European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 137 No 1
January, 2016

Studies on the Effects of Silicon and Antitranspirant on Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Growth and Yield
5-10
Sudradjat, Afifah Farida Jufri and Eko Sulistyono
Abstract:
The demands for chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Indonesia has been increasing with the growing population and income whereas the it’s productivity is low. The main reasons of low chili pepper productivity are nutrition and water availability. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effects of silicon and antitranspirant application on chili pepper growth and yield. This research was conducted at Dramaga District, Bogor Regency, West Java Indonesia from February to July 2014. The experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot design with three replications. The main plot was silicon application which consisted of two levels, i.e.without silicon (control) and with silicon application. The subplot was antitranspirant which consisted of three levels of application intervals, i.e. control (without antitranspirant), weekly, and fortnightly. The results showed that silicon application significantly increased photosynthesis rate, leaf length, fruit thickness and reduced unmarketable yield. The application of antitranspirant had no significant effect on physiological responses, vegetative growth and yield components. Interaction between silicon and anti transpirant significantly increased the shoot fresh weight, fruit thickness, and reduced unmarketable yield compared to control plants.
Keywords: fruit thickness, unmarketable yield, transpiration rate.

Caractérisations agronomiques et Activités anti oxydantes des huiles essentielles des populations locales du cumin (Cuminum cyminum) conduit sous des conditions de production biologique dans la réserve de biosphère des oasis du Maroc
11-25
Abdellaoui M, Kasrati A, Allaoui A and El Rhaffari L
Abstract:
Le présent travail vise l’analyse du rendement grain et ses composantes, la teneur en huile essentielle ainsi que les activités anti-oxydantes des huiles essentielles des populations locales du cumin oasien conduit sous des conditions de productions biologiques. Le matériel végétal évalué est constitué de trois génotypes locaux du cumin collectés au niveau de 3 localités relevant de la zone oasienne d’Alnif et une variété étrangère insérée dans l’essai à titre témoin. Ce matériel végétal a été installé selon un dispositif en bloc aléatoire complet avec trois répétitions dans une parcelle située à la zone d’Oukhite (sud-est du Maroc). Les résultats obtenus ont révélé des différences significatives entre les génotypes étudiés pour l’ensemble des paramètres analysés. Le rendement grain meilleur a été observé chez le génotype G2 provenant de la localité de Taaouilite (4,14 qx/ha) tandis que le rendement en huile essentielle le plus élevé est réalisé par le génotype local G1 issue de la zone oasien de Takacha (5,27 %). Généralement, les grains du cumin oasien sont une excellente source d'huiles essentielle d’où leurs saveurs distinctives et leurs arômes puissants. Ces huiles essentielles ont affiché des activités antioxydantes supérieures à celle du témoin mais inférieur aux antioxydants synthétiques (BHT et la Quercétine) pour les deux tests appliqués. La capacité antioxydante la plus élevée a été de nouveau associée à l’huile essentielle du génotype oasien G2 avec des IC50= 3,32 mg/ml et IC50= 17,02 mg/ml pour le test DPPH et le test du pouvoir réducteur respectivement. En outre, ces huiles peuvent être utilisées dans la conservation des aliments avec des avantages supplémentaires tels que des appellations biologiques.
Keywords: Cumin –Rendement- activité antioxydante -huile essentielle –agriculture biologique-oasis

Impact de l’épandage agricole des boues résiduaires urbaines sur la qualité microbiologique de trois légumes
26-36
MoniaTrad Raïs, Mohamed Naceur Khélil, Nidhal Marzougui and Sonia Sabbahi
Abstract:
La valorisation des boues d’épuration dans l’agriculture est assez répandue dans le monde. Cependant, elle suscite beaucoup d’opposition en raison des risques sanitaires qui lui sont associés. L’objectif de ce travail consiste à évaluer la qualité microbiologique des produits agricoles cultivés sur des sols ayant reçu différentes doses de boues résiduaires urbaines. Les essais ont été menés sur trois cultures maraîchères qui sont le radis, la laitue et le concombre. Quatre doses de boues variant de 5 à 100 tonnes/ha ont été testées. Les résultats montrent que la contamination par les indicateurs fécaux varie considérablement pour un même traitement. Dans le cas des trois cultures, la dose de boues appliquée au sol n’influence pas significativement le niveau de contamination bactérienne des produits. Pour la laitue, les feuilles périphériques, souvent en contact avec le sol, sont significativement plus contaminées par les coliformes et les streptocoques fécaux que les feuilles internes. Les salmonelles n’ont pas été retrouvées sur les produits analysés. Le nombre d’Escherichia coli était inférieur à 100 bactéries par gramme dans 60 à 85% des échantillons selon le produit mais, cette bactérie montre ponctuellement des concentrations élevées pouvant atteindre 1,1x105 /g d’où un risque sanitaire potentiel pour les consommateurs des produits.
Keywords: Boues d’épuration, recyclage, risque sanitaire, légumes, contamination bactérienne, indicateurs fécaux, Salmonelles.

