European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 147 No 2
October, 2017

Mortalité Due Au Monoxyde De Carbone Dans Les Régions Du Maroc A Forte Incidence De L’intoxication
118-124
Mohammed Chahboune, Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Rachida Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida Aghandous and Abdelrhani Mokhtari
Abstract:
Objective: Poisoning by carbon monoxide continues to increase in Morocco, both in frequency and in fatal outcomes. The objective of this work is to study the vital impact of these poisonings on the populations of the most affected regions such as Meknes-Tafilalt, Tadla-Azilal, Fès-Boulmane, Tangier-Tetouan and Oriental, regions characterised by a high incidence. In other words, the aim of this work is to help minimize mortality through a regionalised control program.
Methods: Longitudinal study of mortality due to carbon monoxide poisoning in the above mentioned regions where the effects were the highest at the national level during the period 1999-2013.
Results: The evolutionary mortality study in the five regions shows annual rate fluctuations in all of these regions. Whereas in terms of the average of mortality during the period studied, mortality does not show proportionality with incidence in general. The highest mortality was in the eastern region (0.103 per 100 000 inhabitants), followed by Meknès-Tafilalt (0.096 per 100 000 inhabitants) and Fez-Boulmane (0.090 per 100 000 inhabitants). The Tangier-Tetouan region witnessed a lower mortality rate (0.042 per 100 000 population), while the Tadla-Azilal region recorded an even lower mortality rate (0.013 per 100 000 inhabitants).
Conclusion: The fatal risk of carbon monoxide poisoning is not dependent on incidence at the regional level, but rather on its accidental occurrence due to exposure conditions.
Keywords: Poisoning, carbon monoxide, incidence, mortality, Morocco.



Essai de régénération en pépinière du piment bec d’oiseau (Capsicum frutescents) var. PM 16/04 A sous l’influence de 3 types de fertilisants : cas des fientes de poules, des déjections de porcs et de l’engrais NPK
125-132
BOYE Mambé Auguste Denise, TOURE Nin Céline, YEO N’Djamongo and AKE séverin
Abstract:
The bird chilli or chili martin (Capsicum frutescents) is a small red or green pepper. Because of its generally spicy taste and its richness in vitamin C, chilli is well appreciated in the human diet and its medicinal properties. Despite all these properties, the cultivation of this type of pepper is a little marginalized in Côte d'Ivoire. Its production system is characterized by low productivity. In order to optimize yields, the intake of fertilizers is essential. The study carried out at the Jean Lorougnon Guédé University consisted in bringing organic fertilizers (laying chicken droppings and pig droppings), the dose is 400 g / m² in the form of dry matter and NPK will bring 20 g / m 2 to the different nurseries of bird peppers in order to see the impact of these fertilizers on the agromorphological parameters of the seedlings. The duration of the nursery was 45 days with an irrigation twice a day. The study revealed that the number of leaves (17), the length (12 cm) and the width of the leaves (7.9 cm) the height (40 cm) of the peppers planted on the substrate containing the pig droppings are respectively well above those of NPK fertilizers, chicken droppings and control without added elements.
Keywords: Pepper, agromorphological parameters, nursery, organic fertilizers.



Evaluation de l’effet insecticide de l’huile essentielle de Capsicumannuum, variété jaune sur les stades de développement aquatique de Anopheles gambiae en microcosme
133-146
FOKO DADJI Gisèle Aurelie, Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum, TSANGA Akoua Stephane1et TAMESSE Joseph Lebel
Abstract:
The study is based on the evaluation of the insecticidal effect of the esssential oils of the yellow variety of Capsicum annuum, on the aquatic developmental stages of Anopheles gambiae.In order to determine the ovicidal, larvicidal and nymphocidal activities of the yellow variety of C. annuum,on Anopheles gambiae .Essentaial oils of the yellow variety of Capsicum annuum, pre-extract is tested at different concentrations on the aquatic developmental stages of An. gambiae (eggs, larva of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4thstages and the nympha ) so as to determine the mortality rates.Whatever the concentration of the yellow variety of C. annuum essential oil applied, the hatching rate of the eggs remains insignificant, and the mortality rate of all larval and nymphal stages are at 98% after 10minutes. We conclude that Capsaïcine and capsaïcinoïdes containovicidal, larvicidal and « nymphocidal » properties on An. gambiae.
Keywords: insecticidal effect, Anopheles gambiae, stages of development, Capsicum annuum



