European Journal of Scientific Research
Volume 139 No 3
Trade Liberalization, Shocks and Economic Growth in Nigeria
Ukwueze, Ezebuilo R. and Okoronkwo, Ndubuisi
The motivation for this study is to find the impact of trade openness, shock emanating there from on the economic growth of Nigeria. The vector autoregressive (VAR) methodology was applied to the data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin from 1961 -2012. The results show that the causality runs from exchange rate, trade openness, manufacturing output, and the size of public sector to output growth. Similarly, trade openness, inflation and the manufacturing output significantly affect the exchange rate, while only the size of the public sector causes the inflation to change. From the impulse response charts, while the shocks from inflation do not influence output growth, shocks from exchange rate affect output growth seriously. Also, shocks from trade openness affects the output growth significantly, implying that volume of international trade significantly affect output of Nigeria. The recommendations are: monetary authority should watch closely at the movement of prices because their gyrations can harm the economy; since manufacturing sector is the hub of Nigerian economy, every effort should be geared to boosting the sector. The conclusion drawn from this study is that trade is also an important sector that grows Nigerian economy and should attract serious attention.
Keywords: economic growth, vector auto-regression, impulse response Function, stationarity
A Study of Design Strategies Through Psychrometric Charts Using Climate Consultant Software for Five Climatic Regions of Pakistan
The climate characteristics entail the design strategies on the Psychometric chart (PC) for achieving the thermal comfort. The Climate Consultant software is used for this research that proposes different design strategies suitable for a particular climate. This paper uses two methods based on the simulated analysis of the climate consultant software. In method 1, the findings of four HTCMs are compared for the five climate regions of Pakistan. It was found that none of the HTCM gives 100% comfortable hours (ch) on the Psychometric chart. In method 2, adaptive comfort model is kept constant and is combined with the other two models either ASHRAE 55 or 2005 for achieving 100% ch on the Psychometric chart. The study aims towards naturally ventilated buildings, so the comfort zone is maximized using the passive heating and cooling design strategies. The results show that natural ventilation, sun shading of windows, and internal heat gains give an increased percentage of comfortable hours in passive cooling and heating strategies respectively for all five regions of Pakistan.
Keywords: Psychrometric chart, Climate Consultant, comfort zone, design strategy, sun shading, adaptive comfort, internal heat gain, evaporative cooling, humidification, dehumidification
Rough Approximations based on Supra Topology
Shaaban M. Shaaban and Hossam A. Nabwey
The original rough set model depends on a special type of topological structures whose base is the partition resulted from an equivalence relation. The purpose of this work is to construct rough set approximations based on a supra topology generated by general binary relation. Properties of the new approximations are investigated and many examples are given. A comparison between suggested approximations and its corresponding ones in Yao sense was introduced. As an application the fault and normal data of power transformers are used to validate the proposed approach.
Keywords: Rough sets, supra topology, approximation space, transformer, fault diagnosis.
Design and Analysis of Mitigating Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Using Efficient Classification Based Method
Karthikeyan Thyagarajan and Arunkumar Thangavelu
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks are a variant of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks where an attacker or a group of attackers employ multiple machines to carry out a DoS attack simultaneously, therefore increasing its effectiveness and strength. DDoS attacks in the networks needs to be prevented or handled if it occurs, as early as possible and before reaching the victim. Dealing with DDoS attacks is hard due to their properties such as dynamic attack rates, various kinds of targets, big scale of botnet, etc. DDoS attacks are hard to detect and block since the attack traffic is easily confused with legitimate traffic and difficult to trace. DDoS attack becomes more difficult to handle if it occurs in wireless network because of the properties of ad-hoc network such as dynamic topologies, low battery life, multicast routing, frequency of updates or network overhead, scalability, mobile agent based routing, and power aware routing, etc., Therefore, it is better to prevent the distributed denial of service attack rather than allowing it to occur and then taking the necessary steps to handle it. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are powerless against Distributed Denial of Service assaults which wish to be disallowed or controlled on the off chance that it happens, at the earliest opportunity. It may get somewhat troublesome since DDoS assaults have properties like variable assault rates, utilization of botnets, and so on. This assault is difficult to handle since it’s difficult to separate certifiable activity from vindictive movement, particularly when the movement is from disseminated sources. Assorted routines are being proposed by encryption procedures to keep these assaults against MANET’s. Additionally this paper proposes the classification based approach to mitigate the DDoS attacks effectively in MANET’s.
Keywords: DDoS, PDR, MANET, Botnet, Flooding Attacks
Comparative study on Bahariye in Neo –Classic poetry of Arab and Persian
Dr. Mohammad Shaygan Mehr, Ali asgharMansouri, Nabialehrajani and Hassan ghamari
As we can see the subject of the study has been not studied and researched in the previous works, this study tries to provide regular collection of scattered material to overcome the shortcomings of the issue. The aim of this paper is to review and correct lexical definitions in both Arabic and Persian words of Bahariyeh, and also studies the similarities and differences of Bahariyeh in Persian and Arabic classical new poetry. Bahariyeh is one of the common themes in Persian literature. Also in the literature of Arab it has been composed some poems on the theme of spring as Robyyat. In both contemporary periods, because of familiarity of poets with European literature in one hand and social issues, philanthropy and patriotism remember the other hand, the themes and contents of Bahariyeh, had found significant differences compared to the previous periods. . In this study the similarities and differences of Bahariye, in these two languages, will be examined in the term of structure and content.
Keywords: spring, literature, Bahariyeh, literature of Bahariye, Arabic, Farsi.
