European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 148 No 4
March, 2018

Etats Des Lieux, Qualite Physico-Chimiques Et Biologiques Des Effluents De L’abattoir Industriel De Yaounde
412-424
ZANGA Adalbert Donatien, AJEAGAH Gideon AGHAINDUM and NGASSAM Pierre
Abstract:
La présente étude visait à évaluer l’état de lieu et de caractériser les eaux usées de l’abattoir industriel de Yaoundé. Une série de décentes a été effectuée, dans un premier temps afin de réaliser l’état de lieu à travers un mini questionnaire bien structuré et des interviews. Dans un second temps d’effectuer les prélèvements bimensuels des eaux usées de l’abattoir de décembre 2016 à juillet 2017. Les échantillons ont été prélevés sur trois points situés à l’intérieur du site d’abattage et trois points situés à l’extérieur et ramenés au laboratoire pour analyses. Il ressort que les bâtiments de l’abattoir industriel de Yaoundé ont perdus leurs éclats, le château est tout couvert de rouille, la station d’épuration est en arrêt depuis plus de 8 ans, seule la chaîne d’abattage continue de fonctionner malgré parfois la pénurie de pièces de rechange. De plus, la population a envahi les espaces qui étaient dédiées à l’extension de l’abattoir. En ce qui concerne les paramètres physicochimiques, les teneurs moyennes du pH varient 7,87 à 8,29 U.C ; la conductivité électrique oscille entre 307,5 à 1092,8 mg/L; les Matières En Suspension varient de 220 à 571 mg/L; la DBO5 oscille de 71,67 à 364,17 mg/L d’oxygène. Pour ce qui est des analyses bactériologiques, les densités moyennes des Coliformes Totaux varient de 1,70.106 à 4,174.106 UFC/100mL, celles des Salmonelles oscillent entre 2,75.105 à 1,097.106UFC/100mL et celles des Streptocoques fécaux varient de 7,38.105 à 2,224.106 UFC/100mL. Il en ressort de cette étude, que l’abattoir de Yaoundé a perdue de sa qualité infrastructurelle, de son aspect salubre et les résultats bactériologiques sont supérieurs aux normes autorisées par la législation en vigueur au Cameroun et par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). Ainsi il est impératif de reconstruire un nouvel abattoir plus performant, exigeant sur le plan sanitaire et qui peut être délocalisé dans une banlieue de la ville de Yaoundé.
Keywords: Etats de lieu, physico-chimique, Bactériologique, abattoir industriel, Yaoundé.



Investigating the Role of Planned Behaviour in Knowledge-Sharing The Mediating Role of Behavioural Intention in Jordanian Commercial Banks
425-439
Maha Alkhaffaf and Faris Makahleh
Abstract:
This work seeks to establish the effects of individual aspects on the sharing of knowledge, which is achieved through the analysis of Behavioural Intention as a mediating variable, with the context of the study commercial banks in Jordan. It combines the Theory of Planned Behaviour, as introduced by Ajzen (2011), with the sharing of knowledge alongside behavioural intention.
In order to satisfy the study objectives, a simple random sample comprising a total of 300 employees were chosen. The data taken from the sample underwent analysis through the application of various statistical analysis methods, including descriptive statistics, whilst the testing of hypotheses was completed through the adoption of the structural equation modelling technique (PLS-SEM) software in an effort to assess the path model. The study findings have further emphasised the presence of a positive statistically significant effect associated with individuals in the sharing of knowledge across Jordanian commercial banks. The findings further highlight the presence of a positive statistically significant effect associated of individuals in line with behavioural intention, further recognising the presence of a positive statistically significant effect of behavioural intention on knowledge-sharing behaviour. Furthermore, the findings identify the presence of an indirect statistically significant effect of individuals in the sharing of knowledge across Jordanian commercial banks through behavioural intention as a mediating variable.
Keywords: Individual factors, Behavioural intention, Knowledge sharing.



Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Isolates of Corynespora Spp, Causal Agent of "Corynespora Leaf Fall Disease " of Rubber Tree in Côte d’Ivoire
440-449
Yao Kouakou Alban Prosper, Wahounou Polié Jean, Kouadjo Zaka Ghislaine, Mpika Joseph and Diallo Atta Hortense
Abstract:
Corynespora leaf fall disease (CLFD) represents in Côte d’Ivoire as in the world a real danger for naturel rubber production. The objective of this study is to characterize and identify the isolates of Corynespora spp from morphological and molecular features. Fifty isolates of Corynespora. spp from the main natural rubber production areas in Côte d’Ivoire were analysed. The result showed variability in the phenotypic characteristics of the isolates. Colony colors varied from green to different gray variants. The appearance of mycelial colonies on potato dextrose agar is woolly, cottony in 90 % of cases, and smooth. The shape of conidia is cylindrical, straight for some and slightly curved for others; with average size of 11,77 to 52,87 µm in length and 1,66 to 5,71 in width. The amplification of the ITS regions of the rDNA generated specific fragments of 545 bp. Analysis of the restriction fragments obtained after digestion of the amplicons by AluI, EcoRI, MspI and RsaI endonucleases identified all isolates as Corynespora cassiicola. However, no polymorphisms were found at the ITS sequences. Similarly, the phylogenetic analysis of 30 isolates of C. cassiicola, selected on the basis of their morphological characters, did not reveal any genetic diversity between the isolates.
Keywords: CLFD, Corynespora spp, Côte d’Ivoire, Hevea brasiliensis, ITS sequence.



Verification and Evaluation of Exploratory Statistical Methods in the Analysis of Relative Data in A Sanitation Industry in the State of Goiás with the Application of Exhaust Production
450-459
Isis Juliane Arantes Granja and José Elmo De Menezes
Abstract:
This research aims to analyze the application of exploratory statistical methods, in particular the PCA and HCA methods, in the analysis of data related to the production management in a chemical industry of Household sanitation. The chemical industries of cleaning products, also known as sanitizing industries, come in a great market growth and consequently competitiveness, thus forcing the improvement in their productive performance. Twelve months of the year 2016 were established with samples. The results were analyzed through graphs and statistical tables, which results in three large groups of samples. In this way, a methodology for the implementation of lean production was consolidated in obtaining the improvement of productivity and performance in an industry of sanitation sector in the State of Goiás.
Keywords: Exploratory Statistical Methods, Lean Production, Sanitation.



Women Literacy in Balochistan: Challenges and Way Forward
460-473
Shazia Safdar Ali, Ambreen Masood and Seemab Abid
Abstract:
This study dealt with women literacy challenges and way forwards addressed by government of Balochistan, Pakistan. This study proposes a ‘female educational challenges model’ by analyzing plans and policies from 1989 to 2016. The model was further statistically evaluatedfromthe data of 365 female students. The challenges model proposed interconnected effect of sociocultural, religious, political and economic challenges on female students’ learning. Structure equation model (SEM) shows that sociocultural challenges have significant positive effect on political, economic and learning challenges. Religious challenges have significant positive effect on sociocultural and political challenges whereas sociocultural and political challenges significantly positively predicted learning challenges.
Keywords: literacy, education, challenges, policies, culture, politics, religion, economy, learning, government, terrorism, ethnicity, multiculturalism.



