem Mohammad Aburuman
This study aimed to describe the impact of the qualitative classification of public budget expenditure on the efficiency of the external control units in Jordan. To achieve the aims of the study, questionnaire was designed and distributed to all external auditors responsible for external control in financial management and economic development services to various job titles within the study community which consists of the Audit Bureau as the concerned party responsible for external control of the work of government units in Jordan under its law No: (28) of (1952), based on the provisions of article (119) of the Jordanian Constitution, and (72) External auditors. The researchers distributed (72) questionnaires to the members of the study sample, (64) have been regained, (56) of them were valid to statistical analysis aims with a response ratio (77.8%) of all distributed questionnaires. A group of statistical analysis methods were used, represented in: Descriptive Statistic measures, Simple Linear Regression, and Reliability Analysis Alpha. The results of the study showed a positive effect of the classification of public budget expenditure on the efficiency of the external Control units in Jordan. Amid the results of this study, it was recommended that the researchers need to be attentive to classification of public budget expenditures, because of its effect on the efficiency of the external control units in Jordan stating and its recommendations budget expenditure typology public steps in Jordan.
Keywords: Qualitative classification, Public budget expenses, Efficiency, External control, Government units

Carcasse de la Methode de Runge-Kutta D'ordre 5

Akpini Kouadio Amos Michaël, Assui Kouassi Richard, Yoro Gozo and Bailly Balé
Due to the large size of the Butcher system, it will be necessary to use all the possibilities to solve this system of equations. To keep the complexity in check, it is necessary to look for some new approaches for the solution of the system of Butcher equations. In the works [14,13, 12, 9] and others, it is proposed to seek solutions of the system of equations by numerical methods. Instead of the system complete of the equations, it is proposed to examine a certain part "the carcass" which can be counted to solve in the total aspect.
This work is devoted to methods of 5 to 6 stages.
Keywords: Méthode Runge-Kutta, équations de Butcher,Carcasse.

Qualite Des Eaux D’un Hydrosysteme Forestier Sous Protect Strict Dans Le Parc National De Taî (Côte D’ivoire, Afrique De L’ouest)

Diomandé Abou, Kamelan Tanoh Marius, Bamba Mamadou, Berté Siaka and Kouamélan Essetchi Paul
This study has characterized the physicochemical environment of the Meno River in order to provide the basis for future ecological modeling of this aquatic ecosystem. Ten physicochemical parameters (Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, oxidation-reduction potential, transparency, width, velocity, and depth) and seven ionic compounds (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate, total phosphorus, free chlorine and total chlorine) were measured monthly between June 2016 and May 2017 in three sampling stations. The results indicated that Taï forest has had a positive effect on the physicochemical environment of the Memo River. This resulted in the low mineralization and values of physicochemical parameters in upstream of Meno River. Yet, the downstream of Meno River showed a slight increase in the mineralization rate, in particular during the rainy season through the nutriments leaching of the agricultural surrounding land. These results are basic data for the implementation of a sustainable management plan for the Meno River and its watershed.
Keywords:Physical and chemical parameters, water quality, Meno River, Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire.

Processes and Results of Social Innovation in the Wine Production Chain

Margarete Luisa Arbugeri Menegotto, Maria Elisabeth Teixeira Pereira, Antonio Jorge Fernandes and Beatriz Lúcia Salvador Bizotto
Social Innovation and its application have a growing interest in different organizations and academics, since it provides evidence for the decision-making of managers, entrepreneurs, public authorities and other stakeholders in a productive chain. Decisions that seek to find innovative solutions to business problems and the community as a whole.
The challenge is how to seek data in an organized and timely manner, as well as harness their potential so that it can enhance the way that the actors of a productive chain make decisions and develop new conduits for the development of social innovation. This mapping of the process is necessary so that there is a reach of social good and sustainable change benefiting the productive chain. In this way, this research seeks to demonstrate the innovations within the RS wine production chain with the use of by-products and dynamic inter-chain capabilities. It is necessary to institutionalize innovation by identifying dynamic capacities and their best use, to achieve social good and sustainable change. We used the interviews with actors in the chain and after a qualitative content analysis was performed, combining the results with insights from the different actors involved in the social innovation process. It was found that innovations through the development of prototype applications that clearly demonstrate the impact of innovations within all links of the wine production chain, as well as the pharmaceutical chain and enogastronomy, with the benefits of innovation ranging from producer suppliers of the region, extending to the global final consumer.
Keywords:social innovation, wine production chain, social innovation process

Personal Failure and the Emasculated Male in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?