The survey of Hassan Ibn Thabit poetry in the ignorant and the Islamic era
Fariborz Hossein Janzadeh and Hassan Ghamari
The contents of Hassan Islamic poetry have changed and transformed in comparison to his pagan(ignorant) poetry both qualitatively and qualitatively. In some of Hassan Islamic poetrv we witness completely new contents and interpretations in which they have not been in the ignorant period. In addition, Hassan doesn’t attention to some of the poetical motivations such as vinouses and merely lovely satirical poems in which he attentions them in ignorant era, and instead of sun a motivations, his poetry put to supreme in defense of Islam religious and Mohammad prophet and his companions. But Hassan in his praise and elegy poems has taken the same old routine ignorant and he has repeated the themes and concepts it again the degree of praise and Hassan elegies are more than Islamic era in ignorant era, it means that, the poet doesn’t have any tendency toward the praise and elegy in ignorant period and He pays more attention to it in Islamic period.
Keywords: Hassan, vinous, satires, lyrics, praise, Islamic and ignorant era.
Checking sociological concepts of employment, and the views of Imam Khomeini, Imam MuhmmadGhzaliand Ayatollah Sadr
Gholamreza Etminan and Mohammadrasoul golshanfoomani
Employment in any society typically is influenced by the interaction of the community's social system. Social components such as politics, economy, population, geography and culture of each community how employment keeps personality of community s people. This paper seeks to answer the question that the employment of view of Islam with an emphasis on ideas of three religious characters, Imam Khomeini Imam Mohammad Ghazali and martyr Ayatollah Sadr, What is sociological characteristics? From Imam Khomein s view, general characteristics of employment is the importance of faith and divine inspiration in the work , the work equals with the jihad in the way of Allah and the work is worship, and so on. . Imam Mohammad Ghazali divided the work into three categories: legitimate jobs, jobs and jobs forbidden abomination, and he knows jobs as a change in human nature through the use of tools on one hand, providing services on the other hand. Characteristics of work of his view are the work of human social life, the necessity of having a business background for independence of everyone, even religious people, social responsibility against everyone and vice versa, and useful work. martyr Ayatollah Sadr in a view as the distribution of wealth in Islam stressed comments on the concept of divided work in distributed background include: distribution of material resources, the distribution of wealth produced in this division and working on tools and resources indirectly is explained and analyzed.....from his view, the agent for the work on natural raw materials is the owner of his own work product and for the product of the work is the owner of the conditions and possibilities of exploitation of nature. In addition to pay attention to the type and nature of work in this theory, it is noticed to discuss the results. They work in two types: useful work and imposed work, focused on the community, element of continuity are among the conclusions of the article.
Keywords: work, employment, nature of work, Imam Khomeini, Imam Mohammad Ghazali, Ayatollah Sadr
Symbols of political awakening in the poetry of Hafez Ibrahim
Dr. Fariborz Hossein Janzadeh, Ali Asghar Mansouri, Nabialehrajani and Seyyed Issa Hosseini
This paper examines the symbols of political awakening in poetry of Hafez Ibrahim as an Arabic poet. Thought heterogeneity of thoughts in Egypt as a country in East Asia and other countries put him on a path that In addition to paying to the old themes of poetry due to the poet's sense of duty, he had effective step against community and events of society on and attitude of public opinions and increasing and awakening of Eastern societies.
Hafez Ibrahim extended his own idea to all Eastern countries. And he would them that not be disappointed with the confidence to follow the Glorious and generosity. Oppression, anti-colonialism, political awakening, homeland friendship, heroic, political foresight, training of young people, regarding to the Education of Women in Society and modeling of Eastern women are as symbols that Hafez Ibrahim paid to attention to them in his poetry countries.
Keywords: symbol / wake / political / poetry / Hafez Ibrahim
Naturalism in Malaika Poetry
Mohammad Jafari, Nabialehrajani, Aliasghar Mansouri and Hassan Ghamari
Malaika is a leading innovator in new poetry. Communion with nature and expression of emotions and emotions are the main characteristics in the romantic works. When the poet was child, he tended nature and rural areas. And because of hate of the city and urban life and its customs, he used the content of the nature in works of his own poems. For this reason he is persistent in the minds of readers
Malaika used the best historical documentation of the environment and environmental phenomena for writing his poem. If we review and challenge poets court, we find that a lot of his odes with the titles of nature or what related to the nature, were named. Using the words of stillness of night and its calmness, the light of moon, sunset and sunrise and absolute darkness, green mountains indicate that the poet paid attention to nature. Words that not only reflect the geographic location of residence of the poet but a historical document of the terms and conditions of the poet's life and events that associated with them. And with addressing the elements of nature he finds medication for pain and misery that were friend and companion of poet. The present study is an attempt for Identifying causes of the effects of poet’s tendency to nature.
Keywords: Nurak Malaika, naturalism, poem
Traveler's Prayer During the Occultation of the Imam Mahdi in Imamieh Jurisprudence
Keivan Talayikhu and Hussein Davarzani
In cabbalas two criteria, location (8 Farsakhs) and time (one day) are mentioned to shorten the Traveler's Prayer. In this thesis, Perception of jurists and validity of cabbalas are considered and the issues of effectiveness of modern technology during the occultation of the Imam Mehdi on praying regarding to 8 Farsakhs and a day will be discussed and check their validation. Finally, with regard to the content of all the cabbalas of famous jurists, it was concluded that the two criteria, location and time represents a measure.
Keywords: Traveler’s Prayer, shorten threshold, location criteria, time criteria