European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 138 No 4
April, 2016

Degree of Interest at Zarqa University in the Quality of their Services Provided to the Local Community from the Perspective of their Employees
302-314
Dr. Majid Abdul-Mahdi Mesaadah and Abdullah Abbas Al-khrabsheh
Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the degree of interest at Zarqa University in the quality of their services provided to the local community from the perspective of there employees. To achieve this purpose was to build and develop a questionnaire consisted of (45) items, were then test the sincerity of the tool and its reliability, and was applied at the study sample of (98) teaching staff and administrative, was chosen randomly from the population of (580) teaching staff and administrative, by using the stratified random sample. The study finding a number of results, including: there were no statistically significant differences at the significance level (α = 0.05), between the responses of the staff in Zarqa University about the quality of services provided to the local community, attributable to some personal and functional characteristics as (sex, specialization of college, academic qualification, and experience years).
Keywords: Quality of services, Local community, Zarqa University, Jordan

Secure Key Management Scheme for MANET
315-320
J. Godwin Ponsam and Dr. R.Srinivasan
Abstract:
Mobile Adhoc networks (Manets) are temporary network will not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Providing security to this kind of network is a challenging task. Key management is important in MANET. Due to energy limitation and light weight computational mobile nodes designing a key management scheme is very much essential. This scheme provides key distribution and key management. Our key management scheme is secure and robust against attacks caused by malicious nodes. We have used both symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithm for implementing security. We have simulated this secure key management scheme in ns2 and show that our key management scheme performed better when compared to other traditional key management schemes.
Keywords: Key Update, MANET, Key management

Decision Support: Application of Visual Promethee in Choosing A Hospital Waste Incinerator in Kinshasa, DRC
321-328
Kasuku Wanduma1 and Bertrand Mareschal
Abstract:
Hospital waste management is an environmental problem and a danger within healthcare institutions in particular developing countries. This public health problem is avoided to prevent infections in hospitals. A bigger problem is how to eliminate hospital waste where standards do not exist. Thus Congolese policymakers must address this problem in the choice of place of incineration outside health facilities. Health facilities have the goal of restoring health and not through hospital waste contributes to its degradation. This is the aim of this study to make the choice of a place to place or incinerate waste treatment. Surveys show that hospital waste in the Congolese environment is a mixture of activity infectious waste risk care (medical waste) and waste similar to household waste (DAOM). Through methods Promethee and GAIA, using the technique of Visual Promethee the manager hospitals manage to pronounce it about instead of incineration. The study human proposed the textile company website Kinshasa is an existing pyrolytic incinerator among the five sites that have shown the field surveys. In this study, we proceed with a brief description of outranking methods and principle, then use the method of Visual Prometheus in several representations to offer the ideal site for the incineration of hospital waste.
Keywords: Decision Support, Visual Promethee, incinerator, hospital waste, Kinshasa, DRC

Research and Isolation of Bacteria Able to Degrade Hydrocarbons from SAMIR Refinery (Mohammedia-Morocco)
329-342
Naoual kada, Abdeltif M’Haidra, Mohamed El Hassouni and Jamila Bahhou
Abstract:
In order to improve the biological treatment of the discharges treatment plant of SAMIR refinery (Mohammedia, Morocco), a collection of bacterial strains was isolated from the effluent of different refinery units. The identification by PCR and sequencing of the 16S rDNA showed that these isolates belong to the genera: Pseudomonas, Serratia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Acinetobacter and Bacillus. The strains identified underwent a biodegradation test, this test is that described by Fusey and Oudot (1976). The biodegradation test was followed for 14, 21 and 28 days. The results showed that the crude oil biodegradation rate varies by species and it is generally between 30 and 72% after 28 days of incubation. Pseudomonas is the kind that has the highest rate while the others do not exceed the 45%. Thereafter, these same strains were used to test their ability to biodegrade the effluents of the refinery. The results showed that the degradation rate is very important; it reached 100%. Based on these interesting results, we can conclude that the selected strains present a significant biodegradation power, which makes it possible to use these strains at the biological basin of the WWTP of the refinery to ensure the best treatment of discharges.
Keywords: Refinery, Crude Oil, Biodegradation, Bacteria, Biological treatment.


