European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 141 No 2
August, 2016

Assessment of Toxic Metals in Borehole Water: A case of the Kuiseb Basin, Namibia
108-115
Amwele Rantilla Hilma, Ithindi Johanna Tegan, Kalumbu Gideon Pendapala, Kgabi Nnenesi Anna, Mathuthu Manny, Motsei Lebogang and Tshivhase Victor
Abstract:
Water security is one of the main concerns in Namibia. The high dependence on groundwater and the low recharge rates cannot be overemphasized. This study was thus conducted to assess heavy metal concentration in borehole water throughout the villages located within the Kuiseb River Basin. The complete elemental analysis was carried out on all collected samples by using ICP-MS, in order to identify the heavy metals that exceed the Namwater, WHO and ATSDR recommended standards. The concentrations of arsenic in the seven boreholes studied were found in decreasing order as RB>NV>GB>K>SB>UV>N, while vanadium trends showed a slightly different decreasing order for RB>NV>UV>K>SB>GB>N boreholes. Though the arsenic (0.036 to 0.058 mgl-l) and vanadium (0.062 - 0.125 mgl-l) concentrations were below the Namwater (group A) 0.100 mgl-1 and 0.250 mgl-1 standards, the concentrations also exceeded the WHO and ATSDR recommended daily intake of 0.010 mgl-1 and 0.010 - 0.050 mgl-1 respectively. Other toxic metals (Cr (0.012&plusminus;0.001- 0.016&plusminus;0.002 mgl-1), Ni (0.002&plusminus;0.000 – 0.005&plusminus;0.001 mgl-1), Cu (0.001&plusminus;0.000 - 0.012&plusminus;0.001 mgl-1), Se (0.000&plusminus;0.00-0.004&plusminus;0.001 mgl-1) and Pb (0.00&plusminus;0.000 - 0.001-0.003&plusminus;0.000 mgl-1)) were detected below the NamWater, WHO and ATSDR recommended standards. Strong correlations of vanadium and arsenic to sulfur and chlorine indicated enhanced solubility in water, which suggests possible human health effects.
Keywords: Arsenic, Vanadium, Borehole Water, Small Scale Farmers, Kuiseb Basin

Did vitamin B12 difficiency affect thymosinΒ4 level?
116-125
Salwa Refat El-Zayat, Hiba Sibaii, AzzaAbd El-Shaheed,Nermine N. Mahfouz, Sara F. Sallam, Marwa H. El Azma
Abstract:
Nutritional status can modulate the actions of the immune system; therefore, the sciences of nutrition and immunology are tightly linked. Deficiencies in certain micronutrients can adversely affect aspects of both innate and adaptive immunity. The current study was designed to assess the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin B12 (vit.B12) deficiency on the level ofThymosin-Β4(TΒ4)and to correlate it with the level of CD4 T-lymphocyte. The study was carried out on 43 Egyptian adults who screened for the symptoms of B12 deficiency, and divided into two groups, a selected vit.B12-deficient group (n=33) andvit.B12-sufficient group (n=10).Some anthropometric measures were calculated for each subject. Serum levels of vit.B12,TΒ4 and CD4 were measured by using a commercial ELISA kit. There was a high significant decrease in serum levels of vit.B12,TΒ4 and CD4 in vit.B12-deficient group as compared to vit.B12-sufficient group at (P< 0.001, p<0.013, p<0.000) respectively.Vit.B12 showed significant positive correlation withTΒ4 at(r=0.464,P<0.002).TΒ4 showed significant positive correlation with CD4 at (r=0.496,P<0.001). Body mass index (BMI) showed a significant positive correlation with age at(r=0.328, P<0.032) and as significant negative correlation withCD4 at(r=-0.438,P<0.003).
Keywords: Micronutrients; vitamin B12;Thymosin-Β4;CD4.

