European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 145 No 4
June, 2017

Removal of Pb+2 Ions from Water By Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles That Prepared Via ECD
354-365
Zaid Hamid Mahmoud and Aklas Ahmed Abd alkareem
Abstract:
This study describes an effective Pb+2 removal process using iron oxide magnetic as an adsorbent. (IOMNPs) were prepared using ECD (electrochemical deposition) method with current (0.07 to 0.1mA) and 10volt using to rods of iron as an anode and cathode and ferrous oxalate as an electrolyte solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images obtains NPs adsorbent were cubic in shape and 21nm for magnetite and 23nm for meghmaite in diameter. FTIR spectra gave the evidence that Fe3O4 was felicitously adsorb Pb+2 from solution and EG coated on the surface of magnetite. The interaction between lead ions and magnetite was showed clearly from (EDAX) spectra while the average for particles of iron oxide and the identity of it characterized using XRD analysis. From XRD result, Fe3O4 has been converted to γ- phase when it dried at room condition but don’t converted when existence of EG (Ethylene Glycol). EG was worked as coated material surround the surface of magnetite and prevent it to convert to γ- phase. NPs of magnetite were used to remove lead ions from solution at different conditions temperature, adsorbent/adsorbate concentrations, equilibrium time and initial pH. The kinetic data of interaction between magnetite and Pb+2 was evaluated by using pseudo-first and second order. Nearly 100% of Pb+2 removals were completed at NPs dosage: 0.02g/L, temperature: 30C, Pb+2 concentration: 60ppm, speed: 300rpm, pH: 6 and equilibrium time: 30min
Keywords: γ-Fe2O3, magnetite, removal, Nano powder, electrochemical precipitation, adsorption.

Malting Characteristics of Three Hybrid Varieties of Rice
366-375
Michael Obo Odo, Peter Anyigor Okorie and Kalu, Mercy A
Abstract:
The malting characteristics of three hybrid varieties of rice “Ciherang, Impari 13, and Wita 4” were studied. Parameters of interest included Out-of-Steep Moisture Content (SMC), Steeping Loss, Germination Energy, Mean Germination Time (MGT), Root and Shoot Lengths, Malting Loss, and Malt Yield. The diastatic activity was done to determine the enzyme yield potentials of the rice varieties. The rice grains were steeped in distilled water for 48 hours and germinated for 8 days after steeping. Except Impari 13 (SMC of 29.79%), the remaining two varieties had SMC above 30%. Impari 13 also had the least steeping loss of 10.50% while the highest loss of 13.69% was observed for Wita 4. Approximately all the malted grains germinated on the very first day of germination, while the mean percentage of the germination energy was 97.84%. This indicated that the grains are very viable and good for malting. MGT fluctuated within malting period and ranged from 0.97 to 1.0 day. The root and shoot lengths were directly proportional to the germination period. Malting loss also increased with germination period. On the 10th day of malting, Wita 4 lost 60.94% of its constituents, which was the highest loss observed among the rice varieties malted. The diastatic activities of the ten-day malted rice varieties ranged from 13.33U/ml to 29.006 U/ml. The rice varieties could be used as good sources of enzymes for industrial applications.
Keywords: Diastatic activity, Germination, Malting, Malt yield, Rice varieties.

Hybrid Interactive Genetic Saliency Model Algorithm for Image Retrieval
376-387
Chesti Altaff Hussain, D.Venkata Rao and S.Aruna Masthani
Abstract:
The aim of Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems is to find pictures in large repositories without using any other information except the own content of the images, which is usually represented as a characteristic vector extracted from low-level descriptors. The paper describes a hybrid interactive genetic saliency model algorithm (HIGSM) which combines query phase, saliency phase and evolution phase. In particular, a framework which is independent from the particular features used is presented. The effect of different crossover strategies and mutation rates is evaluated and the performance of the proposed system is compared to that of other existing algorithms, obtaining considerably better and very promising results.
Keywords: Content base image retrieval, Interactive Genetic algorithm, Saliency model, Query processor, Precision, Recall.

