European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 136 No 3
December, 2015

Genotyping of Human Cytomegalovirus Envelop Glycoprotein B in Iraqi Pregnant Women and Infants by Multiplex nested PCR
252-259
Thaer A. Abdulhussein and Raghad H. Al-azzawi
Abstract:
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) envelope glycoprotein B (gB) is essential for viral infectivity as they are involved in attachment and penetration of the host cell, cell to cell viral transmission and fusion of infected cells. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and the HCMV glycoprotein B genotypes in Iraqi pregnant women and infants, during 2014-2015. A total 145 of pregnant women and 45 of infants' clinical samples were subjected to ELISA for detection of anti-HCMV IgM and both IgM/IgG. The blood samples were positive for CMV-IgM and both IgG/IgM were found to be present 44 out of 145 (28.27 %). Viral DNA was extracted from positive samples and genotyping of glycoprotein B gene (UL55 region) by multiplex nested PCR. HCMV-DNA was found to be present in 19 out of 44 (43.18%) samples. The glycoprotein B genotype distribution were: in infants gB type 1(n3) (33.33%), gB type 2(n5) (55.55%), gB type3 (n 1) (11.11) and gB type 4 (00.0%), whiles in pregnant women gB type 1 (n2)(20%), gB type 2(n7) (70%), gB type 3(n0) (00.0%) and gB type 4(n1) (10.0%). Glycoprotein B type 2 was most prevalence in pregnancy women and infants Iraqi patients.
Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, glycoprotein B, genotype, multiplex PCR

Effect of The Risk Factors : Hypertension and Smoking on Erythropoietin Hormone levels in Male Diabetic Patients with and without Nephropathy
260-268
Esraa Mahdi Abdulhadi Zahid, Dr. Saher Mahmood Jwad Aljamali and Prof. Dr. Najah Rayish Hadi
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus is a global disease and one of its important complications is diabetic nephropathy, which causes a decrease in production of Erythropoietin hormone, therefore, this study is designed to compare the level of the erythropoietin hormone in male diabetic patients with and without nephropathy.
This study was conducted in the Diabetes Mellitus and Endocrinology Center in Al-Sader Medical City ,including 73 patients with type II diabetes mellitus of whom 30 patients have nephropathy, while 43 patients are without nephropathy. The groups' age ranged from 35-70 years. The study lasted from October 2012 until March 2013.
Albumin to creatinine ratio in urine, levels of: Erythropoietin, creatinine, total protein and albumin were evaluated in the serum. The hematological parameters including: red blood corpuscular count, mean corpuscular volume and white blood cells count were estimated .The results of the study showed the following: there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the ratio of albumin to creatinine in urine at the patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared with patients in the other group (without nephropathy) ,the study also revealed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of Erythropoietin hormone. While the other parameters were included in this study have not showed any significant change.
As for the factor of blood pressure was concerned in this study, the results revealed a significant rise (P<0.05) in age and creatinine level in the patients with nephropathy and high blood pressure in comparison to the patients with nephropathy and without high blood pressure. While the other parameters were included in the study have not appeared any significant change. And for the factor of smoking the results have not showed any significant change (P>0.05) between the smoker and non- smoker nephropathy patients.
Keywords:

Effect of Aerobic Training on Lung Functions in Smoking University Students
269-278
Ahmed S. Ahmed, Waleed S. Mahmoud, and Ragab K. Elnaggar
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Cigarette smoking has been clearly considered as a primary cause of impaired lung function. Efficacy of lung functions has a direct relationship with general health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on lung functions in smoking university students.
Methods: Forty-eight male smokers from Prince Sattam bin AbulAziz University students completed this study. Subjects were randomized into two groups after fulfilling eligibility criteria, exercise group EG (n=23) or control group CG (n=25). EG subjects performed aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, 3 times weekly on non-consecutive days on a treadmill for 40 minutes at 65-80% of HRR. CG subjects didn’t participate in the exercise program. Anthropometric measures, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and lung functions were assessed at baseline and after intervention.
Results: No significant differences were found between pre and post-test values of lung functions, VO2peak or anthropometric measurements in CG. In EG, there were no significant differences between pre and post-test values of anthropometric parameters, lung functions except for MVV that showed significant increase (p<0.05) with a significant increase in VO2peak from 36.6 ± 2.16 to 40.78 ± 2.27 [mL.min-1.kg-1]. Also, there was a significant positive correlation between MVV and VO2peak in EG.
Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training should be included in the smoking management plans to improve aerobic capacity and to improve or at least to maintain lung functions in sedentary smokers. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention or more exercise intensity may be needed in order to significantly improve lung functions in smokers with normal lung functions.
Keywords: Aerobic; Exercise; Lung function, Smoking