Power Loss Minimization in Radial Distribution System Using Network Reconfiguration and Multiple DG Units
474-483
Sarfaraz Nawaz, Sonali Singh and Supriya Awasthi
Abstract:
A novel approach is anticipated in this paper for optimal feeder reconfiguration and allocation of DG and capacitor units in distribution system with an objective of reduction of real power losses while satisfying operating constraints. Selective Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (SPSO) is used to obtain reconfigured distribution network. A new heuristic technique has been proposed to solve DG & Capacitor placement problem. A new mathematical expression, Power Voltage Sensitivity Constant (PVSC), has been formulated here. The value of PVSC decides the candidate bus location and size. The results of the proposed technique are validated on IEEE 33 bus test distribution system at different load level. The level of DG penetration is also considered in a range of 0–50% of total system load. A novel index is also proposed which incorporates level of DG penetration and % reduction in real power losses. The results are promising when compared with recently proposed algorithms.
Keywords: Radial distribution network, distributed generation, capacitors, network reconfiguration, SPSO (Selective Particle Swarm Optimization), heuristic technique, DG penetration.



Comparison of Lipase Enzyme Production between Free-Cells and Immobilized Cells Consortium of Three Bacillus Bacteria
484-490
Abdelali Fadile, Halah Aissam, Mohammed Merzouki and Mohamed Benlemlih
Abstract:
The production of enzymes lipase by the microorganisms has a lot of interest biotechnology; our study focalizes on the production of the lipase enzyme with Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sp. The results acquired are rather promising of what we have quantify this production in concentration in the order of 2 Ulip.ml-1 and 1.7 Ulip.ml-1 and of 1 Ulip.ml-1 respectively for the three bacteria for 120 hours of culture in conditions mesophilic culture with oleic acids. The effect of the immobilization of the consortium composed of three bacteria shows an important rentability with peaks of 4.02 Ulip.ml-1 and 5.02 Ulip.ml-1 for free cells and immobilized cells respectively for 15 days of reaction.
Keywords: lipase; enzyme; immobilized cells; bacillus; consortium.



Etude Chimique Et Evaluation De L'activité Antibactérienne Et Antifongique Des Huiles Essentielles De Cupressus Arizonica Greene Cultivée Au Maroc
491-500
H. Bouksaim, B. Satrani, M. Ghanmi, A. Chaouch and M. Fadli
Abstract:
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by steam distillation of leaves, cones and sawdust of Cupressus arizonica Greene grown in Morocco was determined by GC and GC / MS. Among the elements identified, α-pinene is the major constituent of the various parties discussed with the following percentages (25.52% twigs and 76.45% cones 78.3% sawdust). In twigs, there is a remarkable abundance of p-cymene (10.11%), α-phellandrene (5.49%) and Sabinene (5.81%). The antibacterial activity of essential oils against bacteria samples, molds and fungi wood rot was evaluated in vitro, and, depending on the presence or absence of the proliferation of the species tested.
Keywords: Cupressus arizonica – leaves – Cones – Sawdust – Essential oils – Chemical composition – Antimicrobial activity



Lichen Comme Bioindicateur de la Qualité de L’air de la Ville d’Abidjan en Éléments Traces Métalliques
501-524
Yacouba Zoungranan, Lynda Ekou, Tchirioua Ekou and Kouassi Kouadio Dobi Brice
Abstract:
Nous avons évalué dans cette étude la teneur de quelques Éléments de Traces Métalliques (ETM) dans l’atmosphère de la ville d’Abidjan, à savoir le Pb, Zn, Mg, Fe, Cu. Dans le cadre de ces travaux nous avons utilisé les lichens foliacés Parmotrema dilatatum prélevés à la station écologie de Lamto située à 5°1'12" Ouest et à 6°7'48" Nord. Ces lichens ont été transplantés dans neuf (9) sites de la ville d’Abidjan pendant douze (12) mois. Les résultats obtenus ont permis de réaliser la carte de pollution de chaque métal dans la zone d’étude. Cette cartographie met en évidence le rôle déterminant des activités urbaines, industrielles, le transport et la dispersion des polluants atmosphériques. La cartographie réalisée révèle que les retombées métalliques sont plus significatives sur les sites d’Abobo Mairie (Abo) et Adjamé Macaci (Adj2).
Keywords: Lichens, pollution atmosphérique, bioaccumulation, Éléments Traces Métalliques.