Soil Water Relations of an Ultisol amended with Agro-wastes and its effect on grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria
126-140
Nwite, J. N. and Okolo, C.C.
Abstract:
Soil water relations of an ultisol amended with agro-wastes and its effect on grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) was studied for three cropping seasons. The field was laid out in randomized complete block design using four treatments of control and three agro-wastes at 8kg/plot. The texture of soil remained sandy loam throughout the period of study. Agro-wastes amended plots had significantly (P<0.05) lower bulk density and higher total porosity for two seasons and in residual season. There were significantly (p<0.05) higher effect of bulk density, total porosity and aggregate stability on moisture retention, availability and transmission for 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons as well as in 2015 study season except for aggregate stability on hydraulic conductivity in 2013 season. Plot amended with burnt rice mill waste was higher in water retention, available water capacity and hydraulic conductivity by 2, 3, 2%: 4, 5, 3%: 2, 3, 1% and 11% respectively compared to those of fresh rice mill waste and saw dust amended plots for the three cropping seasons. Grain yields of maize were significantly (P<0.05) higher in plots amended with agro- wastes compared to control for three seasons. Agro- wastes amendment of soil should be carried out for enhanced soil physical conditions, soil water relations and for sustainable productivity.
Keywords: Agro-wastes, Effect, Grain Yield, Maize, Soil Water relations, Utisol

Job Schedulers Based on Round Robin Strategy on the Cloud Environment
141-153
Bossy Mohamed, Wael Awad, Samy Abd El Hafeez and Fatma Omara
Abstract:
Cloud Computing depends on performing computation using centralized resources managed by third-party rather than local computers. The Cloud systems receive a huge amount of different users' requests; all of these requests have to be executed using the available resources. Furthermore, executing these requests needs an efficient scheduling algorithm to finish them with fulfilling the user's QoS. The popular scheduling algorithms that are used in the Cloud Computing are First-Come-First-Serve (FCFS), and Round Robin (RR). FCFS is a non-preemptive algorithm where the currently executing job must be finished before entering new jobs. On the other hand, RR is considered the preempt version of the FCFS, where the jobs are dispatched in an FCFS sequence, but each job is allowed to run for a limited amount of time known as time quantum to allow other jobs to begin execution. The main drawback of the FCFS and RR algorithms is that the increasing of the turnaround time of the jobs. To address this problem, two enhanced scheduling algorithms for the Cloud Computing framework based on RR scheduling approach have been proposed. These enhanced algorithms have been implemented using Cloudsim and their performance has been evaluated comparing with the original FCFS and RR algorithms.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, Job Scheduling, FCFS, Round Robin.


Synthesis and Characterization of Some Heterocyclic Compounds from 8-Hydroxy Quinoline and Studying of Their Biological Activity
154-170
Dr. Shaimaa Adnan Behget
Abstract:
This research involved heterocyclic compounds such as (Β-lactam , Thiazolidine , imidazolidin, Pyrazol , triazol , thiadiazole ) derivatives , were prepared from reaction 8-hydroxy quinoline with 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) aniline to get (1) which reacts with potassium carbonate and ethyl bromoacetate to get derivatives (2) which reacts with hydrazine hydrate to get (3) .
Compound(3) reacts with (Phenyl isothiocyanate ,4-chlorobenzaldehyde) to get (4)and (5) sequentially.
Compound (4) reacts with (ethyl acetoacetate ,acetylacetone , ammoniumthiocyanate , sodiumhydroxide , sulfonicacid ) to get [Pyrazol (5 ,6),thioamide (7), triazol (9) and thiadiazole (10)] derivatives sequentially.
Compound(7) reacts with 10% sodium hydroxide to get triazol derivatives (8) in other side (3) react with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde to get shiff base derivative (11) which react with (chloro acetyl chloride, thioglycolic acid succinic anhydride , glycine , alanine) to get as [Β-lactam derivatives(12) , thiazolidine derivatives (13) , imidazolidine derivatives(14) and(15) ] sequentially.
All this compounds characterized by means of FT- IR ,and some of the compounds by means 1H-NMR,and 13C-NMR ,C.H.N, and follow reaction by Rf - TLC and measurements melting points .And finally ,the studying of biological activity of some prepared compounds with specific types of bacteria
Keywords: Thiazolidin , Imidazolidin , , Pyrazol , triazol , thiadiazole

Diagnostics Des Sources Potentielles De Pollution Du Fleuve Niger A Faranah (GUINEE)
171-183
Aissatou Lamarana BAH, Adama OUEDA, Abdoulaye BARRY, Gustave KABBRE
Abstract:
This study aims to describe the potential sources of pollution of the Niger river water to Faranah. Data were collected through interviews, surveys and direct observations. The results show that the rain and extensive agriculture is the main socio-economic activity which occupies 72.8% of the population. Following livestock (17%) and fishing (7.2%). Other activities occupy a small portion of the population, crafts and small businesses.
Human activities cause the degradation of natural resources: bush fires (100%) , excessive cutting of wood (90.6%) , poor farming practices (75.4%) and hunting (15%) , wood carbonization ( 68%), manufacture of baked bricks (65.6%) , the banks and river water are subject to diverse aggressiveness. The result, a potential water pollution from the geomorphological point of view through the relief ; but also the anthropic perspective through the socio -economic activities. Pollution risks are obvious because of the near houses of the river bed with poor management of latrines and garbage. The lack of industrial units exclude any risk of pollution from factories.
Keywords: irrigation water, anthropogenic pollution, River Niger, Faranah.

