European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 142 No 3
October, 2016

Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for An architecture V2V in VANET
200-207
Dr Hassan NAANANI, Youness Farah, Mohamed Ouamer, Ibtihal Mouhib
Abstract:
Direct communication between vehicles has become a useful and effective in the management of Road Traffic. It is therefore necessary to implement the multi-hop technique to convey information. From this is born intelligent transport systems (ITS), which aims to improve efficiency and passenger comfort. This architecture is known dime name VANET (ad hoc network Vehicle). There are two categories of wireless networks, network infrastructure with V2I which generally use the cellular communication model, and without V2V infrastructure named ad hoc networks.
In this paper, an improved version of AODV protocol is developed to refine the management of the saturation of the queue for nodes in a VANET network. This improvement is achieved by optimizing the packet residence time within the queue of each node. Simulation results show that the improved AODV protocol.
Keywords: VANET, sumo, AODV, V2V.

Synthesis of New Chalcons Derived from Isatin and Study Its Biological Activity
208-213
Wassan B.Ali , Wijdan Amer Ibrahim, Nihad Khaleel Ebrrahim
Abstract:
The aim of the present work is synthesis of new chalcons derived from isatin compound . In the first Sciffe base compound was prepared (1) through the reaction of isatin compound with 3-amino acetophenone and then chalcons (2-5) were synthesized by reaction of compound (1) with different aryl aldehyde in the presence of potassium hydroxide. However compound (6-11) were synthesized from condensation of chalcons compounds with hydrazine hydrate , phenyl hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide.
The structure of compounds were deduced by using spectroscopic methods ,FT-IR and H NMR
Keywords : Isatin ,chalcons , Pyrazole , Schiff base.

Disclosure of Accounting Information (AI) for Investors in Stock Exchange
214-221
Khalid Hasan Abdul Hussein
Abstract:
The target of this study is to examine the role of Disclosure of Accounting Information(AI) in the rationalisation of investment decisions by providing communication needs to decision-makers in the economic units and beneficiary groups of the financial statements whether internal or external groups.
To achieve this aim , the researcher came with four sets of hypotheses. Were as follows:
H1-The investor in stock market does not realise the value of accounting information in the adoption of investment decision
H2- The appropriate and adequacy of accounting information in the decision-making process.
H3- No additional information dose not comprised in the financial reports inspire the investment decision.
H4-There are restrictions limiting the use of accounting information in the process of building the investment decision in stock market.
The study findings were as follows:-
The disclosure of Accounting information; achieved high quality in performance as well as the provision of risk arising from the investment.
The provision of accounting information play the significant roll to improve the capacity; and skills; of decision makers to obtain the required purpose of sound investments.
founders of consolidated information systems and harness them to directive the decision-making processes.
Equipping a series of control procedures to guarantee the integrity of the decisions taken. and expose the errors in the event of their appearance.


Acquisition of Questioning Skills Through Teaching Biology As Inquiry: A Research on Argument-Based Inquiry
222-236
Dr. Ebere Ibe, Prof. A.A. Nwosu, Dr. Oyetola Folorunso, Dr. Theresa Ofoegbu, Ngozi Joannes Anyaegbunam
Abstract:
Science Education research conducted at national and international levels have persistently reported decline in Science (Biology) performance. The lapses in Biology among others include students’ inability to properly interpret questions, write or answer questions logically, systematically and convincingly and relate features to functions.
Questioning skills are among the 21st century skills needed by employers for productivity and collaboration. In all fields of Education, ability to ask good questions to clearly define problems is essential. This paper elucidated the meanings, importance, types, classification of questions and acquisition of questioning skills using inquiry approaches. The authors submitted a strong support for the use of Argument-Based Inquiry (ABI) for the opportunities it offers to students in argumentation sessions which involves asking questions, sharing ideas or claims and supporting claims with evidences. The paper ends with a report of quasi experimental study on Argument based Inquiry and acquisition of questioning skills in Biology.
Keywords: Questions, Questioning Skills acquisition, Argument based Inquiry, Traditional Inquiry, Authentic inquiry.

Contribution A L’étude Des Caractéristiques Physicochimiques Des Huiles D’olive Produites Dans La Région De Meknès – Maroc
237-245
Loubna MARRAKCHI BENAZZOUZ, Faouzia MOKHTARI, Samir EL JAAFARI, Fatima ZAHID and Mohammed ESSIARI
Abstract:
Le but de ce travail est d’évaluer la qualité des huiles d’olives produites dans la Province de Meknès (Maroc), ville ancestrale de l’olivier, par les deux systèmes de trituration continue et à presses à travers l’analyse de l’acidité exprimée en acides oléiques, l’extinction spécifique à 270 nm et les pourcentages des acides gras. Les résultats obtenus montrent que les huiles d’olive issues des unités modernes (UM) et semi-modernes (USM) de la province de Meknès sont classées dans les catégories d’huiles d’olive extra vierge, huiles d’olive vierges et vierges courantes. Ces huiles sont meilleures au niveau des UM par rapport aux USM qui ont dans certains cas produit de l’huile d’olive vierge lampante, avec une tendance à l’amélioration dans le temps. Le pourcentage des acides gras insaturés (AGI) ainsi que leur ratio par rapport aux acides gras saturés (AGI/AGS) est élevé. Les profils d’acides gras majoritaires sont quasiment identiques pour les deux catégories d’huileries et pour les années étudiées.
Keywords: huile d’olive, qualité, Province de Meknès, caractéristiques physicochimiques.

