European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 140 No 2
July, 2016

Processus D’altération Hydrothermale des Granites Varisques du Maroc Oriental
114-123
Aicha Reddad, Hassan El Hadi, Abdelfatah Ttahiri, Belaid Bougadir, Fouzia Zouita and Omar Ait Malek
Abstract:
The variscan granites of eastern Morocco are affected by a post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration, mainly developed sericitization of feldspars and chloritisation of biotites. The intensity of this process depends on the granite type. Globally, the magmatic signature has been preserved, as supported by the similarity and the parallelism of patterns in multi-elements diagrams. As well as, the absence of significant peacks supports a weak mobility of trace elements.
The mobility of elements especially concerns the Rb, Ba, Pb, Th and U elements. However, in some granites, trace elements regarded as immobile seem to be slightly mobilized during the hydrothermal alteration; for example Hf, Eu (granites of Zekkara and Boudoufoud), Nb, Ta, La and Ce elements (granites of Tanncherfi, Tarilest, Aouli).
The post magmatic footprints that do not mask the identification of minerals and primary magmatic textures result at the microscopic level by the sericitization, albitisation and épidotization of feldspars and by chloritization of amphibole, clinopyroxene and biotite and at geochemical level by the values of the loss on ignition and variations of Rb, K, Sr.
Keywords: Morocco, Granitoïds, variscan, Trace elements, Alteration; Mobility.

Analyses of DG Integration Effect on Load Frequency Control in 3-Area System with PI Controller
124-141
J. Srinu Naick and K. Chandra Sekhar
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the analysis for 3-area load frequency control where the area is connected with a PV system. The PV system is connected to each area to be controlled and the system analysis for change in frequency of individual areas were analyzed. Change in frequency in individual areas of interconnected systems is not acceptable as frequency change or oscillations can create unwanted disturbances in the interconnected system. The controller used to control the system frequency is PI controller which is simple. PI controller is simple in operation and can control the load frequency. In this paper a comparitive analysis of load frequency variations are given without controller and the system with PI controller. This analysis is useful in analyzing the interconnected system performance with and without load frequency controller when a PV system was connected to the areas.
Keywords: Interconnection, Area, Frequency, Controller, PI, PV System.

The Challenge of Solid Waste Management and Environmental Sustainability in Nigeria
142-149
Onovughe O. Ikelegbe
Abstract:
The need for waste management stems from the resultant effect of development and organization in cities, with consequent increase in consumption patterns of urban dwellers. Urban growth of towns and cities in recent times has manifested in the increase of their population and spatial sizes. These expansions are in most cases not corroborated by adequate planning strategies. The result a population pressure on available infrastructure and social amenities. The challenge before us today is how to strike a balance between development and sustainability of the environment for future generations. This is compounded by numerous institutional problems, dearth of data on the level of waste produced in Nigerian towns as well as poor attitude of Nigerians towards the environment. Questionnaires, oral interviews and focused group discussions were the major techniques employed in gathering primary data from three selected cities for the study. The results reveal that the waste management problem in Nigerian cities hinge on their lack of planning, conflicting policies as well as the non-streamlining the activities of the institutions responsible for waste disposal as well as the attitude of urban dwellers. The paper suggests the need for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study in a spatio-temporal perspective, the co-ordination of activities of the institutions involved, public enlightenment and the introduction of hygiene as well as environmental education in the school curricula.
Keywords: development, solid waste, environment, sustainability, urban dwellers.

Contributions of Emotional Labour and Perceived Organizational Support to Workplace Deviant Behaviours
150-160
Lawrence O. Amazue, Charity N. Uzuegbu, Nneoma G. Obi, and Ebere E. Nnadozie
Abstract:
Deviant behaviours initiated by employees that contravene organizational norms have been rampant in many organizations in Nigeria. These behaviours have resulted to substantial economic and social costs for organizations. The present study therefore investigated the contributions of emotional labour and perceived organizational support to workplace deviance. Two hundred and seventy one commercial bank employees participated in the study. Validated versions of Workplace Deviance Scale, Emotional Labour Scale and Perceived Organizational Support Scale were used to measure the variables of interest. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional labour contributed 2 percent of the variance in workplace deviant behaviour. However, only deep acting dimension of emotional labour was shown to be negatively related to workplace deviance. Also perceived organizational support explained 7 percent of the variance in workplace deviant behaviour and was found to be negatively related to workplace deviance. It is suggested that the selection of employees with the right personality attributes and formal training that provides feedback on the required emotional display will go a long way in cushioning the effects of acting which may reduce the tendency of employees engaging in workplace deviant behaviours.
Keywords: Workplace deviance, surface acting, deep acting and perceived organizational support


Two-Test Pattern Capabilities of the LFSR/SR Generator in Pseudo-Exhaustive Testing based on Coding Theory Principles
161-177
Mohamed H. El-Mahlawy, Emad H. Khalil, Fawzy Ibrahim and Mohamed. H. Abd El-Azeem
Abstract:
Testing of digital integrated circuits for delay and CMOS stuck-open faults requires two-test patterns. Built-in self-test (BIST) schemes are required to comprehensive testing of such faults. BIST test pattern generators for two-test pattern should be designed to ensure high transition coverage. The test pattern generator (TPG) circuits treated here are not limited to linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs) but include the linear feedback shift register / shift register (LFSR/SR) circuits. It is required to increase the number of each subset of the state variables for complete transition coverage based on the optimal test lengths. In this paper, the two-test pattern capabilities of the LFSR/SRs are explored using transition coverage as the metric. The necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure complete transition coverage for LFSR/SRs are derived. The theory, developed here, identifies all LFSR/SRs as the TPGs that determine the complete transition coverage under any size constraint. It is shown that the testing of digital integrated circuits based on the LFSRs with primitive polynomials with large number of terms is better in the case of the two-test patterns. Based on the necessary and sufficient conditions, the two-test pattern testing is developed using the procedures outlined in this paper to get high robust path delay fault coverage with the optimal shortest test lengths.
Keywords: Built-in self-test, test pattern generators, delay pseudo-exhaustive testing, two-test pattern testing, two-test pattern of the LFSR/SR.

