European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 143 No 3
December, 2016

Comprehensive Competence-Based Education: A Model for Improving Technical Education Programmes in Nigeria
247-255
Onuoha, Raymond Ikechukwu and Ogbuanya, Theresa Chinyere
Abstract:
In a previous series of studies, a model of comprehensive competence-based vocational education (CCBE model) was developed by Sturing, H., Biemans,H., Mulder, M., & Bruijn, E.( 2011) consisting of ten principles of comprehensive competence-based vocational education (CCBE). It was developed to provide study programme teams working in vocational education with an instrument to assess the actual and desired “competence” of the study programmes. The model is an instrument for analysing the alignment of study programmes with the defining principles of CCBE and clarifying programme teams’ intentions, i.e. the extent to which they wish to achieve higher levels of implementation of the different principles. The CCBE model was adopted for this study. The reliability of the instrument for the study was 0.89 using Cronbach alpha reliability test, and was administered to 10 technical teachers in Government technical college, Abakiliki, Ebonyi State who were not part of the population of this study. This study was carried out in Technical colleges in Abia and Imo States of Nigeria where 69 technical teachers completed questionnaire to evaluate the comprehensibility of the CCBE model. The data was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, percentages, frequency count and ANOVA to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The study showed that the teachers understood and interpret the CCBE model as intended, and showed interest on the importance of improving technical education programme in Nigeria by using the model. It was recommended that appropriate practice of comprehensive competency-based technical education should be seriously implemented for the improvement of teaching and learning in technical colleges in Nigeria. Seminars and workshops should also be organized so as to constantly update the teachers’ competency-based techniques.
Keywords: Technical education. Improvement. Competence-based education.

An Optimized Co-design Finite Stat Machine to Store and Display Multicolor Image, Implementation on FPGA Board
256-264
K. Mateur, R. Elgouri, M. Alareqi, A. Mezouari, H. Dahou and L. Hlou
Abstract:
Nowadays, the several fields of applied sciences, such as the field of vision and image processing, are developed using the logical co-design applications (Hardware/Software), which generate logical circuit with most logic gates. However, these applications need high speed and a short response time.
This paper presents Co-design and implementation of optimized and an efficient hardware architecture for VGA (Video Generic Array) monitor driver based on FPGA technology. This method stores the RGB images as a simplified logic functions by using a sequential execution finite state machine (FSM) and auto-simplify by Boolean algebra techniques. In order, to reduce the number of logic gates used and increase the applications speed.
The result was obtained shows decreasing number of used gates by up to 34%, this highlight feature has been validated through the demonstration of an application. This method is tested on circuit FPGA Spartan-3E from Digilent that contains driver VGA to display image on HP 1908w screen (640*480) which need to a high speed (25 MHz), a rapid timing and a large number of logical gates.
Keywords: FPGA Co-design, Finite State Machine, image processing, Boolean algebraic, Logic simplification.

Measure of Reflection Factor High Frequency ‘Reflectometer method’
265-272
Nadia Fezai, M.C Abdessattar Ben Amor
Abstract:
The ISO / IEC 17025 standard request to validate the standard methods used in metrology laboratory or when they use non-standard methods or out of scope.
The validation of measurement methods ensures the traceability chain according to the International System of Units (SI) in the industrial metrology field.
This referential is dedicated to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of the Reflection Factor by the reflectometric method. The method has been completely studied in order to determine its characteristic parameter: Reflection Factor “ ”.All comparative results between reflectometer method and VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) are presented here.
Keywords: Reflection Factor, Reflectometric method, bolometric bridge, Power sensor, International System of Units, High Frequency, measurement uncertainty, Return Loss.

Food processing optimization using Lean Six Sigma Methodology - Case study of a Mackerel filets production company in Morocco
273-281
Ismail IDRISSI, Abdelahalem MESFIOUI and Bouchra BENAZZOUZ
Abstract:
In recent years, an increasing number of companies have used different types of quality programs in order to increase internal and external customer satisfaction as well as to reduce quality cost. Among all of these programs, Lean Six Sigma is perhaps the most widely-accepted initiative by all a broad range of organizations. The DMAIC (define-measure-analyze-improve-control) approach has been followed here to solve an underlying problem of reducing process variation and the associated high defect rate. This paper explores how a fish canning company in Morocco can use a systematic and disciplined approach to move towards the goal of Lean Six Sigma quality level. The DMAIC phases are utilized to decrease the defect rate of canned Mackerels by 40% from the baseline to its entitlement. At the beginning of this project, the defect rate was 30%, and after the improvement actions were implemented during a six-month period this fell to below 12% (goal). The critical successful factors for Six Sigma projects, especially those in the food industry, are discussed at the conclusion of this paper.
Keywords: Lean Six sigma, fish canning industry, process improvement, DMAIC.

