European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 139 No 1
April, 2016

Further Results on the Combinatorial Number Theoretic Aspect of Ayo Game
5-20
Ibidapo O. Akinyemi, Oludayo O. Olugbara and Harrison O. D. Longe
Abstract:
In this paper, we present an analysis of Ayo game with some interesting combinatorial number theoretic from an overview of results on a class of endgame strategy in the game called Completely Determined Game (CDG). We propose an efficient CDG play algorithm based on soft computing metaphor to implement the concept, and describe the reducibility of the algorithm at each level of play of the game to identify the problem of finding winning positions in the solitaire game. We gave a conjecture that characterize the CDG configuration of Ayo game as a configuration that generates integer sequence, and consequently obtain some self-replicating patterns that repeat themselves at different iterations.
Keywords: Ayo game, Number theoretic, CDG, Matching group

Solubilization of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Using Surfactants
21-29
Melita Huremovic, Majda Srabovic, Ekrem Pehlic, Mirsada Salihovic, Mirza Nuhanovic, Edina Huseinovic and Aida Taletovic
Abstract:
Fexofenadine hydrochloride is a pharmaceutically active compound which belongs to the H1 antihistaminic pharmaceutical active substances. Recently, significant attention is paid to the importance of testing the solubility of pharmaceutical active compounds. In vitro dissolution test are used to increase the quality of pharmaceutical products and to contribute to the development of new formulations. Many researchers have an interest to find a suitable medium wich have ability to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. From all methods, surfactants medium proved to be the most suitable solubilization method since the various surfactants are present in the gastrointestinal fluids as, for example: fatty acids, lecithin, cholesterol and its esters. One important property of surfactants is the formation of colloidal-sized clusters in solutions, known as micelles, which have particular significance in pharmacy because of their ability to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble substances in water. In this sense, the solubilization can be defined as the spontaneous reverzible dissolving of the substance with the surfactant micelles in water in order to form a thermodynamically stable isotropic solution with reduced thermodynamic activity of the solubilized material.
Keywords: fexofenadine hydrochloride, surface active agents, solubility

The Influence of Requirement Concepts of Search Engines on Web Market Lists
30-35
Rafid Nabil Jaffar
Abstract:
A search engine is a program that takes a query from the user and fetches a listing of results that match the query. It employs a mechanism to build an index or a directory of all the information available in various data formats and use such index to fetch results when a user poses a query. A query can be a keyword, a phrase, a sentence or a visual[9]. However, this definition of search engines may not hold good for today or a type of search engines which have evolved to become a gateway to the web. This paradigm shift in the search engines by becoming a web interface from a navigation tool shows the influence it has on the browsing behavior of the users as well as the expansion to the web itself. It is observed that over 50% of online buying decisions begin at a search engine and for domain like travel and tourism the figure is nearly 75% [1]. These are significant numbers which are demonstrating the power of search engines in the web economy. The phenomenal growth of e-Commerce activities and online trade are compliments by the growing sophistication of the search services. This has created a huge market of search advertising, in other words advertising on search engines. Further note, with the growing complexity of the web in terms of its size and scope, users are turning to search engines as their web interface rather than navigating individual websites using URLs. This signifies a huge behavioral shift of users towards search engines. While emphasizing on the indispensability of search engines, Danny Sullivan, founder of the 'Search Engine Watch' blog site says "Originally, we turned to them just to locate stuff on the web. We continue to do that but they're going through a metamorphosis into being our trusted guide to everything". This paper will look at few aspects of the growing landscape of the search engines market as well as the advertising and marketing on search engines and discusses the influence it had on the entire web market lists[2].
Keywords: Value of Search, Search Marketing, Advertising on Search Engines, Web Economy