Spatial Statistical Analysis of Fishing Strategy of Spanish Shrimpers at the Moroccan Atlantic Coast Area
343-357
Amina Oulmalem, Rachida Houssa, Abdelaziz Zobai, Abdelmajid Dridi and Mustapha Hakdaoui
Abstract:
In the framework of the agreement of fishing carried out between Morocco and the European union during the period 1995 -1999, the number of the Moroccan ships knew a great increase against a reduction in the number of Spanish units authorized to fish between the Northern limit of Cape Spartel (35° 47' NR) and the Southern area of Sidi Ifni (28°44' NR). However, it was observed that the capture per unit of effort (CPUE) in (kg/day of fishing) realized by the Spanish ships remained definitely higher than that carried out by the Moroccan coastal units. In order to understand the strategy of fishing of Spanish shrimpers in 1998, as well as to analyze the activities of these units in relation to the distribution of shrimp in space and time, this analysis focused on one hand, on the study of the relation between the CPUE and a different variables, and on the other hand on a statistical analysis in space of the dynamics of the ships. The tools used in this analysis are mainly: the index of Moran, the generalized linear models (GLM) and the approach of directional distribution. The results of study showed that several factors affect the CPUE such as the depth of fishing, the duration of fishing trip, the duration of the operation of fishing, the season, the tonnage and the system of conservation. However, the system of conservation remains the most important factor. Concerning the season of fishing, the majority of the Spanish ships, regardless of their system of conservation, was active during the seasons of spring and the summer. It is in fact the period during which was recorded the high abundance of the individuals of big sizes particularly at great depths (300 m- 500 m).
Keywords: pink shrimp, captures per unit of effort (CPUE), Linear Generalized Models (GLM), Spanish ships, fishing operation, fishing effort.

FPGA-Based Implementation of the Digital Testing of Analogue Circuits
358-388
Mohamed H. El-Mahlawy, Sherif Anis, Mahmoud E. A. Gadallah and Emad A. El-Samahy
Abstract:
This paper presents a new parametric fault detection testing approach for analogue circuits, based on digital testing. The design and implementation is achieved using the field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the digital part besides the analogue part that includes the analogue conditioning and the data acquisition circuitry. The analogue test pattern generator (ATPG) is designed to sweep frequencies of the sinusoidal waveform to match the frequency domain of the analogue circuit under test (ACUT). The binary generation of the ATPG can be viewed as variable delay samples of the swept sinusoidal signal. The analogue test response compactor (ATRC) is designed based on sample accumulation of the test response to generate a digital signature. The test controller is designed to enable the proper synchronization of the analogue test cycle for stable digital signature generation. The signature comparison is achieved based on signature boundary of the worst-case analysis. In addition, the deduced signature combines effective parameters of the transfer function of the ACUT with respect to the component variations. These parameters are the bandwidth (BW) and the pass-band transmission (Amax). Then, the signature curve of each component variations in the ACUT is used for the ACUT judgment. The presented analogue testing is applied to the ACUT, selected from the analogue benchmark circuits in the frequency range of biomedical applications.
Keywords: Fault detection, Parametric faults, Testing of analogue circuits, Automatic test equipment, Digital testing of analogue testing

Analyse spatiale de la sensibilité à l’érosion hydrique des sols steppiques dans la région Sud de la wilaya de Tlemcen (Algérie)
389-400
Nadia Zékri, Abdelmalik Tounkob et Driss Haddouche
Abstract:
Le but du présent travail est l’étude de la sensibilité à l’érosion hydrique des sols steppiques dans la région Sud de la wilaya de Tlemcen (Nord Ouest Algérien). La méthodologie suivie a été basée sur une approche cartographique élaborée à partir d’un projet de coopération, réalisé par le centre d’activité régionale pour le programme d’actions prioritaires du plan d’actions pour la Méditerranée (PAP-PAM) et la direction générale de la conservation de la nature de Madrid (DGCOM) avec l’organisation des nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture (FAO). Une série de cartes a été ainsi réalisée pour aboutir à une carte synthétique de sensibilité à l’érosion hydrique. Cette dernière constituera un document de référence pour tout programme de développent durable de la région. Les résultats obtenus montrent que la majorité des terrains (75,98%) sont à un niveau d’érodibilité très faible, paradoxalement 84, 34% des terres sont peu ou pas couvertes par la végétation et les zones à forte sensibilité à l’érosion hydrique ne représentent que 9,54% de la surface.
Keywords: Erosion hydrique, SIG, Cartographie, Sols steppiques, Gestion durable, Tlemcen, Algérie.

Spectrum Detection and Allocation for Communication Using Digital Signal Processing
401-411
S.Gautham, Nitish Raghunathan and Thanikaiselvan.V
Abstract:
The burgeoning demand for wireless applications has increased limitations and has put pressure on the resources which is scarce and precious. Underutilization of radio spectrum has been showcased in various surveys which imply the inefficiency in techniques used in utilizing the spectrum. Many frequency bands are unoccupied, less occupied or few bands are overused. To overcome spectrum underutilization cognitive radio technique is implemented. In this technique the radio looks for a free band for a secondary user to use in case the primary is not using the licensed band. A function of cognitive radio is known as spectrum sensing which enables to search for vacant bands and it helps to detect any spectrum hole which can be utilized by secondary user with high spectral resolution capability. The concept behind simulation and analysis of cognitive Radio System was to reuse unused spectrum to increase the total system capacity was brought in this paper using MATLAB and this work digs into the practical application of cognitive radio of the system. The power spectral density was found out for scenarios involving primary and secondary users and the observation was analyzed.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Primary User, Secondary User, Spectrum band, Spectrum detection, SNR.