Effect of Fuel Injection Pressure in CI Engine Using Biodiesel and Producer Gas in Mixed Fuel Mode
282-291
Note: This paper was earlier publihsed in EJSR Vol 92 Issue 1, due to technical problems, it has been re-published in this issue. N.Balakrishnan, K.Mayilsamy and N.Nedunchezhian
Abstract:
Global warming and green house effects creates more interest on the renewable fuels. Particularly biomass derived biodiesel and producer gas are the renovated sources of fuel. In this present work, used cooking oil and waste wood chips are used as feed stocks for producing biodiesel and producer gas which reduces the fuel cost and also protects the environment green. Producer gas is collected and stored in the gas bags to maintain the uniform gas composition and supplied to the engine through inlet manifold during suction stroke as an inducted fuel, whereas biodiesel is used as injected fuel to sustain the combustion process in the four stroke compression ignition engine. The engine is run with compression ratio of 18 and performance, combustion and emission parameters are evaluated with different fuel injection pressures. The liquid fuel consumption rate is decreased with increasing fuel injection pressure in the order of 1.09, 1.03 and 1.00kg/h with the corresponding fuel injection pressure of 150, 200 and 250 bar. The fuel injection pressure 200 bar is concluded as an optimum fuel injection pressure due to the minimum ignition delay of 13.64 deg, exhaust gas temperature of 327 0C and moreover the brake thermal efficiency and emissions are significant.
Keywords: Compression Ratio, Fuel injection pressure, Biodiesel, Producer gas, Fossil Diesel.

Distribution of Na+, K+ and Cl- in the Roots and Leaves of Five Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinaruml.) Varietiesunder the Effect of Salt Stress.
292-311
ECH-CHEDDADI Sara, LAKLAIFadoua, OUHADACH Moussa, MOUHSSINE Fatine,ELYACOUBI Houda, HMOUNI Driss, BOURKHISS Brahim, ZEHAUF Mostafa, ROCHDI Atmane
Abstract:
The salinity of five sugarcane varieties (Saccharumofficinarum) were evaluated to compare the accumulation of ions and determine the role of excluding/including of both Na+ and / or Cl-insalt stressconditions. To do so,the cuttings containing axillary bud have been irrigated with various concentrations of NaCl. The content of Na+, K+ and Cl- was determined after six weeks ofstressin leavesandin roots.The results obtained indicate that the salinity caused a decrease in dry biomass for the five tested varieties. However, the varieties CP (CP 66-346, CP 75-1322, CP 78-1140) where to be the less affected indicating their tolerance compared to other genotypes (SP 71-6163, L 62-96). Salinity caused a decrease of the K+ content and significant increase in Na+ and Cl- in the leaf and root. The concentrations of sodium and chloride in roots were significantly higher than in leaves. The results also indicate that the higher accumulation of Na+ and Cl- in leaves occurred in CP tolerant varieties, especially CP 66-346, suggesting that there is a solid link between salt tolerance of these CP varieties and a storage capacity of salt ions and particularly sodium in the leaves, coupled with a low reduction in K+ concentration. In the end of our research we can confirm that the adaptability to salinity is correlated with the genotype and it is related to the properties of ion migration and the regulation capacity and ionic partitioning.
Keywords: Sugarcane, Salinity, Na+, Cl-, K+, Inclusion, Exclusion génotype, Tolerance.

