European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 148 No 1
December, 2017

The Actual Property Of; Bio-Energy, Cells Divisions and Some important concepts of Different Creatures

Alaa H. Al-Darraji
Abstract:
All creatures in the earth move all the time due they have certain energy which continually produced in them bodies. References (11 and 15) show that ATP and other like nucleotides are responsible for producing this energy but how these specific molecule produce energy while thousands chemical molecules do not do that!
In another hand, cell's division is so important process in the earth, it represents life's basic phenomenon, it responsible for; Reproduction, Repair and Growth of all creatures in the world. Then without understanding scientific basics of this phenomenon, it is impossible to understand how humans and other creatures form, how they grow up, and how they repair them bodies!
It highly obvious that there is no clear scientific vision about above most important phenomena in the earth, for this, in this research a full survey depending on chemistry principles was done on known procedures of DNA extraction processes. In addition, it contains chemical explanation for DNA's identification techniques; U.V.-Visible, Electrophoresis and N.M.R spectroscopy. Finally, the truth moment of this research represent all above surveys which included DNA's samples that extracted in biology department. All these indicated one scientific fact that DNA extraction processes that widely used for long time ago by many researchers produce unsaturated fatty acids do not produce DNA or nucleotides molecules. Therefore, all theories that depended on these extractions processes are incorrect.
Understanding of different Cells functions depending on facts and good evidences lead this research to explain another important concepts such as; Fertilization process, identities of different viruses and their right treatment, the reason of obesity and its right treatment...etc.
Depending on; Chemistry science, facts and excellent evidences, this research gives full explanations about above so important phenomena and concepts. It believes that chemistry can solve more than these and it able to explain most important phenomena in the earth. In fact, Chemistry touch is so necessary for explaining most important phenomena in the earth.
Keywords: human's energy, cell division, sperm and oocyte.



Réduction Des Bactéries A Intérêt Sanitaire Par Les Traitements Appliqués Aux Eaux Usées Urbaines Dans Les Stations D’épuration Tunisiennes

Monia Trad Raïs and Nidhal Marzougui
Abstract:
Une évaluation de la qualité bactériologique des eaux usées a été réalisée aux niveaux de 22 stations de traitement situées dans différentes régions de la Tunisie durant trois années (2013-2015). Les résultats montrent que la concentration moyenne des indicateurs fécaux dans les EUB varie de 6.6 à 7,6 unités log /100ml. Cette concentration ne subit pas de variations importantes selon les régions par contre, elle augmente entre 2013 et 2015. Les EUT véhiculent un nombre moyen d’indicateurs fécaux sensiblement plus faible que celui enregistré dans les EUB. L’abattement des indicateurs fécaux varie de 0,56 à 3,11 unités log selon les stations. Les abattements les plus élevés correspondent aux stations de traitement par lagunage. Les EUT contiennent toujours plus de 104 E. coli/100 ml et ne sont pas conformes à la norme tunisienne de rejet d’effluent dans le milieu hydrique. La recherche des salmonelles dans des EUT réutilisées à des fins agricoles en saison estivale a révélé une présence très fréquente de ce pathogène. Il est donc nécessaire d’ajouter, aux niveaux de certaines stations, des filières de traitements complémentaires afin d’assurer un abattement suffisant de la pollution microbienne et garantir une meilleure protection de la santé publique et l’environnement.
Keywords: Eau usée, qualité microbiologique, indicateurs fécaux, Salmonelle.



Santé Ecologique De Quelques Cours D’eau Du Bassin Hydrographique De La Mabounié Au Gabon : Essai De Typologie Par Les Variables Physicochimiques Et Hydromorphologiques

Foto Menbohan S., Mboye B.R., Mbega J.D. and Ajeagah Gideon A.
Abstract:
Dans le but d’évaluer la santé écologique des cours d’eau du bassin hydrographique de la Mabounié, situé en forêt équatoriale dans le centre ouest du Gabon, un échantillonnage de variables physicochimiques et hydromorphologiques a été mené dans 10 cours d’eau de novembre 2015 à novembre 2016. Les résultats physicochimiques révèlent de basses températures (23,41&plusminus;1,20 °C), des taux de saturation en oxygène élevés (80,44&plusminus;10,01 %) et de faibles valeurs des paramètres indicateurs de pollution organique (DBO5: 1,31&plusminus;0,75 mg/l et Azote ammoniacal: 0,21&plusminus;0,46 mg/l). Par contre, la granulométrie des substrats révèle une disparité entre le lit du cours d’eau principal et celui des affluents gauches d’une part, composés de blocs, de galets et de granulats, et ceux de la rive droite d’autre part, essentiellement recouverts de sable grossier. Dans la caractérisation des cours d’eau, l’Analyse Factorielle Discriminante montre une prépondérance des paramètres hydromorphologiques (granulométrie, largeur, profondeur et débit) sur ceux physicochimiques avec des variations significatives d’un cours d’eau à l’autre (P<0,05). Ainsi, la « Self Organising Map » a permis de définir 4 groupes de stations en fonction du débit de la granulométrie du substrat, de la profondeur et de la largeur du lit.
Keywords: Physicochimie, hydromorphologie, granulométrie, santé des cours d’eau, bassin hydrographique, Mabounié.