Mobile Robot Path Planning in New Map Representation and Useful Energy Evaluation
184-195
Célestin Désiré MELEDJE and Boko AKA
Abstract:
The genetic algorithms are used to solve the very complex problems in mobiles robots path planning. Several improvements have been proposed to optimize the genetic algorithms, from new operator definition to probabilistic model. We improve in this article new definition of two essentials parameters for the genetic algorithms that are the map representation and the formulation of evaluation function. A best map representation and a good evaluation function allow to find the most optimal solution. We propose a new map representation which also represents all slope in the space of research on the one hand. On the other hand, we propose new formulation of evaluation function. This evaluation function is expressed according to the useful energy spent by the mobile robot to browse a given path.
Keywords: Robot, Path Planning, Energy, Genetic Algorithm

Histopathological Studies During the Infection of Taro (Colocasiae Esculenta) Leaves By Phytophthora Colocasiae
196-202
Modeste Lambert Sameza, Séverin Tchameni Nguemezi, Alain J. Nanfack, Eveline Siebatcheu, Moïse Ayong Ntah, Sidonie Noah Ananga, Henri Ngock H and Léopold
Abstract:
Taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae Racib constitutes a serious threat to food security. In Cameroon, disease management by cultural practices and chemical methods remains ineffective. Understanding the infection and morpho-structural changes of the host cells during host-parasite interactions could lead to the implementation of alternative control method. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological changes in the host cell during the pathogenesis of P. colocasiae on taro leaves. P. colocasiae was isolated from natural infected taro leaves showing typical blight symptoms. Histopathological studies of healthy and infected taro leaves were done using microtomy and tissues sections were observed under light and fluorescence microscope. Results showed that, during the infection, Phytophthora colocasiae produces different vegetative structures in the host tissues including mycelia, sporangia and zoospores. The infection process is characterized by the perforation of taro leaves cell wall at different points, the disruption of tissue architecture resulting in the losses of cell content. The host reacts to infection by stimulating the synthesis of the vesicles. These vesicles could bind and fuse with the cell wall resulting in it thickening. However, the nature of the vesicles content is needed.
Keywords: Taro leaf blight, P. colocasiae, C. esculenta, Histopathological study

Management of the Third Trimester Bleeding At the University Hospital of Brazzaville
203-208
Mbongo JA, Haba Foromo, Aloumba GW, Iloki LH
Abstract:
Objective: to describe the management aspects of the third trimester bleeding.
Methods: it was a retrospective and descriptive study conducted over a period of 12 months.
The study included pregnant women with a minimum term of 28 weeks of gestation, presenting with a hemorrhage during the third trimester. Those with incomplete records, and vaginal bleedings not related to pregnancy causes were excluded.
Results: the frequency of third trimester bleeding was 1.27%. Of the 98 patients, 3% had poor condition on admission; they consulted for bleeding (57.1%) and / or for the lumbosacral pelvic pain (33.7%); in 47.9% of cases the labor had started, and 63.3% of fetuses were alive at admission. Causes for bleeding were placenta previa (56.1%); placental abruption (37.5%), uterine rupture (5.1%), and undetermined 3%. Blood transfusion was performed in 16.3% of patients; 80.6% delivered by caesarean section; and uterine repair was performed in 5.1% of patients. Maternal prognosis was satisfactory in 83.6% of cases; despite a residual anemia in 73.4% and infectious complications in 11% of cases. The fetal prognosis was grim:
Prematurity affected 39.8% of newborns, 45.9% had low birth weight and 28.7% of stillbirths.
Conclusion: the management of 3rd trimester bleeding remains problematic, if maternal prognosis seems satisfactory, fetal prognosis is still worse.
Keywords: Bleeding, pregnancy, Brazzaville, Congo