European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 142 No 2
September, 2016

Object-Oriented Image Classification Method of Automatic Lineaments Extraction: Contribution to Geological Fractures of Anti-Atlas, Morocco
87-104
Mohamed Mohamed Vall, Lakhlifi Badra, Rachid El Bayad and Ali Essahlaoui
Abstract:
The manual faults extraction from satellite images in geology remains a subjective method. Its result depends on the experience of the analyst.
The purpose of this work is to automate the extraction of lineaments (visible linear objects), based on the object-oriented image classification method and supported by geological parameters of faults (linearity, length and alterations), in order to establish a map of automatic fracturing.
For this purpose, we have operated two Landsat 5 images free downloaded from the US Geological Survey (USGS). Their processing has allowed the extraction of lineaments map at different scales and alterations maps (oxides of iron).
Therefore, we have grouped the lineaments in an angular class of ten degrees. As well, the ends of the linear features whose proximity of less than or equal to 4km have been connected, then merged with lineaments thus obtained from the cross analysis between the iron oxide and brute lineaments. These results, together, have been faced with the geological maps published (scale; 1/200 000) and maps of regional fracturing edited by [1] and [2]. This comparison confirms the automatic extraction of major faults existing at this scale.
The automatic extraction of fracturing by the object-oriented classification method, supported by geometric and geological parameters allows us to offer a significant fracturing map of the study area. Further, this method highlights other lineaments of more reduced size. This method may find direct application in mineral mining exploration to discover vein structures; sought in the Moroccan Anti-Atlas belt.
Keywords: Anti-Atlas, Object-oriented image classification method, lineaments, automatic fracturing, mining exploration.

Entomological Survey of Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in The North and NorthWestern of Yemen
105-113
Alkhali Arwa, Abdelaziz Amayour, Ikram Marc, Charaf Fraine, Zakaria Elalaoui, Asmaa Belala, Khadija El Kharrim1 and Driss Belghyti
Abstract:
Leishmaniasis is a widespread disease, affects millions of people and may be fatal, if not treated right away. It is caused by Leishmania species parasites and transmitted to humans by a bite of infected female sand flies.
Sand flies are insects of the family Psychodidae and subfamily Phlebotominae. There are more than 800 sand fly species but only a few serve as the vectors of human leishmaniases and some viral and bacterial diseases. Up to date real database of leishmaniasis diseases not available in Yemen and no national reports of sand fly identification, this paper presents the first investigation of the sand fly fauna in a north and northwestern Yemen. This study aimed to determine the definite vector in the targets areas in order to contribute to the eradication of the disease.In this study 214 samples were collected in 2014 by CDC light trap from Sana’a (Sawan) and Hajja (Bni Kais) areas consists 58% of Phlebotomus genera and 42% of Serogontomia genera.The research focus on Phlebotomus genera only. Six species belonging to genera Phlebotomus found in this study divided as fellow,Phlebotomus bergoroti was the predominant species (68.25%)followed by Phlebotomus dubosqi(14.29%), Phlebotomus alexandri (3.97%), Phlebotomus orientalis (6.35%), Phlebotomus papatasi (4.76%), whereas Phlebotomus sergenti (2.38%).
Keywords: Parasites-Leihmaniasis-Sand flies-Phlebotomus– vectors-Yemen.