Arafat Abdali Rakhees and Jinan Fedhil Breyo Al-Hajaj
This study investigates the emasculation of the male character in Edward Albee's Who is Afraid of Virginia Woolf. It attempts to examine the male hero’s troubled personality through Freudian lenses. George’s character is explored to uncover his flaws as a human being, which lead to his failure to perform his gender roles whether as a son, husband or even imaginary father. It also discusses the psychological causes that push Martha into demeaning and emasculating him. The analysis reveals that George as a person has failed himself on various levels. He has settled into a state of lethargy and lassitude that makes him unwilling to restore his position as the patriarch of his family. He has lost his authority and his respect along with it due to his own personal imperfections. As a result, Martha assumes authority and maintains the upper hand; she has to make sure he would never be able to ride out of the storm.
Keywords:Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?; Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory; George; emasculation; sexual impotence

Valorization of Wood Ashes as Partial Replacement of Portland Cement: Mechanical Performance and Durability

Mambou Ngueyep Luc Leroy, Fotseu Miyo Christian Dupont and Kamseu Elie
The study presents the behaviour of wood ash / OPC mortar. Two wood ashes are used in this study WA1 and WA2. Chemical analysis of wood ash, bulk density, sieve analysis and specific gravity of wood ash and aggregates, loss on ignition (LOI), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and infrared spectrometry (IR)analysis of wood ash, consistency and setting time of the fresh paste, durability test and density of mortar cubes were conducted to determine the suitability of the materials for mortar making. Percentage replacement level of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 percents of cement by wood ash were used. 40×40×40mm cubes were cast, cured and crushed at 7, 28 and 56 days to determine their compressive strength. Test result indicates that the WA1 is slightly pozzolanic, WA2 not. Water demand increases as the ash content increases and the setting time of the paste increases as the ash content increases. Compressive strength of wood ash / OPC concrete it increases with age at curing with optimum replacement of cement by WA1 of 15%. Density and durability increases as the ash content increases.
Keywords: Wood ash; mortar; chemical analysis; loss on ignition (LOI); X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis; Infrared spectrometry (IR) analysis

Structural and Electrochemical Prpoperties of Agx SnO1-x/G (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) Composite Electrodes

M. Alpha, U.E. Uno, Isah K.U and Ahmadu U
The electrochemical performance of Agx SnO1-x/G composite (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) as an electrode material was investigated for supercapacitor application. The reduce graphene oxide (G) was synthesized using an improved modified Hummer’s method and the composites electrode material was synthesized with a hydrothermal reduction method. The introduction of Agx SnO1-x (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) material into the network of the reduce graphene oxide enhances the kinetic for both charge transfer and ion transport throughout the composite electrode. The composite was characterized by Raman, SEM and XRD which reveals the morphology and structural properties. The Electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. The electrode Agx SnO1-x (x = 0.4) gives the specific capacitance of 123.1 F/g, energy density of 30.9 Wh/kg, and power density of 541.1 W/kg after one cycle. After 1000 cycles CV test, it gives the capacitance efficiency of 95.4 % capacitance retention. The composites showed greatly improved cycling stability and demonstrated positive synergistic effect between Agx SnO1-x (0.3 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) material and the reduce graphene oxide as composite electrode to meet the requirement for high energy and power density.
Keywords: Electrode, Supercapacitance, Composite

The Factors Influencing the use of the Protocols of Care Implanted at the Hospital Idrissi Kenitra-Morocco

Chaib Yassine, Elanssari Anas, Aouane Mahjoub, Hamama Samir, Aujar Nabila, Chaib Asmaa, arieme Nehiri, Chakhtoura Khalid and Abdelmajid Soulaymani
The objective of this study is to explore the factors affecting the use of care protocols by care staff at the El Idrissi Hospital in Kenitra.
The main results showed difficulties in the use of the protocols of care, since 56% of the respondents are supervised in their practice. 53% of respondents contribute to the development of care protocols. 63% of respondents are convinced of the usefulness of the protocols in improving the quality of care, compared to 52% who perceive them as a reminder, 11% said that protocols of care influence their practices and none of these participants Said care protocols are not essential for practice. 74% were not aware of the protocol project, 52% said they did not refer to the protocols when they needed it in practice, 36% referred to a doctor, 42% had a chief nurse. 38% of participants felt demotivated with protocol use, only 48% of respondents said the access to protocols was easy, 38% did not have protocols in their care units, 60% Asserted that the protocols of care are simple, 40% affirmed the existence of a coherence of the protocols of care with the available resources
Keywords: Protocol of care; care staff; health professional; hospital