European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 139 No 2
May, 2016

Heavy Metals contamination of Drinking water in Anambra state, Southeast Nigeria
104-108
Ukibe Solomon N, Ukibe Nkiruka R, Ikeako Lawrence C, Okpogba Alphonsus N, Obi-Okaro Alphonsus C and Nwankwo Paschal C
Abstract:
Background: Sachet water (nicknamed “pure-water”) in the study areas has recently become a common type of drinking water in Anambra State , Nigeria thus making it necessary to evaluate the degree of heavy metals contamination.
Methdology: Sachet water samples were collected from four different water processing companies located at Nnewi, Nnobi, Oba, and Ozubulu in Anambra state, Nigeria. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the dissolved analytes in aqueous samples after suitable evapouration and filtration and subjection of the residue to digestion with concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCL). The heavy metals investigated include Chromium, Lead, and Cadmium.
Result: The concentrations of the three heavy metals- Chromium, Lead and Cadmium were significantly high in the sachet water samples collected from the different study locations when compared to the maximum acceptable safe concentrations of these metals.
Conclusion: Heavy metals contamination of sachet water may be a source of ill health in the study areas if care is not taken to reduce their concentrations.
Keywords: heavy metals, drinking water, contamination, Anambra state, Nigeria

Numerical Investigations of Heat Transfer Potential in Nanofluids as a Coolant for Automotive Radiators
109-118
Dattatraya Subhedar and Bharat Ramani
Abstract:
The numerical investigation of a 3-D laminar flow of Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3) in base carrier Mono-Ethylene Glycol and Water (50:50) mixture nanofluids passing through car radiator flat tube is done to evaluate its heat transfer potential over the base fluid. The experiment was performed with water as a radiator coolant to validate the numerical results. For the simulation the Reynolds number, nanoparticle volume fraction, and nanofluids inlet temperature has been used in the range of 100-2000, 0-3% and 343-353K respectively. The numerical results clearly show that heat transfer performance of car radiator with nanofluids is enhanced than the base fluid.
Keywords: Radiator, Aluminium Oxide/Mono-Ethylene Glycol and Water nanofluids, Convective heat transfer enhancement

Cinétique de l’expression des symptômes de la fusariose chez les jeunes plants de palmier à huile (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculés.
119-125
Kablan Kan Aurore Bel Martine, Konan Jean-Noël, Sékou Diabaté and Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire
Abstract:
Le principal moyen de lutte contre la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile est la sélection de matériel végétal tolérant, réalisée grâce à un test de résistance à la fusariose. La lecture de ce test, dont le principe est d’inoculer l’agent pathogène aux plantules du stade prépépinière, aura lieu 05 mois après l’inoculation. Cette étude a pour objectif d’observer la dynamique d’apparition des symptômes de la fusariose après que le champignon soit rentré en contact avec la plante. Un total de 240 plantules du croisement sensible L6621D x L10571P de la catégorie C1001 ont été disposées selon 12 planches de 20 plantules chacune. A 03 mois, les plantules ont été inoculées au niveau de leur système racinaire, en recevant chacune 20 ml d’inoculum renfermant environs 8.106 spores du pathogène. L’observation des symptômes commence la première semaine après l’inoculation et concerne une planche par semaine. Ainsi, les symptômes internes sont-elles apparues à la 5ème semaine post inoculation, tandis que les symptômes externes sont apparus à la 8ème semaine. En général, les symptômes de la fusariose sont apparus chez les plantules à partir de la 5ème semaine post inoculation. Ils se sont accrus jusqu’à la 11ème semaine, à partir de laquelle ils se stabilisent.
Keywords: fusariose, palmier à huile, test, inoculation, pathogène, symptômes