Elaboration and Characterization of New Composite Membranes based on Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Polyvinyl alcohol, Sulfosuccinic acid, Phosphotungstic acid and Silica
114-125
S.Maarouf, B.Tazi and F.Guenoun
Abstract:
Several new composite proton conducting polymer membranes of different thicknesses (50-500μm) based on polyvinylpyrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and phosphotungstic acid (PWA) with or without silica have been developed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The chemical characterization of the membranes has been studied by Fourrier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The thermal stability of the membranes has been studied using the techniques of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) between room temperature and 600°C.The water uptake, ionic conductivity and ionic exchange capacity of these membranes were determined. Water uptake of these membranes ranged between 30% to 77%. The ionic conductivities of these membranes ranged between7,02.10-4 S/cm to 6,96.10-3 S/cm. The best water uptake and ionic conductivity were those of the membrane PVA-SSA-PVP-PWA-5.55 SiO2 based on 46.30 wt% of PVA, 11.11 wt% of SSA, 18.52 wt% PVP , 18.52 wt % PWA and 5.55 wt % SiO2 and the membrane PVA-SSA-PVP-19,60 PWA containing 49.02 wt% of PVA, 11.78 wt% of SSA, 19.60 wt% PVP and 19.60 wt % of PWA. The membrane PVA-SSA-PVP-19,60 PWA gave ionic conductivity of about 4,35 10-3 S/cm in 1M NaCl media . The membrane PVA-SSA-PVP-PWA - 5.55 SiO2 gave ionic conductivity of about 6.96 10-3 S/cm in 1M NaCl media . The ion exchange capacity of the PVA-SSA-PVP-19.60 PWA and PVA-SSA-PVP-PWA-5.55SiO2 membranes were 2.654 and 3.245 mmol/g respectively.
Keywords: Polymer electrolyte membranes fuel cell, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Polyvinyl alcohol, Sulfosuccinic acid, Phosphotungstic acid, Ionic conductivity, Silica.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from 4- Amino Antipyrine and Study of Biological Activity
126-137
Hashim Mushtaq Sheerali, Ahmad Ibrahim Hamza, Dhrgham Aziz Katie, Hasan Thamer Ghanim, and Rusul Idan Mohsin
Abstract:
The target of this work involves synthesis of different new macrocyclic derivatives utilizing two different strategies. The first one involved prepare new azo derivative for (4- amino antipyrine), Through reaction between (4-amino antipyrine) with antipyrine in suitable solvent to form (A1), while the second step involved reaction prepared azo compound with several compounds such as ( urea , thiourea , quanidine and o- phenylene diamine ) to form ( A2, A3, A4 and A5 ) compounds, Finally, the biological activity of some final products (A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5) has been tested through its effect on one type of bacteria and the results were compared with some standard antibiotics such as tetracycline ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin..etc
Keywords: synthesis, macrocyclic compounds, 4-amino antipyrine.

Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Melanoma in A Moroccan Population
138-145
W. Mahfoud, H.Amrani Hassani Joutei, I.Sadaoui, N. Elgnaoui, R. Saile, M .Karkouri, H. Lebrazi Et H. Benomar
Abstract:
Aims: Malignant melanoma is the skin cancer with the strongest progression since 10 years. In Morocco, few epidemiological studies on melanoma are available, and its epidemiological characteristics are generally poorly studied in African populations.
Procedure: The objective of this study is to define the epidemiology of melanoma throughout an observational retrospective study over a period of 4 years (2010 to 2014), at the pathology laboratories of Pasteur Institute of Morocco and University Hospital Averroes, Casablanca. Epidemiological and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed by SPSS software.
Results: During this period, 77 cases of melanoma have been identified, they involve 45 men (58.4%) and 32 women (41.6%). The average age is 51 years. The preferred locations are worn on the head and stroke for men as for women the most common affected site was the lower limbs. 79% of cases showed a Breslow index greater than 4 mm. The nodular melanoma was the most frequent histological form observed (34%) followed by acrolentiginous melanoma.
Conclusion: Melanoma may affect any age. Its diagnosis at an invasive stage with a Breslow index often exceeding 4 mm, is the origin of its poor prognosis thus minimizing the chances of any curative treatment. An awareness for the prevention of solar risk and early signs would serve to reduce the morbidity of the disease, and to indentify and monitor the populations at-risk by the dermatologists.
Keywords: Skin Cancer; Melanoma; Epidemiology; Diagnostic ; retrospective analysis; screening.

Effect of Cognitive-Behavioural Counselling Programme on Smoking Behaviour in a Sample of Nigerian Community-dwelling Youths
146-152
Mkpoikanke Sunday Otu, Udaya Josephine Chioma, Ogidi Chinenye Ifeoma, Obatta Mercy Ijeoma, Edeh Nkechinyere Charity, and Eduabasi Paul Otong
Abstract:
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of a cognitive-behavioural counselling programme (CBCP) on smoking behaviour in a sample of Nigerian community-dwelling youths. The study used a pretest-posttest randomized control group design. Up to 136 youths from five communities in Akwa Ibom State participated in the study and were randomized into two groups –treatment and control groups. A smoking behaviour questionnaire developed by the researchers was used for data collection. The treatment group was subjected to CBCP for six weeks while the control group only received a one-week conventional counselling. After the intervention programme, both the treatment and control groups were subjected to posttest evaluation. The hypothesis postulated in study was tested at 0.05 level of significance using repeated measure ANOVA. The results show that CBCP has strong effect on smoking behaviour among the community-dwelling youths in the treatment group when compared to those in control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that CBCP can be used to help individuals quit smoking and other problematic behaviours.