Effect of Gravitational Waves on the Tracking of Polar Orbits

M. H. A. Youssef
Abstract:
This work is examining the effect of gravitational waves on polar orbit (circular or near circular), through analytical approach of perturbation which based on fundamental physical principles, first the rate of change of angular momentum is equal to the torque exerted by the perturbed forces on the body in the orbit, and second the change in kinetic energy of the orbiting body is equal to the work done on it by the external forces. The tracking of polar orbits will be changing due to the effect of gravitational waves on the plane of orbit and there are tendency to reduce the inclination of the orbit.
Keywords: gravitational waves; general relativity; celestial mechanics; perturbation; astrodynamics; orbital mechanics.



Influence of Drip Irrigation by Automation Controller System on Soil Moisture Distribution, Water Amount, Faba bean Yield, and Water Use Efficiency

Abdullah S. Aljughaiman
Abstract:
The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of drip irrigation through using an automation controller system, different soil surface slope conditions and different field capacities on soil moisture distribution patterns, water amounts and Faba bean yield. Field experiments were carried out in a sandy loam soil with Faba bean (Vica Faba-variety G461) at Al Hassa Oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Faba bean seeds were planted on late October where the growth period extended for 150 days. Under automation controller drip irrigation system, three irrigation rates of the following field capacities: 60, 80, and 100 and two land slopes: non slope 0% and sloped down by 5%. Soil distribution patterns were affected significantly by the different field capacities. The highest values were under 100% FC, then 80% FC, followed by 60% FC. Whereas the effect of sloped down by 5% was observed to be more than under non slope 0% but not significant. The interactions among field capacities and slopes were found to be significant. Finally, it can be concluded with the recommendation of using the third field capacity of 60% FC because the treatment of the two slopes 0 and 5% water amount has been saved and produced faba bean yield not significantly different compared to other treatments of field capacities. Moisture distribution with sloped down by 5% has been improved under field capacity treatments of FC 60 and FC 80 % because water hold capacities were increased by 1.2 and 0.8 (v/v %), respectively. Faba bean yield values of FC (60, 80, and 100) % were (1.77, 1.65; 1.57) and (1.86, 1.72; 1.63) under non-sloped 0% and sloped down by 5%, respectively. Water use efficiency (WUE) values of FC (60, 80, and 100) % were (0.042, 0.033; 0.028) and (0.043, 0.034; 0.030) under non-sloped 0% and sloped down by 5%, respectively.
Keywords: Automation controller, drip irrigation, slopes, field capacity, soil moisture distribution, water, Faba bean yield.



Soil Salinity Distribution as Affected by Drip Irrigation System, Land Slope and Water Application

Abdullah S. Aljughaiman
Abstract:
This study was conducted in a sandy loam soil plot at King Faisal University Research Station, Saudi Arabia, with an aim to investigate the effects of an automated drip irrigation system (ADIS), field capacity (FC), and land slope on soil salinity distribution. The water amounts used were 60%, 80%, and 100% FC, on non-sloped (0% grade) and sloped (5% grade) land. According to salt concentration data, FC treatments were arranged in the following order: 80% FC>60% FC>100% FC before and after irrigation on the 0% slope. On the 5% slope, the order was 100% FC>80% FC=60% FC before irrigation and 100% FC=80% FC=60% FC after irrigation. On non-sloped land, significant differences were observed in soil salt accumulation under 80% FC, 100% FC, and 60% FC before and after irrigation (p<0.01). The salinity distribution recorded on the 5% slope improved under the 60% and 80% FC treatments. The salt concentration decreased with depth before irrigation and increased with depth after irrigation. Under the 5% slope condition, the mean soil salinity increased by 20.1%, 7.4% and 11.2% before irrigation and 21.7%, 13.1% and 17.3% after irrigation under 100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC, respectively. The findings of this study illustrated the importance of slope and attaining salt balance when using an ADIS, especially in heavy soils.
Keywords: Automation controller, field capacity, soil salinity distribution, vegetative growth, faba bean.