New Approach in Cover Image Selection for Embedding the Secret Image
412-418
Mohammad Othman Nassar, Eman Fares Al Mashagba, Feras Fares Al Mashagba and Ghassan Kanaan
Abstract:
In steganography the freedom to choose a cover that result in the least detectable stego image is an advantage that can be maximized. In this paper we proposed a new cover selection dividing approach with four different versions; then we compared between them based on their ability to minimize the detectability of the resulting stego image while keeping the host image distortion as minimum as possible. Our cover selection technique versions are created by dividing the cover images and the secret image into blocks of different sizes (1x4, 4x1, 2x4, and 4x2); for each block we calculated the block texture and neighborhood information to measure the similarity of secret image blocks with the blocks for each cover image. Finally; the best similar cover for each version in our approach is chosen to hide the secret image. Our proposed methods was examined with wavelet based domain (WBS) and Fisher Linear Discriminator (FLD) to prove their robustness against detectability of the resulting stego image, also we examined the Peak signal-to-noise ratio(PSNR) to prove the ability of the four versions in maintaining minimum distortion in the host image. The results show that (1×4) blocking gives the best security and the best minimum distortion, and (2×4) was the fastest version.
Keywords: steganography; cover selection techniques; blocking.

On Regularities of Conjugation of W-1L19 Synthetic Peptide to Polyacrylic Acid Polymer Using EDC as a Cross –Binding Agent
419-430
Serap Derman, Zeynep Akdeste Mustafaeva and Aghaddin Mamedov
Abstract:
We tried first time application of W-1L19 synthetic peptide molecule for conjugation with polyacrylic acid polymer (PAA) carrier and in order to produce the conjugate with high bioactivity the mechanism of the conjugation of W-1L19 synthetic peptide molecule with the polyacrylic acid polymer (PAA) has been investigated using preliminary kinetic analysis of two-steps cross-binding reaction, comprising application of EDC as a conjugating agent. The acid-base mechanism of hydrogen abstraction from NH2 group of the peptide determines the overall rate of the bio-conjugation and bioactivity of the produced conjugate molecule. The kinetic feature of the conjugation was analyzed based on different extrapolations of Pseudo-Langmuir type of the model. We assume that the nature of the rate-determining step of the two steps conjugation reaction leads to the formation of conjugate with the different properties and size. The reaction mechanism at high peptide concentrations hardly follows to the Langmuir type of kinetics where the second step of peptide interaction with the intermediate complex is the rate-determining step, which may lead to the appearance of less flexible cross-binded side products. We established that the IN-SITU peptide-peptide conjugation is the main side reaction which negatelvely affects to the bioactivity of the target conjugate. The formation of bioactive molecules could be regulated by increasing the rate of the second step of peptide insertion to the intermediate that can be done by selection of a polymer size, EDC activity and peptide nature. In the case of polymers having low molecular weight and less functional groups takes place generation of side reactions such as appearance of tendency of conjugation of peptide molecules with each other. Selection of the peptide molecule and polymer size for controlling of the rate of the conjugation and formation of high immune response bioactive conjugate has to be based on the easy abstraction of hydrogen from the basic NH2 group of peptide and easy cleavage of C-O bond in polymer-EDC intermediate complexes.
Keywords: Peptide, polymer, bioconjugation, kinetics, Langmuir

The Attitude Level of Bachelor Students' Towards Computer-Based Exams in M'utah University
431-445
Ra'ed Abdalhafed Alsaraireh
Abstract:
This study aimed at identifying the level of Bachelor students' attitudes at M'utah University towards computer-based exams. It also aimed to identify the impact of the variables of gender, faculty and academic year on the level of students' attitudes. The tool of the study was a questionnaire which consisted of (23) items. After verifying its validity and reliability, the questionnaire was applied on the sample of the study which amounted to (1450) students, who were selected randomly by stratified way. In order to answer the questions of study, mean scores and standard deviations were employed, in addition to (T) test and one–way ANOVA.
The results of the study were as the following:
1) The level of students' attitudes at Mu'tah University towards computer-based exams was averagely positive, where the total mean score of the sample's attitudes was estimated as (3.48).
2) There were no statistical significant differences at (α=0.05) in the level of students' attitudes towards computer-based exams as due to the variables of gender, faculty and academic year.
The study concluded several recommendations which focused on the importance of generalizing the use of computer-based exams, in assessing students' achievement at university courses. Also, the study recommended the necessity of supplying adequate number of computers.