A Comparative study of various Hashing techniques in Distributed System
388-402
Vipul Narayan, YashPal Singh, Vimal Kumar, Mohammad Faiz and Sanjay Kumar
Abstract:
A special kind of function is a cryptographic hash function, in which we take any input of random length and produced output put of definitive length. The feasibility of implementing Cryptographic hash functions is for ensuring integrity and sender individuality. This paper makes available a comprehensive summary of cryptographic hash functions. It clearly demonstrates evolution, fundamental, classification of various types of Assault and their construction. It also demonstrates important applications and their uses.
Keywords: Cryptographic hash function, Encryption, Assault, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3 and MD-5.

Isolation of Yeasts Able of Degrading Effluents of SAMIR Refinery (Mohammedia-Morocco)
403-417
Naoual Kada, Abdeltif M’Haidra, Mohamed El Hassouni and Jamila Bahhou
Abstract:
In this study seven yeast strains were isolated from the stations of the SAMIR refinery located in Mohammedia. These strains were identified based on the systematic described by Kreiger-Van Rij (1984). This identification has allowed to classify these strains in 4 genera: Pichia Hansen, Bensingtonia, Candida and Rhodotorula. The strains identified subsequently underwent the biodegradation test to study their ability to biodegrade hydrocarbons. The results of the test showed that the crude oil biodegradation rate by the isolated yeasts is superior to 30% whereas the biodegradation of the refinery effluent who have underwent a physicochemical treatment is between 50 and 62%. From the results of this study it can be said that the isolated strains can be used to enrich the biological basin of the WWTP of the refinery but also sites contaminated by hydrocarbons.
Keywords: Oil refinery, Yeasts, Biodegradation rate, Biological treatment.


Design and Synthesis of Capping group Based on a Substructural Analysis of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors TPX and SAHA
418-426
Lynda Ekou, Tchirioua Ekou, Ziao Nahosse and Adenidji Ganiyou
Abstract:
Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have emerged as a promising new class of anticancer agents that act through a variety of mechanisms. HDAC inhibitors increase the negative charge of core histones by increasing the acetylation of histones, which results in the relaxation of chromatin structure and subsequent enhancement of gene expression. In general, the pharmacophore for HDAC inhibitors is composed of a Zn2+ binding moiety, a linker, and a capping region surface recognition motif. The capping group of HDAC inhibitors has a significant impact to the target selectivity, it seemed that the size of capping group is the key point for governing enzyme selectivity. In this paper we have designed and synthesised a new capping group which can be connected to the linker hydroxamic aliphatic chain. In this case we reacted capping group (14) with 7-benzyloxycarbamoyl-heptanoique acide (17) in the presence of several coupling agents (HOBt-TEA, DPPA-TEA, TBTU-TEA). As result the amine 14 does not react and can be recovered. We conclude, the peptide coupling in this conditions was not possible. A molecular modeling was realized concerning the secondary amine 14 and acid 17, to understand the no reactivity of these compounds.
Keywords: histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, Vorinosta, Trapoxin, molecular modeling.


Differential Subordination For Uinvalent Functions
427-434
Waggas Galib Atshan and Ihsan Ali Abbas
Abstract:
In this paper we investigate and obtain on subordination results for generalized deriving function of a new class of univalent analytic functions in the open unit disk.
Keywords: Analytic function, Univalent function, Differential Subordination.