Using Natural Coagulant to Remove Turbidity and Heavy Metal from Surface Water Treatment Plant in Iraq
312-319
Yaser. I. Jasem
Abstract:
The use of alum dose in drinking water treatment plant has harmful effects on human health, on the one hand and on the other hand, a process that alum coagulant dose used in drinking water treatment plant with a high processing cost. In this study, the use of Alothmania Compact Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Diyala city in Iraq for the purpose of conducting experiments adding Moringa Oleifera seed and leaves (as a natural coagulant) instead of alum dose to treat drinking water to remove turbidity and heavy metals from surface water. The study samples were taken from the Alothmania River, as well as water samples were taken from the all basins of Alothmania Compact Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Diyala city. Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over an eight month period with turbidities ranging from 20 to 1000 NTU. Proven results of the study that by using natural coagulant Moringa oleifera seed and leaves ( which is a natural trees available in Iraq) instead of alum does not carry any impact on human health , and has a high efficiency up to 99% in the removal of turbidity from surface water and up to 98% in the removal of heavy metals from surface water. The turbidities and heavy metal during most of the test runs satisfied the WHO for Drinking Water Supplies.
Keywords: Moringa Oleifera; Turbidity; Heavy Metal; Water Treatment Plant; Surface water.

Important Facts About the Operators in Probabilistic Hilbert Space
320-325
Naji Mutar Sahib
Abstract:
In recent years, research has focused to study the properties of the bounded liner operators in probabilistic Hilbert space (PH-space) and the relationship between them.
In this paper we give some important facts about the bounded linear operators in PH-space, which make studies and research in this field is very limited these facts are:
 1) We proved that “Any bounded linear operator in PH-space” is being: Self-adjoint, normal, p-hypo normal P>0, Paranormal, Log –hypo normal.
 2) We proved that “If L is unitary operator in PH-space” then for any
  a)
  b) L is: isometry, partial isometry invertible
  c) is a positive operator
  d) L2 is a projection operator
  e) L=U the polar decomposition of L where U is partial isometry
  f) the “Aluthye transformation”

Keywords: PH-Space, Self-adjoint, normal, isometry, unitary, bounded operator.

Automatic Determination of T-Zone on Face Area Using Canny Edge Detection and Hough Transformation for Skin Type Classification
326-336
Indriyani, Nanik Suciati and Dini Adni Navastara
Abstract:
There are several types of facial skin, which are normal, dry, oily, and combinatory skin. Actually, the analysis of facial skin can be done directly by the dermatologist, but the result is affected by the dermatologist’s experience. Determination of skin type can be done using several features that are extracted from facial image, such as color intensity, texture, and the presence of acnes. Facial area which is used to check the skin type covers the forehead, nose, and chin, which is commonly referred as T-zone. Detection of eyebrow line is needed to determine the T-zone. Therefore, in this research we proposed automatic determination of T-zone on face area using Canny edge detection and Hough transformation for skin type classification. The main steps of this method are determination of face location, determination of eyebrow location, determination of T-zone, feature extraction, and classification. In determination of face location, segmentation of eyebrow line using Canny edge detection and Hough transformation is performed first. The results are used for consideration in determining the T-zone area. Afterwards, intensity, texture, and acne features are extracted from T-zone. Multiclass Support Vector Machine (Multiclass SVM) is used for skin type classification. Results of the experiment on 60 input image show that the average classification accuracy of the system is 82.75% with running time 17.139 seconds.
Keywords: T-zone, Canny edge detection, skin type, classification, Hough transformation.

Variabilité spatio temporelle et dates de rupture de la pluviométrie aux stations d’observation synoptique de la Côte d’ivoire: impact sur le volume d’eau des fleuves Sassandra, Bandaman et Bia
337-354
Ya Kouakou Firmin, Kamagaté Bamory and Noufe Dabissi
Abstract:
Rainfall events are important in the characterization of climate. Ivory Coast has been influenced by the rainfall deficit during the recent decades, which is growing year by year and has an influence on the degradation of our environment. The purpose of this article is to analyze a rainfall stationary spatio-temporal, to study before and after the rupture dates of rainfall in order to point out the impact of this event on the water volumes of the Bandaman, Sassandra and Bia rivers, which is respectively connected to the rainfall of Bouake network in the Center, Man in the west and Adiaké in the South-east of the country. The rainfall time series and water volumes are processed by the hanning filter, the law of extremes and rupture tests and reveal some sequences, frequencies and dates of rupture. For synoptic network where no sequence has been determined, the possibility of obtaining average annual accumulations of 1210mm, 1109mm, 1078mm and 1069mm is 51-55%, whereas for those where rainfall sequences have been clearly defined , This possibility is from 1 to 40% during the dry periods and from 50% to 80% for the wet periods.
Keywords: spatio temporal variability, dates ruptures, rainfall and synoptic observation station.