Optimal Allocation of Multiple DGs and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Network
153-162
Sarfaraz Nawaz, Ajay Bansal, and M.P. Sharma
Abstract:
A novel approach is proposed in this paper for optimal placement of DG and capacitor units in radial distribution system. An objective function is formulated to determine the optimal size, number and location of DG and capacitor bank for real power loss reduction and voltage profile enhancement. A new constant, Power Voltage Sensitivity Constant (PVSC), has been proposed to solve the allocation problem. The level of DG penetration is considered in a range of 0–50% of total system load. A novel index, DGPI, is also proposed which incorporates level of DG penetration and percentage reduction in real power losses. The results of the proposed technique are validated on standard IEEE 69 bus system and 130 bus real distribution system of Jamawaramgarh, Jaipur city. The obtained results are compared with latest optimization techniques to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Distribution system, Distributed Generation, Capacitor, Optimal allocation, PVSC, DG penetration.

Utilisation of Social Skills for Friendship Making among Primary School Children
163-171
Dr. E.P. Obiweluozo, Dr. I.C. Dike, Dr. Nkiru Christiana Ohia and Elizabeth Nkechi Ebizie
Abstract:
This study examines the utilisation of social skills for friendship making among children in primary school. Survey research design was adopted in conducting the research and a total of one hundred and forty-seven (147) parents/teachers and fifty-eight (58) were randomly sampled for the study. Three research questions were posed to guide the study. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. The findings of this study indicated that social skill is significant among children in primary schools. Also, the findings indicate that social skills be inculcated and nurtured among children in primary schools to enhance friendship making. Based on the findings, it is recommended that parents/teachers should inculcate social skills in their children as early as possible.
Keywords: Social Skills, Friendship making, Primary School Children.

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Tunisian Fig (Ficus carica L.) Germplasm Bank Revealed by RAPD Markers and Morphological Characters
172-192
Fateh Aljane
Abstract:
This research was conducted to analysis genetic diversity and related relationships among 30 fig accessions with diverse geographic origin and growing under the same environmental conditions in the Tunisian ex situ fig germplasm bank established in El Gordhab, Tataouine in Southeastern of Tunisia. Accessions were characterized through the use of 11 RAPD markers and results were evaluated in conjunction with morphological characters. Result showed a total of 119 DNA fragments (loci) were amplified and 79.83 % were polymorphic. In addition, the maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 100 % in A04 primer. The Jaccard’s similarity coefficient within each pair of accessions which produced very similar values. The genetic similarity matrix showed a maximum genetic distance value of 0.848 was registered between ‘Bither Akhal’ and ‘Bither 1’ accessions. The combination of both molecular markers and morphological had high discriminatory power to discriminate fig accessions. The genetic similarity matrix revealed that ‘Magouli 2’-‘Magouli 1’ and ‘Nasri’-‘Jemaâoui’ accessions suggesting their close relatedness. These results proved the importance of both RAPD markers and morphological traits to elucidate in part denomination problems and relationships among accessions. This study indicated that there is great genetic diversity among local fig, making them a valuable genetic source for incorporation into potential breeding programs for fig selection.
Keywords: Ficus carica, Tunisia, Germplasm Bank, Genetic Diversity, Accession, RAPD Markers, Morphological Characters.

Hybrid Algorithm for ECG Signal Compression using General Linear Chirplet Transform
193-199
Hend A. Elsayed, Ammar A. Ali, and Shawkat K. Guirguis
Abstract:
In this paper, we suggested an effective method for Electrocardiogram signal compression based on General Linear Chirplet Transform with a hybrid algorithm. A pyramid structure has been created by the hybrid algorithm based on different transform decomposition on an ECG signal. This paper describes the combination of lossy technique using Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees algorithm and lossless technique using Lempel Ziv Welch algorithm for better compression of an ECG signal and compares the results using Huffman or Arithmetic coding. We applied three transforms with hybrid coding algorithms on different records of the MIT-BIH database. The results show the high efficiency of this method in ECG signal compression through MATLAB.
Keywords: Electrocardiogram signal compression; General Linear Chirplet Transform; Discrete Cosine Transform; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees; Lempel Ziv Welch Coding.