Environmental Impact in Tirana District Caused from Petrol Passenger’s Car
37-47
Lorenc Malka, Flamur Bidaj and Klodian Dhoska
Abstract:
A present paper is focused in environmental pollution impact caused from petrol passenger’s car in Tirana District. There is a big gap regarding to the European law and Albanian law situation for reducing the level of pollutants especially from transports sector. This study analysis the real pollution situation in Tirana District, estimation of the total emission of the dioxide carbon (CO2), monoxide carbon (CO), hydrocarbures (HC) and air–fuel ratio (λ) by using MAHA software.

Risques alimentaires liés à la présence du Plomb et du Cadmium dans certaines denrées alimentaires consommées des zones d’Akouédo et d’Abouabou de la ville d’Abidjan. (Côte D’ivoire)
48-62
Akessé Djamatchè Paul Valéry, Soro Donafologo Baba, Mamadou Koné, Kouadio David Léonce, Ehouman Ano Guy, Diarra Moussa and Traore Karim Sory
Abstract:
Afin d’évaluer les risques alimentaires en liaison avec la présence d’ETM dans les sols et dans certaines denrées alimentaires des zones d’Akouédo et d’Abouabou, Des échantillons de légumes et des mollusques récoltés dans les deux zones ont été minéralisés et dosés. L’exposition alimentaire de la population a été estimée en croisant les données de consommation recueillies dans le cadre d’une enquête alimentaire avec les données de contamination des denrées alimentaires pour chacun des ETM. L’approche apport journalier maximum théorique (AJMT) a été réalisée pour les deux métaux (Cd, Pb), seul le Cd a un ratio supérieur à 100% de la dose journalière acceptable (DJA). Ce qui a nécessité le calcul de l’apport journalier estimé (AJE) et du quotient de danger (QD=2,7). Le ratio pour le plomb est de 56,62%. La quantification du risque par le calcul de l’excès du risque individuel (ERI) pour le Cd (ERI = 2,96.10-5 mg2/kg2) est supérieure à la limite autorisée par l’OMS (10-5 mg2/kg2). Ce qui laisse envisager un risque d’effets cancérigènes des populations du au Cd.
Keywords: Métaux lourds ; Contamination, Evaluation du risque alimentaire ; Excès de risque individuel (ERI).

Soret and Dufour Effects on MHD Stagnation Point Flow and Heat Transfer Impinging on Stretching Sheet with Chemical Reaction and Transpiration
63-73
Mohamed S. Abdel-Wahed and Sayed. M. Abdel-AAL
Abstract:
This work investigate the thermal diffusion and diffusion thermo effects on mixed convection heat and mass transfer by MHD stagnation point flow towards permeable stretching surface in the presence of a first order chemical reaction by using numerical method .The governing equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation which are then solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutt method with shooting technique. A detailed study illustrating the influences of the effects of the magnetic, Dufour, Soret, velocity ratio, suction/injection and chemical reaction parameters, the Schmidt and Prandtl numbers on the dimensionless velocity, temperature as well as the skin-friction and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is conducted. The results obtained show that the flow field is substantially influenced by the presence of chemical reaction, transpiration, thermal diffusion and diffusion thermo, and magnetic field.
Keywords: Thermal diffusion, diffusion thermo, Stagnation point, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction.

Secure VoIP Scheme for SIP Authentication Using Web Service
74-88
Hossam A. Zawra, Gouda Ismail Mohamed and Khaled M. Badran
Abstract:
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the protocols that are widely used in voice over IP (VoIP) signaling. Digest Access Authentication (DAA) is currently the most common authentication mechanism for SIP. DAA is weak and found to be vulnerable to serious real-world attacks which represent a threat to VoIP industry installations and solutions. This paper introduces advanced VoIP Scheme for authentication in SIP, consisting of separate security service using Web Service. The usage of the web service can fit with any SIP configuration because web service is a platform independent. To overcome registration hijacking the Web Service provides the user agent (UA) with a randomly generated complex one-time password every time the UA tries to authenticate with the Server. To overcome the DoS attacks a Registrar Server (RS) is introduced, acts as a firewall and the UA should first authenticate with it before authenticating with the SIP Server. The overall goal of this paper is to explain how authentication are held in SIP, point out weaknesses, mention threats and attacks, and try to develop the currently used authentication mechanism in a way that the authentication service becomes more secure. It is necessary to decrease the effect of the introduced mechanism on the quality of the call by decreasing the changes of the SIP standards.
Keywords: VoIP, SIP, Authentication, Web Service, IPsec.