Performance of A Matrix Based on Marine Sands for Retention of Heavy Metals from Leachate By Filtration
126-139
Hanane EL FADEL, Mohammed MERZOUKI, Fatima zahra ABOU SABIQ and Mohamed BENLEMLIH
Abstract:
This article focuses on the filtration of leachate through a matrix based on marine sands well chosen with addition of a substrate (S3) formed by clay and fly ash [1].
The analysis of raw leachate revealed high concentration of chromium that can reach 5.54 mg/L, while the concentrations of Iron, Arsenic and Selenium exceed the Moroccan norms of direct discharges.
The physicochemical characterization of marine sands by XRD and IR revealed their wealth in minerals adsorbent allowing the stabilization and retention of heavy metals with an abatement go up to 99.51% for Calcium, 98.67% for Molybdenum, 96.59% for Boron, 94.28% for Lithium, 92.19% for Strontium, 89.47% for Aluminum, 87.36% for Chromium, 75% for Iron, 60% for Arsenic, 50% for Titanium and more than 66.67% for Barium, Nickel and Selenium, according to Moroccan norms of direct discharges.
Keywords: Leachate, Filtration, Adsorption, Marine sands, Heavy metals, clay, Fly ash


Contributions of Automobile Oil Contamination to Heavy Metals Load of Soil and its Implication for Agronomic Use in Abakaliki Southeast Nigeria
140-151
Nwite J.N. and Obasi, E. O.
Abstract:
Contributions of automobile oil contamination to heavy metals load of soil and its implication for agronomic use was evaluated under pot and field studies in 2012 and 2013 cropping sessions. The field study was an extrapolation of pot trial and for its validation. The experiments were respectively laid out using completely randomized design (CRD) and randomized complete block design (RCBD). Oba Super II variety of maize was used in each case to determine soil productivity and uptake of heavy metals. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance. Result showed that different levels of automobile oil contamination had highly significant (P<0.05) contribution of Cu, Zn and Pb load in soil and crop uptake, respectively. Highest level of automobile oil contamination of 2.0 and 9.0 litres of oil contributed 74, 218, 12, 145, 88% and 102, 283, 900, 106, 80% for soil heavy metals load, 332, 126, nil, 222%, nil and 89, 84, nil, 600%, 100% for plant shoot; 340, 340, nil, 2219, 202 and 410, 410, nil, 2219, 20% for grains of maize uptake of Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd respectively compared to control for the two studies. Grain yields of maize were significantly (P<0.05) lower for plots receiving different levels of automobile oil contamination relative to control. Contribution to grain yields of maize reductions by oil contamination were 66 and 60% for 2.0 and 9.0 litres of automobile oil contamination compared to control. Field contamination of soil with spent lubricant oil should be avoided for higher and sustainable productivity.
Keywords: Automobile Oil, Agronomic use, Contribution, Contamination, Grain yield, Heavy metals, Soil, Uptake.

Impact of operational risks on achievement of Internally Generated Funds (IGF) in Customs Division of GRA in Ghana
152-162
Micheal Yeboah, Benjamin Yeboah1 and Prince Amoako
Abstract:
The study assesses the effects of operational risks on internally generated funds (IGF) in Customs Division of Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA). The study used cross sectional survey where Accra, Takoradi and Tema “collections” were selected from the Southern Ghana and Aflao, Kumasi and Sunyani “collections” from the Northern Ghana. Mean and standard deviations were computed and Independent-samples T test was used to statistically compare mean responses of Northern sector Customs Division and Southern sector Customs Division. Binary logistic regression was employed to estimate the impact of people, external, system and process risks on achievements of IGF targets of Customs Division of GRA. The study identified that among operational risks, process risks was high. Northern sector significantly had higher external risk than southern sector. People risk, external risks and process had significant negative impact on achievement of IGF target but system risks did not significantly impact on achievement on IGF. The study recommends urgent evaluation of external activities that directly or indirectly affect operations, especially in the Northern Ghana. Customs Division of GRA needs to strengthen operational risk management with much focus on process risks at all point of “collection” to improve achievement of IGF targets.
Keywords: Operational Risks, Customs Division of GRA and IGF