Hemiparasitic Loranthaceae species infestation in Citrus tree fields in Guitry Department (Ivory Coast)
435-448
Kouassi Kouman Landry DONGO, Kouakou Théodore KOUADIO, Koffi Badou Jérémie KOUAME and Hervé KANGA-EBA
Abstract:
A study was conducted in Babokon-Guitry (Cote d’Ivoire) from March to August 2015 to assess the infestation rate and severity of Loranthaceae Phanerogamic parasites on bergamot, bitter orange and lemon fields of Plantivoire agricultural unit. A field scouting was conducted on a 800-hectare field, divided in 59 plots for species identification and infestation rates quantification. Twenty-three, 12, and 24 plots of bergamot, bitter orange and lemon, respectively, were surveyed. Ten plants per row were sampled in five rows giving a total number of 50 plants per plot. Results revealed that 4 Loranthaceae species were identified on Citrus trees as Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl.) Danser, T. preussii (Engl.) Tiegh., T. dependens (Engl.) Danser and Phragmanthera capitata var capitata (Spreng.) Ballé among which T. bangwensis was the most common and abundant species. Attacks were recorded only on plants with a well-developed canopy (trees aged 5 years and over). The recorded infestation rates were 91.82 &plusminus; 5.23%; 80.21 &plusminus; 7.58% and 85.25 &plusminus; 12.24% for bitter orange, bergamot and lemon respectively. Loranthaceae Phaneragamic parasites are a real threat for producers because they induce yield loss and crops death. This study reported that mechanical control consisting in cutting the host-parasite branch 5 cm upstream of the haustorium is the most efficient and most profitable despite its destruction of plant canopy. However, priority should be an implementation of an Integrated Management Program including mechanical and biological (natural ennemies) controls. To our knowledge, this study reported for the first time the presence of Tapinanthus dependens in Ivory Coast.
Keywords: citrus species, Loranthaceae, infestation rate, Ivory Coast.


Experimental investigation of the migration of organic pollution in the underlying soils of household waste dumpsites: A case study in Abomey Calavi, Benin
449-457
Sofiath Onifade, Metogbe Belfrid Djihouessi, Martin Pépin Aina, François de Paule Codo and Hervé E. Labité
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to develop a database for numerical simulations of the migration of the biodegradable organic pollution in soils. An experimental investigation of leachate migration in soils was implemented and experimental device designed for the study took into account the conditions prevailing in household waste dumpsites and those likely to influence the nature of the soil. The permeability of the soil used in the device was 2.36 10-6 m/s and the injected leachate had a high composition in biodegradable organic constituents (as its COD and BOD5 were 13128.19 mg O2/l, and 5822 mg O2/l, with biodegradability rate of 6.17 10-7 s-1, respectively). Leachate infiltration tests revealed that the pollutants retention by soils was a time function that decreased continuously and irreversibly once the maximum retention capacity of the soil was reached. The study showed also that the thickness of the soil layer had no influence on the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pollutants. The analysis of the concentrations in the infiltrated leachates showed that the reduction of organic pollution by the studied soil was not enough to ensure the protection of groundwater.
Keywords: Biodegradable pollutant, soil, soil column test, dispersion.


Enhanced Algorithms for Fault Nodes Recovery in Wireless Sensors Network
458-469
Ibrahim M. Darwish and Saleh Mesbah Elkaffas
Abstract:
An integration of sensing environment with the numerous deployment of sensor nodes in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) causes the severe security threats and hence the trust assurance mechanisms are required. For the large scale WSN, the existence of a number of intermediate nodes is responsible for the data forwarding to the sink node. Due to the battery operated sensors, the recharge and replace mechanisms suffer from the energy conservation and minimum network lifetime. The identification of fault nodes on the transmission path plays the major role in energy conservation. With the dense deployment of sensor nodes, the failures in node and link are high that disrupts the entire communication. This paper proposes the suitable alternative fault-free path prediction model to perform the communication among the nodes. Initially, the sensor nodes are deployed in the WSN environment. Once the initialization of source and destination nodes are over, the path between them is predicted through the Hamiltonian path prediction model. During the failure, scenario, this paper estimates the node and link parameters such as Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), queue size, response time, bandwidth are individually estimated and groups them into the Quality Factor (QF). Based on the QF, the proposed work predicts the fault-free link to alleviate the unnecessary transmissions to the fault node and reduces the energy consumption. The comparison between the proposed Hamiltonian Path-based Hyper Cube (HPHC) network with the existing fault detection mechanisms regarding the performance measures such as Packet Delivery ratio (PDR), fault node detection rate, throughput and end-to-end delay assures the effectiveness of HPHC in WSN communication.
Keywords: Link Failure Handling, Link Quality Factor, Reliable Data Delivery, Routing Protocol, Stable Routing.