Phytochemistry and Stimulatory Effect of Probiotic Micro-Organisms of the Fruit Of Opuntia Ficus Indica from the Region of Meknes (Morocco)
36-48
Mohamed Bou-Idra, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Hakima Bahri and Amar Bentayeb
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to provide a phytochemical screening of the fruit of the medicinal and food plant Opuntia ficus indica harvested from the Zerhoun area located in the North Western part of Morocco in Meknes region. This work targeted particularly the extraction and quantification of polyphenols and the evaluation of the effect of the juice of this fruit on the proliferation of four microorganisms of the intestinal probiotic microflora and on the growth of four pathogenic bacteria. Fruit samples were harvested, air dried and pulverized for the photochemical screening, using conventional techniques mainly based on the coloration and precipitation reactions. The results obtained show that presence of phenolic compounds in all samples. Furthermore, the comparison of extraction yields of the Opuntia ficus indica fruit using different solvents indicated that methanol allowed the extraction of the highest rate of polyphenols compared to acetone. However, in the case of crud extracts, acetone gave better yields. The presence of alkaloids and flavonoids in Zerhoun cactus fruit gives it a more enriched composition compared to what is reported in other countries. Concerning the antibacterial activity of the extracts of the fruit, the results obtained did not show any effect on the four pathogenic germs Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, it presented an impressive effect on the growth of some probiotic micro-organisms of the intestinal flora. The speed of growth showed a significant increase in the presence of Opuntia ficus indica fruit juice (5%) as compared to the control, with a respective P value of 0.000568 for E. coli, 0.0055 for the Bifidobacterium spp, 0.0052 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 0.01 for Saccharomyces boulardii. The promising results underlined in this study portend the use of this fruit as a food additive in the prospect of improving the nutritional quality and as an activator of the intestinal microflora.
Keywords: Opuntia ficus indica, phytochemical screening, polyphenols, probiotic effect, anti-bacterial activity.


Heavy Metal Seasonal Distribution in Shore Sediment Samples along the Coastline of Erongo Region, Western Namibia
49-63
Onjefu Sylvanus Ameh, Kgabi Nnenesi Anna and Taole Simeon Halahala
Abstract:
Shore sediment samples from the coastline of Erongo region in the beaches of Walvis Bay, Swakopmund, and Henties Bay were analysed for cadmium, arsenic, lead, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and chromium concentration in order to determine the seasonal distribution and enrichment of these metals in the beaches. Results obtained showed the average metal content ranging as As (2.1-6.1 mg/kg), Pb (0.5-3.0 mg/kg), Cr (2.2-12.0 mg/kg), Cd (0.3-1.0 mg/kg), Cu (1.2-5.4 mg/kg), Mn (22.0-86.0 mg/kg), Fe (1587-8221 mg/kg) and Zn (2.2-7.2 mg/kg). The assessment on the contamination status of heavy metals in the shore sediment showed high enrichment for Cd in both seasons of summer and winter, moderate degree of contamination of As in summer in the beach of Walvis Bay. The geo-accumulation index reveals moderate pollution of Swakopmund beach with Cd in summer, unpolluted beach of Swakopmund and polluted to moderately polluted beach of Henties Bay with Cd in winter season. However, the evaluation of the results of pollution load index (PLI) from this present study indicated PLI < 1 which showed that all the beaches investigated in this present study are not polluted with metals.
Keywords: Heavy Metals, Contamination, Sediment, Coastline, Seasons.

Enhancing On Demand Routing Protocol for MANET
64-69
A. Parvathavarthini and S.S. Dhenakaran
Abstract:
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any preexisting network infrastructure or centralized administration. A routing protocol is used to facilitate communication in ad hoc network. The primary goal of such a routing protocol is to provide an efficient and reliable path between a pair of nodes. This paper analyze on demand routing protocol (reactive routing). In a reactive routing protocol, routing paths are searched only when needed. This paper address the reliability, latency, and power issue by designing an enhanced mechanism for Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol. For reliability create a backup path, and for latency and power form a dynamic cluster.
Keywords: MANET, AODV, Reactive Routing, Backup Path, Dynamic Cluster

The Success Leadership to Develop Organizations
70-80
Ali atallah salah, Arwa hisham rahahleh, Majd Mohammad al-omoush, Zaid ahmad alabaddi and Zaid issa alzyadat
Abstract:
Successful leadership is correlated to the compliance of followers, In a reflection on leadership in the target of develop organization. This research disuses the successful leadership as an important subject matter to be considered and studied in order to propose improvements under the light of organization development theoretical framework. the research problem is how The successful leadership can develop the organizations. The research design will be opt thought critical review because it is enable the researcher to obtain data about the successful leadership to develop organization, the research strategy allow the researcher studding different variables related to ideal leadership to develop organization. The data collection from the second data collection by using literature review to make critical review.
Keywords:

Formalizing Norm Removal Processes in Open Normative Multi-Agent Systems (NorMAS)
81-88
Alicia Y.C. Tang, Muhsen Hammoud and Azhana Ahmad
Abstract:
The main objective of social norms is to regulate humans’ behavior in societies. Norms in these societies are dynamically created according to the needs of the society. Norms’ effects on humans or on the environment are not observable at the moment of creation, while norms practicing consequences might either be positive, negative, or the norms might have neutral consequences. The removal of negative norms is presented in social science as a part of the evolution of our society. Although norm evolution has been discussed in social science, research in detecting negative norms and modelling the processes of norm removal in Computer Science discipline has not been explored. Removing negative norms can help maintain the stability and social value in a society. This paper analyzes and discusses the steps of norm removal from social science perspective, from which the model of norm removal in multi-agent environments is developed. The work described in this paper is the first attempt in analyzing and formalizing norms removal theory for Computer Science and Software Agent Communities.
Keywords: Social norms, Norm removal, Negative norms, Multi-agent systems

Assessment of Safety Standards of Some Magnetic Resonance Imaging Centres in Lagos, Nigeria
89-95
Mark C. Okeji, Felicitas U. Idigo, Joseph C. Eze, Adolphus N. Eze and Joy E. Eke
Abstract:
The safety standards of some magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) centres in Lagos State were assessed in order to ascertain the compliance of the centres to established standards and to forestall accidents due to non-adherence to standard safety protocols. Eleven centres with functional MRI scanners in Lagos State were assessed. Instruments for data collection were researcher-developed questionnaires, checklist and on-the-spot assessment. The questionnaire was validated by 3 experts in the Department of Medical Radiography and Radiological Sciences, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus and the reliability was carried out through test re-test in Enugu State. The reliability coefficient was computed using Cronbach alpha which gave a reliability coefficient of 0.89. A total of 40 questionnaires were administered and 36 were duly completed and returned giving a return rate of 90%. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that none of the MRI centres had an MRI safety officer, 18% of the centres had ferrous metal detectors, 72% of the centres had MRI safety zones clearly marked and 91% had safety signs on display. All the centres (100%) had screening forms for patients, 81% of the centres had acoustic noise shields, 55% of the centres had good documentation of incidents and 45% of the centres trained their staff on MRI safety. When the safety standards in the centres were compared with international standards prescribed by ACR, CAR, and RANZCR, three centres scored above 70%, two centres scored between 60% and 70%, four centres scored between 50% and 60% while two centres scored below 50%. A total of 55% of the centres have experienced one form of accident or another such as missile effect, acoustic injuries, burns, device malfunction and reactions to contrast- with the commonest being the missile effect. Some of the safety challenges identified were patients’ non-compliance to instructions and non use of monitoring devices. There was no significant relationship (r = - 0.215) between the safety measures on ground and the number of accidents recorded in the centres.
Keywords: MRI, safety standards, accidents, Nigeria.

Chewing Gum and Gender Differences on Recall Memory
96-103
Philip C. Mefoh, Ifunanya C. Mbanefo, Michael A. Ezeh and Stella Ugwueze
Abstract:
The study examined whether chewing gum would facilitate recall performance and if females would perform better than males on verbal recall. Participants for the study were 120 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. There were 60 males and 60 females (Mean age = 21.13 years; SD = 2.17). Oral prose assessment test 1 (OPAT 1) was the source for data collection. A between-groups ANOVA statistics was used for data analyses, and results showed that neither chewing gum nor gender has a simple independent effect on recall memory (p<0.05; n2 = 0.31). The implication of the finding is that chewing gum has some facilitating influence on recall, but that is only for female participants. Also, overall performance on the OPAT 1 showed that females were better than males recall memory (p<0.05). Discussion implores teachers not to discourage the consumption of chewing gum in the classrooms, since it has the possibility to enhance recall ability.
Keywords: Chewing gum; Gender differences; Lateralization hypothesis; Oral prose; Recall memory