Experimental and Mathematical Studies for Corrosion Reaction of Mild Steel – Sulfuric Acid – Friendly Inhibitor System
163-170
Karim H. Hassan, Anees.A.Khadom and Noor H. Kurshed
Abstract:
The research reports the results of weight loss measurements for the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in different concentrations of H2SO4 and temperature range using Citrus aurantium leaves extracts as an inhibitor. Weight loss technique was used to obtain the corrosion rate data. It was found that corrosion rate increased with acid concentration and temperature, while it decreased with addition of inhibitor. The work is focused on determining the optimum mathematical equation in order to achieve good prediction properties. Three mathematical equations and were suggested. Computer aided program was used to developed the models. The results show that the polynomial mathematical equation is able to accurately predict the measured data with high correlation coefficient.
Keywords: Corrosion; Inhibitor; Mild steel; Acid; Regression

An Approach for Managing Requirements Changes in Distributed Agile Development
171-185
Domia Lloyd, Ramadan Moawad, Mohamed Ali and Mona Kadry
Abstract:
The globalization affects many aspects in the process of industrialization development today, one of these industries is the software development industry. Recent years have also witnessed the growth of the agile movement and approaches. Applying the agile approaches and practices in the global or distributed environment will lead to gain a lot of benefits such as reduced costs, higher efficiency and better customization, on the other hand it will face many challenges for example working in different time zones, requirements changes, personal selection and knowledge management. In order to gain these benefits, it should first address the challenges that will face the agile approaches in a distributed environment. One of the main challenges is managing the requirements and its changes during the process of distributed agile software development and the impact of managing requirements on knowledge management between development team. Only few researches of the many approaches and practices published in the literature, addressed the problem of requirements changes during the development process in distributed agile development. Most of the published researches in this context discovered based on industrial experiences and this result in an increase of the need for combining the industry with academia within this area. In our proposed research an approach for distributed agile development to manage requirements and their changes, including the possible changes that have an impact on the knowledge management. Our suggested approach works to cover the gap between the industry and research in distributed agile development by combining the industrial practice and academic technique. Our research aims to develop a software development approach to enhance requirements changes management in distributed agile development.
Keywords: distributed Agile, global software development, requierments chanages, feature model

A Coupled Knowledge Discovery Model Based on Rough Sets Theory and Decision Tree for Manufacturing Process Diagnosis
186-194
Shaaban M. Shaaban and Hossam A. Nabwey
Abstract:
In the manufacturing processes environments there are large amounts of information which composed in database management systems and data repository from all involved areas, such as materials planning, quality control, maintenance, product and process design, assembly, fault diagnosis and so on. Recently, Data Mining and Classification algorithms have attracted considerable interest and have arisen as serious tools for knowledge acquisition in manufacturing processes databases. So this paper introduce a coupled model based on rough sets methodology and decision tree for finding the mine rules from the database of a remote monitoring manufacturing process of industrial conveyor belts. The rough set methodology was used to remove redundant information in the data set by finding a subset of attributes that approximate a minimal reduct. Then C4.5 decision tree algorithm was applied for improving classification ability. Finally, a comparison between the proposed algorithm and the C4.5 algorithm was made. The results show that the proposed approach is an effective technique for decreasing the workload of feature datum extraction, identifies the fault patterns rapidly and is more practical in engineering application than the previous C4.5-based methods.
Keywords: Rough Sets, Attribute reduction, Data Mining, Decision Tree, Remote Monitoring, Classification Algorithms

Relationship Marketing for Small Business on Start Up Phase
195-204
Anas Y. Alhadid
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to identify the role of relationship marketing for small business in the start up phase. Where the research used Questionnaires, Questionnaires have been distributed over the sample at Tammam –Tech Company. N=12. All questionnaires came back and were usable. The study revealed that gender and age variables have no differences in responses 89% of respondents believe that the start up phase is the most important phase in the establishing of a company. Furthermore, 95% of respondents expressed their consent that start up phase carries problems, challenges, and huge responsibility. The study recommends further studies to cover all stages of the life cycle of a small business in order to generalize their results.
Keywords: Relationship marketing, small business, start up phase, Jordan