Household Water Treatment in Benin: Current/Local Practices
246-256
Akuemaho Virgile Onésime Akowanou, Martin Pépin Aina, Leo Groendijk and Benjamin Kouassi Yao
Abstract:
In Benin, many families struggle to ensure the safety of the drinking water. This problem is common to most of developing countries. Even the water is clean, at source, it can be contaminated during transport and storage. Then, household water treatment technologies as emerged as an approach people can rely to treat water at home. Several methods of household water treatment are known and in use in Benin. Some from ancestral knowledge, others from initiative of NGOs. A very few households treat their water to prevent waterborne diseases, even if the source is not improved. And most of the time, they do not use these methods according to the recommended operating procedures. To address today the problem of the safety of water quality at household level in Benin, the need of the efficiency of the household water treatment in local area has to be proved. Moreover, populations have to be involved in all the aspect of the implementation of these methods. Communication and local NGOs outreach are also essential.
Keywords: Household water treatment, Benin, Water demand

Genetic Approach for a Bi-level Long Haul Freight Transportation Problem
257-269
Diaby Moustapha, Soro Etienne, Brou Pacôme and Asseu Olivier
Abstract:
The focus of the paper is on a price-setting problem for a long haul, full load transportation problem. More precisely, we are interested in the situation where each vehicle delivers single request at a time. In this environment, we study the problem of pricing and valorization of unutilized capacity between two carriers. The first carrier B, cannot serve all the transportation requests and he thus needs to use outsourcing: second carrier A or his competitors. Carrier A has to define the prices for carrier B transportation requests. Once carrier A has given its prices for the operations, it is B’s decision to turn to A or to another carrier.This sequential and non-cooperative decision-making process can be adequately represented as a bi-level program: carrier B (the follower) wants to minimize transportation cost while A (the leader) seeks to maximize the revenue. Carrier A explicitly incorporates the reaction of carrier B in his optimization process. We propose for this problem a genetic algorithm solution method.
Keywords: Bi-level programming, Transportation Problem, MIP, genetic algorithm

Effective Utilization of Instructor Reviews of Courses for Continuous Program Improvement through Central Database System
270-275
Anwar M. A., Sayed Sayeed Ahmad, Naseer Ahmed
Abstract:
The continuous improvement of courses and academic programs is a mandatory exercise in an institution due to competitive academic environment and accreditation requirements. The academic institutions are investing in Information Technology to assist the processes for academic quality enhancement and for green economy initiatives. This paper describes the effective utilization of IT in documenting, centrally archiving and analyzing the instructor review reports on the courses taught in an institution as a part of program assessment and improvement cycle. The system facilitates the instructors to enter corresponding course review data through user friendly GUIs and generate different reports for quality enhancement measures to be taken by different stakeholder.


Inventaire De La Flore Peuplant Les Monuments Historiques De La Cite Archeologique De Lixus, Maroc
276-289
H. Ouacha, A. Benmoussa, B. Baghdad, J. Simao, A. Taleb, M. Dalimi
Abstract:
This work aims to identify plant species populating Lixus in order to determine the biodegradation on building rocks. Lixus is located, on the right bank of Lokkous River in Tanger-Tétouan region. A systematic inventory was established all around the monuments and the neighbouring quarry. In fact, 92 species have been recorded belonging to 33 Families of superior plants. The best distributed are the Palmaceae (Chamaerops humilis) and the Anacardiaceae (Pistacia lentiscus) with a rate of distribution reaching 100%, followed by the Oleaceae (Olea europaea), with 83,3% as a distribution rate. In the other hand, the families presenting the largest numbers of species are the Poaceae and the Asteraceae with 21 and 18 species respectively. All the surveyed species were classified according to Raunkiaer 1905; 1934 and Fennane 1999; 2007 ; 2015, those belonging to therophytes and hemicryptophytes are the most representative with 45% and 27% respectively. This study confirms that Lixus belongs to the psammophile ecologic group. Generally, the presence of plants on building rocks indicates the presence of water in the cracks of materials and particularly reflects a lack of maintenance. The degradation effect of plants increases with calcareous rocks, accentuating the phenomenon of dissolution, therefore generating a surface disintegration. Thus, the volume of roots explode the walls and create deep cracks. Besides algae, fungi and bacteria, the crustaceous Lichens covering the walls are the most invasive and destructive they form visible deposits that generate aswell a disaggregation and an unsightly appearance to the rocks. The plant diversity recorded by the big exposure of those building rocks to biodegradation recommends adequate measures to preserve building rocks from the action of the plants, using methods of mechanical and chemical cleaning, in order to limit the action of bio-deterioration of the built heritage.
Keywords: Weathering, Biodegradation, Flora, Building rocks, Monuments, Lixus, Morocco.

Evaluation De L’état Des Eaux De La Lagune Ebrié En Métaux Lourds
290-297
Medy Camille Nongbe, Lynda Ekou, Tchirioua Ekou, Germain Tossou, Kouadio Dobi Brice Kouassi, Kablan Didier Essan
Abstract:
L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer le taux de contamination des eaux de la lagune Ebrié en métaux lourds. Quatre sites de prélèvement ont été choisis à savoir : le site de Bietry, le site de Treichville, le site de Marcory et celui de Port Bouet. Sur ces différents sites, les métaux analysés sont le cuivre, le plomb, le nickel, l’aluminium et le manganèse. De cette étude, il ressort une forte pollution en Pb. Le manganèse se trouve à l’état de trace. La concentration de cuivre est très faible, alors que celle du nickel et d’aluminium sont relativement les mêmes.
Mots clés : métaux lourds, pollution, lagune Ebrié