Mode Variations in Slot-cut Capacitive fed Suspended Microstrip Antenna
147-154
Nandini M. Ammanagi and Ravi M. Yadahalli
Abstract:
Dual band and Triple band Microstrip Antenna’s suspended in air with a small capacitive feed is proposed. Triple band Microstrip Antenna is realized using a tri-slotted patch. Dual band Microstrip Antenna is realized using a tri-slotted ground plane with a pair of slots loaded in the patch. The uniqueness in the proposed work is the detailed understanding of capacitive fed slot-cut Microstrip Antenna’s in terms of its current distribution, VSWR, impedance variation, VSWR, radiation pattern; gain etc. is presented and analyzed with respect to the variations in modes.
Keywords: Rectangular Microstrip Antenna (RMSA), Capacitive feed, Suspended, Dual band, Triple band.



Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characterization of Waters in The Sassandra Watershed (Southwest Ivory Coast)
155-169
Koffi ThéodoreYao, Derving Baka, Marie-Solange Oga, Olivier Fouché and Kan Michel Koffi
Abstract:
This study demonstrates enhanced information of the characteristics and the storage condition of groundwater in Ivory Coast new cocoa loop aera by integrating hydrochemical and isotopic data.
Two on site surveys were carried out where 56 water samples (Groundwater, surface water, and rainwater) were collected to determine hydrochemical parameters and isotopic and to collect. These samples have been assayed in specialized laboratories.
As result, This area groundwater have acceptable physicochemical parameters and are moderately mineralized whatever the geological formation with Ca, HCO3 and SO4 predominance. In addition, critical nitrate levels are noticed up. Moreover, their hydrochemical and isotopic signature confirmed significant infiltrations of the meteoric waters flowing more or less rapidly through a dense fracture network.
Also, stable isotopes of water have shown that almost all waters are subjected to evaporation. The isotopic study also made it possible to differentiate seasonal waters.
Those just renewed by the first rains, and those that have resided in the aquifer since the previous season and which have mineralized during the dry season in a closed system.
Finally, this study focuses on the qualitative approach to assess groundwater resources in a tropical basin and shows the impact of anthropogenic activities on these water resources.
Keywords: Hydrochemical, Groundwater, hard rock aquifers, stable isotopes Soubré, Ivory Coast.



Antibacterial activities of sea anemone Aiptasia pallida from Costa Rica
170-176
Henry Borbón, Adriana Córdoba-Chaves, Sandra Valdés, Javier Alvarado-Mesén, Gerardo Rodríguez and Yendry Carvajal
Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activities of the aqueous extract of sea anemone Aiptasia pallida (A. pallida) and its fractions in diethyl ether, acetone, ethanol, and water.
Methods: The entire anemone body of A. pallida was subjected to an aqueous extraction (1:2 w/v), and then lyophilized and partitioned with diethyl ether, acetone, ethanol and water. The antibacterial activity of these fractions was evaluated on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella enterica (S. enterica), Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aureginosa (P. aureginosa), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris). The inhibition zones were determined by the disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated only on S. aureus.
Results: P. vulgaris, E. coli, and Klebsiella spp. were the most susceptible to A. pallida extracts. The acetone fraction exhibited stronger activity than the ethanol and water fractions. All tested bacteria strains were susceptible to the acetone fraction; the greatest antimicrobial activities were observed on P. vulgaris (18.0 mm). The acetone fraction exhibited a MIC of 52 µg/mL and a MBC of 52 µg/mL on S. aureus. The ethanolic and water fractions presented important activity on Klebsiella spp. and B. subtilis with inhibition zones ranging between 12 and 9.3 mm, respectively. Slightly activity was observed when using the diethyl ether fraction with inhibition zones of 7.0 and 6.0 mm on E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.
Conclusions: The sea anemone A. pallida contains bioactive metabolites, which have potential in the development of new pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: Aiptasia pallida, Biological activity, Antibacterial, Bioactive compounds, Sea anemone.
JEL Classification: N56