Experimental Investigation of a Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Methyl Ester Of Mahua Oil And Diesel
178-186
S.Sivaganesan and M.Chandrasekaran
Abstract:
With increasing number of internal combustion engine based vehicles, the energy demand is also increasing. Demand of petroleum products and environmental pollution is the major problem prevailing in the world. The accessibility of fossil fuels are extremely constrained, henceforth, the requirement for alternate fuel is turning out to be increasingly noticeable for guaranteeing energy security and ecological assurance. In present years, biodiesel is prepared from both non edible and edible vegetable oil, because of it is renewable characteristics and lower emission. In this present work, various blend ratios of B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 blend of MEOM (methyl ester of mahua) with diesel are analyzed in single cylinder DI diesel engine at 1500rpm.This investigation concludes that B20 MEOM blend is having the lower emission and increased performance characteristics.
Keywords: Methyl Ester Of Mahua, Transesterification, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, Performance, Combustion, Emission

The Impact of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on the Brazilian Economy
187-202
Mygre Silva, Daniel Coronel and Rodrigo Silva
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the creation of a free trade area between the United States and the European Union (EU), i.e. Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) on the Brazilian economy, specifically in the five macro-regions. To this end, we used the General Equilibrium (GTAPinGAMS) model from the database of the General Equilibrium Analysis Project of the Brazilian Economy (PAEG). Thus, we estimated two scenarios; the first with the removal of import tariffs between the EU and the USA, and the second approached full trade liberalization. In the first scenario, the economic impacts on the Brazilian regions were mostly negative, undermining mainly the sectors of clothing, footwear, and the textile industry. In the second scenario, both Brazilian agricultural and export sectors were positively influenced. However, the clothing, footwear, and manufactured sectors were the ones that had higher efficiency loss.
Keywords: Regional Integration, TTIP, Brazilian economy
JEL Classifications: F02; C68.

Mixed Facing Islamic Banking Systems: the Case of Indonesia Vs Sudan
203-212
Hamiche Mhamed and El Azzouzi Zouhair
Abstract:
In most developing countries, low-income or middle-income financial systems are dominated by banks. In many cases, other specialized institutions exist, but they represent only a very small portion of total financial intermediation in the economy. Bank deposits remain the most important form of household savings and bank loans to non-earnings are the most important source of financing firms, for circulating capital needs and investment in fixed capital.
At present, we are witnessing the advent of a type of banking system, which some have not hesitated to describe as "revolutionary" Islamic Banking System (IBS). In reality, this is where the manifestation of a much broader phenomenon, the revival of Islam and its values. The looking for an integrated development model, where economic, social, political and cultural factors; together contribute to technical progress and economic growth, has become a major concern for all Muslim countries.
The objective of this study is to show Islamic banks can participate in economic development and therefore to understand the level of development of Islamic banking in a purely Islamic banking system: the case of Sudan and in a mixed banking system, that of Indonesia.
Keywords: Islamic banking system, Mixed banking system, Islamic bank, Conventional bank.

A Novel Intelligent Initialization Technique for Job-Shop Scheduling Problem
213-226
Majid Abdolrazzagh-Nezhad, Erna Budhiarti Nababan and Hafiz Mohd Sarim
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel intelligent technique is proposed to produce the initial population. Initialization is an important step of population-based algorithms in the job-shop scheduling problem (JSSP) as a non-deterministic polynomial hard problem. The proposed technique designs a new heuristic based on an intelligent skip from the primal point of the solution space to a better one by considering a new classification of jobs on machines, named mPlates-Jobs. Novel set of rules is defined to activate mPlates-Jobs, which is First Generation Rules of mPlates (FGR), and an Intelligent Skipping Strategy (ISS) based on the FGR, named ISS-FGR. This proposed technique could generate initial population that lead to the optimal solution. The experimental results, based on a set of benchmark datasets, are compared to the results of some previous state-of-the-art initialization techniques prove the advantages of this proposed technique.
Keywords: Job-shop Scheduling Problem, mPlates-Jobs, First Generation Rules (FGR), heuristic.

A Fully Spatial Circular Array Beam Forming Using Firefly Algorithm
227-233
K. Sridevi, and A. Jhansi Rani
Abstract:
In applications related to mobile communication, beam forming of adaptive array antennas are promising solution for ever raising demand on capacity of the network. A smart antenna which is an intelligent antenna make use of DSP unit and algorithms in order to direct the main beam towards signal of interest and keep nulls towards signals of non interest. In many antenna design and electromagnetic problems, Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm have been widely used. In this paper, beam forming of circular array geometry is investigated using Firefly algorithm. It is used to calculate complex excitations, amplitudes and phases of the circular array antenna elements. The results are compared with GA and PSO algorithms in the aspect of null depth, main beam width and side lobe level. All algorithms were implemented using MATLAB.
Keywords: GA, PSO, Firefly and adaptive beam forming.