Spatial Bayesian Methods of Flow Forecasting in the Black Volta River
89-102
Iddrisu Wahab Abdul, Kaku Sagary Nokoe, Frank Badu Osei, and Eric Ofosu Antwi
Abstract:
The use of Spatial Bayesian Vector Autoregressive (SBVAR) models for river flow forecasting is studied in this paper. SBVAR models based on both the First Order Spatial Contiguity (FOSC) and the Random-Walk Averaging (RWA) priors were estimated and compared in terms of forecast performance. Monthly data on river flows from January 2000 to December 2009 for the four gauge stations along the Black Volta River namely, Lawra, Chache, Bui and Bamboi was obtained from the hydrological services department of Ghana and used for model fitting. The estimation and forecasting procedure was conducted using the Econometrics Toolbox in MATLAB. Mean Absolute Percentage Errors (MAPEs) were calculated for all models considered. The results indicated very good forecasts for all the models considered. However, a comparison among them clearly indicated a much better performance by the SBVAR model based on the RWA prior which considered flows from only the immediate upstream gauge station as important while flows from all other gauge stations were considered unimportant.
Keywords: River flow, Forecasting, Spatial Bayesian Vector Autoregressive Model, Black Volta River.
JEL Classification Codes: Q56; Q51; Q54

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Niger River Ecosystem in Bamako
103-110
Sika A.E., Traoré V., Samaké D., Traoré D., Kotelevtsev S.V
Abstract:
This study is part of the determination of the concentration of heavy metals in water, sediments, algae, aquatic plants and fish tissue of the River Niger in Bamako and assesses their impact on the environment. 50 ml of water are batched or 50 g sediments and biological samples are crushed and then attacked by sulfuric acid and is gradually added hydrogen peroxide until a clear solution. The solution obtained is used to determine As, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, Fe, and Mn using atomic absorption mass spectrometer. The concentration of heavy metals in water varies from 16μg/l for lead, 9-31μg/l for nickel, 9-572 μg/l for zinc. Arsenic and nickel pose a pollution problem with values ranging from 2.7 to 15 μg/ l and 9 to 31 μg/ l. Increased Pb pollution was recorded in sediments. However low heavy metal content was observed in algae and aquatic plants. Heavy concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Fe were revealed at Clara anguillaris, Cyprinu carpio, Hyperopisus baby, Labeo coubie and Labeo senegalensis. Death threats to algae, aquatic plants and fish. Our studies have assessed the likely exposure of humans to such persistent toxic heavy metals. There is the proliferation of Hyacinths of water, lettuce, black snakes and other pollution-resistant species.
Keywords: evaluation, pollution, heavy metals, hydrobiotes.

Adsorption – Desorption Isotherm of One of Antidibetic Drug from Aqueous Solutions on Some Pharmaceutical Adsorbents
111-120
Reem Adham AL-Bayati
Abstract:
Drug overdose and poisoning are common clinical problems and could occur with metformin hydrochloride (one of the antidiabetic drug). It therefore becomes important to study the adsorption of the metformin on pharmaceutical adsorbents which could serve as possible antidotes for the emergency treatment of metformin. HCl overdose or poisoning when they occur. The rate and extent of adsorption and desorption of metformin. HCl on some pharmaceutical adsorbents, namely kaolin and attapuligate were investigated spectraphotometrically also, the effect temperature, pH, ionic strength have been studied as well.
The equilibrium adsorption contact times were determined for both two clays surfaces. Adsorption isotherms have been analyzed by the Freundlich and Langmuir models.
The Freundlich isotherms have the highest correlation coefficients. The apparent thermodynamic parameters were calculated and the obtained values support the exothermic process. The ability of clays in desorbing the drug was also studied. At constant temperature, the amount of metformin. HCl desorbed from kaolin surface was grater than that from attapuligate surface. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be (1.2). These studies indicate that kaolin and attapuligate could be effective antidotes for the antidiabetic drug used in cases of overdose and poisoning because of high binding capacities exhibited by the two clays used.
Keywords: Adsorption, Pharmaceutical, metformin, antidiabetic