Eurycoma longifolia Jack water extract (Physta®) and its 4.3 kilodalton peptide increase insulin secretion from pancreatic cells and enhance glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive cells, in vitro
177-187
Mustapha Umar Imam, Maznah Ismail, Sasikala M Chinnappan and Annie George
Abstract:
Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant native to Asia known for its’ energy enhancing and anti-hyperglycemic properties. A 4.3 kDa peptide from E. longifolia was found to be responsible for its sexual-enhancing effects, and may also mediate other effects of E. longifolia. Thus, the effects of E. longifolia water extract (EE) commercially available as Physta® and its’ peptide 4.3kDa (EP) were evaluated on insulin secretion and glucose uptake, in vitro. Cultured cells (3T3-L1, L6, BRIN-BD-11 and Caco-2 cells) were incubated with concentrations of EE (0-1000 ppm) or EP (0-100 ppm), and their viabilities determined after 24 h. Thereafter, non-toxic doses of EE (50 and 100 ppm) and EP (5 and 10 ppm) were used to determine glucose uptake into differentiated 3T3-L1 and Caco-2, and L6 cells, while insulin secretion was assessed from BRIN-BD-11 cells. After 30 mins of incubation with EE and EP, insulin secretion from BRIN-BD-11 cells increased by up to 200 and 2800%, respectively. Glucose uptake was increased by up to 23 (EE) and 31% (EP) in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, and 54 (EE) and 68% (EP) in L6 cells. In both cases, glucose uptake was significantly augmented in the presence of insulin. There was marginal reduction in glucose uptake in differentiated Caco-2 cells. The results suggest that Physta® is a candidate for enhancing glycemic control.
Keywords: Diabetes, plant extract, tongkat ali.



The Quantized Atomic Masses of the Elements: Part-4; Z=61-80 (Pm-Hg)
188-218
Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
Abstract:
This paper is the fourth part of a series of nine of QAM-UQAM-NMT-2015-Ver-3. An innovative semi-empirical atomic mass formula has been derived to calculate quantized atomic masses more precisely than macro-micro formula and purely microscopic HF-self-consistent methods. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of new nuclear theory NMT. It can calculate the atomic masses of non-existent isotopes based on the existing experimentally measured nuclides. The discrepancy (RMS) of the mass model is less than 335 keV for UQAM and 884 keV for QAM for the entire region of ground-state masses of 3160 nuclei ranging from 1H to 118Og. The quantized atomic masses of 11500 nuclei ranging from Z=1 to Z=173 have been calculated, 2000 nuclides of them belong to Z=61-80 (Pm-Hg). The results are compared with those of other recent macroscopic–microscopic. Sn, Sp, β-, β+ and α decay energies are also given.
Keywords: nuclear mass formula, neutron mass, atomic masses, new isotopes, super-heavy nuclei, alpha decay.



Evaluation de la flore et des stocks de carbone de la forêt relique du site de la Direction Régionale d’Abidjan du CNRA (Côte d’Ivoire)
219-231
GBOZE Annick Estelle, COULIBALY Brahima, Justin KASSI N’Dja and N’GUESSAN Kanga Anatole
Abstract:
La présente étude, réalisée dans la forêt relique du CNRA d’Abidjan (Cocody), a permis d’évaluer la diversité des espèces végétales et le taux de carbone stocké par les arbres. Les inventaires floristiques ont permis de recenser 121 espèces, réparties en 105 genres et 46 familles. Parmi les espèces de la forêt relique, certaines sont endémiques, emblématiques et menacées d’extinction. Les hauteurs totales, les diamètres à hauteur de poitrine ont été mesurés. Les biomasses et des indices de diversité, ont été calculés. Au total, 349 tiges ont été dénombrées pour 66 espèces. Les arbres de l’arboretum ont une capacité de stockage de carbone de 1617,39 tC/ha. Ce qui témoigne du rôle compensatoire des espèces arborescentes de la forêt relique, dans les émissions du dioxyde de carbone issu des activités humaines. La réduction du dioxyde de carbone par les arbres est un important service écosystémique pour le bien-être humain. Dans les milieux urbains, ce processus est malheureusement souvent négligé ou mal connu.
Keywords: Forêt relique du CNRA, Diversité floristique, Stock de carbone.



Étude des Macromycètes de Côte d’Ivoire : Description de quelques espèces du Sous-bois Forestier issues de la Forêt Classée de Niégré
232-241
Kouassi Kouadio Claude, N’Douba Amako Pauline, Koffi N’Dodo Boni Clovis and Traoré Dossahoua
Abstract:
Six Macromycètes rencontrés dans le sous-bois forestier de Niégré sont décrits et illustrés pour la première fois en Côte d’Ivoire à partir de leurs caractères morphologiques et quelque fois microscopiques. Il s’agit de Phlebopus sudanicus (Har. et Pat.) Heinem, Phlebopus sp., Stropharia sp., Russula sp., Agrocybe tomentosus Kouassi nom prov. et Cystoderma ivorensis Kouassi nom prov. La dernière espèce est lignicole et les autres sont des ectomycorhiziques déjà signalés en Afrique.
Keywords: Description, Agaricales, Boletales, Saprotrophe, Mycorhize, Côte d’Ivoire.