The Subprime Crisis and Reflections in Credit Risk Management of Brazilian Banks: A Comparative Study in the Largest Public and Private Banks in Brazil

Júlio César da Silva, Silvio Aparecido Teixeira, Rodrigo Moreira Casagrande and Francisco Carlos Fernandes
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to compare the credit risk management of the main Brazilian public and private banks, before and after the 2008 global crisis, with the purpose of answering the research question: What behavior in credit risk management presented by public and private banks, between 2006 and 2011? The research is characterized descriptive, documentary and with quantitative treatment of the data. The choice of sample was intentional for the comparative evaluation between the two largest public banks and the two largest private national banks with commercial profile at the time of the crisis: Banco do Brasil, Caixa Econômica Federal, Itaú and Bradesco. The data were collected from the financial statements and the explanatory notes, from 2006 to 2011, for the collection of data on the credit operations carried out and the risk at the level recorded in the Balance Sheet and in the Income Statement of the Financial Years and the credit rating collected in explanatory notes. The analyzes showed different reactions to credit risk management, pre- and post-crisis of 2008, as the public banks analyzed had higher exposure to risk in the Medium and High portfolio than the private banks.
Keywords: Credit Risk Management; World Subprime crisis; Brazilian banks.



Rheological Properties of Wastewater from the ceramic tile Industry Treated with Different Coagulants

El-Shimaa M. El-Zahed, Sh.K. Amin, N.F. Abdel Salam, F.I. Barakat and M.F. Abadir
Abstract:
The rheological properties of wastewater sludge emanating from a ceramic tiles factory were investigated using a Brookfield type rheometer. Three coagulants were used in different proportions, namely, carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC), alum, and poly-acryl-amide (PAM). The effect of the coagulant type and percent addition on the non – Newtonian behavior of the suspension was disclosed. Results revealed that adding 0.6% alum (by weight) yielded the lowest viscosity among chosen coagulants which reflects positively on the power required to pump the waste sludge and move it to the filtration or sedimentation units.
Keywords: Wastewater treatment, Tile industry, Coagulant, rheology.



Risk Factors Associated with Bulimia in Schooled Adolescents in Fez (Morocco)

Meryem Makdad, Adil Najdi and Abdellatif Bour
Abstract:
Background: Bulimia is an eating disorder (ED) that mainly affects adolescents. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of bulimia among adolescent and it’s associated risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of 367 students from colleges and high school degree both from the public and private. A self-questionnaire with items on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and food was administered. The screening of ED was made using a specific Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Depressive disorders were assessed by the Hospital scale Anxiety and Depression (HAD). Anthropometric measurements were carried out in a standard manner in all adolescents. Results: The mean age was 15.58 &plusminus; 2.01 years with a range of [12-19]. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.99 &plusminus; 2.47. The prevalence of bulimia was 9.6% [CI 95 %: 6.8-17.3 %]. Bulimia prevalence was higher among girls comparing to boys (13,5% vs 5,3%, p <0.007). Associated factors to bulimia are: Being overweight (OR = 4.55 [95% CI: 1.15 – 20.00] p < 0.03), the fear of gaining weight (OR = 14.01 [95% CI: 1.68-116.86] p < 0.015) and the depression (OR = 42.76 [95% CI: 13.57 -134.75] p < 0.000). The diet was the most widely used method of weight control in bulimic adolescents (40.8%). Conclusion: Bulimia is a frequent health problem in our context, undertaking a preventive strategy should be a priority for the local health policy makers.
Keywords: Adolescent, bulimia, prevalence, depression, Morocco.



Use of Prospective Studies on Policy Analysis: A Bibliometric Study

Sidarta Ruthes and Christian Luiz da Silva
Abstract:
The aim of this article is to illustrate the status of the scientific production related to the use of prospective studies on the policy analysis process. Two questions guided this investigation: how are future studies used on policy analysis? Are prospective studies used on all stages of the policy analysis? Considering that, an attempt was made to conduct a bibliometric analysis in order to quantitatively measure the scientific production on this theme, exploring databases and showing the parameters and variables from a set of articles (bibliographic portfolio), such as authors, citations, references, relevance of journals, etc. The bibliometric analysis was conducted according to the guidelines of the process known as ProKnow-C. In addition, the EndNote X6 software was used to support the bibliometric analysis. As a result, it is highlighted that prospective studies are used mainly as information input to define the agenda of public policies, and they may not be more effectively extrapolated into other stages of the policy analysis. Furthermore, the bibliometric analysis has shown the emergence of the theme, with the identification of only 13 articles discussing this theme, considering that 7 of these documents were published between 2012 and 2013. This is an emerging theme on the scientific community that works with prospective studies, and it is discussed among a small group of researchers, with citations among peers.
Keywords: Development Planning and Policy, Planning Policy, Industrial Policy, Government Policy.