Protein Requirements in Infancy and Childhood with Actual Intakes of Protein in Developed and Developing Countries
279-285
Riyadh A. Saeed Alzaheb, AlaDeen Alloubani R.N, Mohammad Almatari, Naiemah Alatawi and Noorah Alatawi
Abstract:
Background:
Nutrition is important throughout childhood, but this is particularly the case in the first two years of life because the growth rate during this period is higher and less reliant on growth hormones than is the case later in childhood. Moreover, it was observed that the problem with protein intake in developing countries does not lie in the quantity as such, but is more likely to be the quality of the protein consumed
Purpose:
This review investigated the protein requirements in infancy and childhood with actual intakes of protein in developed and developing countries.
Methodology:
In searching for applicable articles, the search has been done using PubMed and Ovid searching engines and was limited to search peer-reviewed journals only. Nutrition, protein, infancy, childhood, developed and developing countries, all these keywords were used in the search.
Conclusion:
Overall, it was observed that the problem with protein intake in developing countries does not lie in the quantity as such, but is more likely to be the quality of the protein consumed. A diet that is mainly based on cereals and which lacks animal protein is likely to result in lower weight gain and linear growth, especially if the infant has not been breastfed; insufficient intake of high-quality protein can consequently lead to under nutrition.

Problems and Challenges Facing Developing Countries in Order to Execute the Social Impact Assessment of Dams: A Review
286-291
S. Tajziehchi , A.R. Karbassi
Abstract:
Construction of huge structures like dams, especially in areas that normally suffer from an extreme drought, will be caused sudden major impacts and changes on urbanization, industry, agriculture, and electricity generation as well as biological and ecological changes led environmental variations. If this transformation be towards the improvement of the current situation, society will face with sustainable development, ecological and biological balance and the economic boom. But investigation of some of the projects showed that these transformations won’t always be positive. Therefore, adverse environmental impacts will appear in the area. Naturally such inadequate consequences cause the loss of national capital and a large cost will be imposed on the society to control adverse impacts and damaging consequences. In current situation, despite approval of laws and regulations related to the social impact assessment, it is expected that the construction of dams be compatible with sustainable development and environmental protection policies. But, in practice, there are a lot of problems that turn this logical trend into a reverse process. The current study examines obstacles on the way to executing the social impact assessment studies of dams in Iran as a developing country.
Keywords: Social impact assessment, Developing countries, Sustainable development.

A Generic Software Tool for the Simulation of Laminar Fluid Flow Problems
292-302
Bachir Moussa Idi and Harouna Naroua
Abstract:
In this article, we present a generic software tool based on the Nakamura finite difference scheme in order to solve laminar fluid flow problems. The present study is restricted to the category of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluid flows expressed in one spatial coordinate. All problems are assumed to be time dependent. The equations describing the flow and other relevant parameters are defined in a generic file which is used as input to the system. A generic interpreter is used to generate postfix codes that it will interpret in the process of calculations. For the purpose of application, we consider a two-dimensional unsteady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid along an infinite flat plate. The effects of the various parameters entering into the problem are discussed extensively and shown graphically.
Keywords: Generic Software, Computer Simulation, Interpreter, Nakamura Scheme, Laminar Fluid Flow.

Use of the Artificial Neural Network in Determining Sensitivity Between Variables Governing the Quality of Wastewater: Case of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of the City of Guelma (East of Algeria).
303-311
Lassaad Ghrieb, Hichem Zerrouki and Larbi Djabri
Abstract:
The treatment plant wastewater from the city of Guelma is made by the medium load activated sludge. Physico-chemical analyzes of treated wastewater were performed on the following parameters: temperature (T ° C), potential hydrogen (pH), redox potential (RP), conductivity (EC), total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and nitrate (NO3). This work aims to determine the sensitivity of these chemical elements and evaluate the interaction between BOD5 as output variable and other chemical elements such as input variables using the artificial neural network.
Keywords: Artificial neural network, Guelma, wastewater

Point α-open Games and its Equivalences
312-319
A.A. El-Atik
Abstract:
The notion of topological games with perfect information has introduced and studied by Berge [1]. Many authors used it to solve some topological problems (e.g. [10] and [11]). Njástad [5] defined the notion of α -set. The family of all α-sets forms a topology. In this paper, we define some new types of topological games with respect to α-sets. In this game, players ONE and TWO alternately choose points and their α-sets respectively. ONE wins if and only if the moves of TWO cover the space. Finally, we give a generalization for the concept of equivalence between games.
Keywords: an α-set, topological games, a winning strategy, determinacy, equivalence between games.

Les Facteurs de la Pauvreté Hydrique du Grand Sousse : Un Déséquilibre en Eau Agricole en Perspective?
320-334
Nadia Sahtout, Asma EL Amri, Marwa Fourati and Rajouene Majdoub
Abstract:
Dans le Grand Sousse, le développement des activités agricoles, qui a coïncidé avec celui des autres activités économiques (industrielles et touristiques), ainsi qu’avec une dynamique de la population, a davantage exacerbé les concurrences non seulement dans l'allocation sectorielle de la ressource en eau, mais aussi dans leur implantation dans un même espace littoral très dépourvu en eau. Cette pauvreté hydrique est due, principalement aux conditions climatiques et topographiques peu propices à la collecte des eaux, et aux ressources souterraines déjà surexploitées pour la plupart. L'inadéquation entre les ressources et les lieux de consommation de l’eau agricole ne date pourtant pas d'aujourd'hui, et les différentes civilisations ont du de tout temps gérer cette rareté de l'eau à Sousse (Centre de la Tunisie) à travers des techniques ingénieuses de collecte des eaux de ruissellement, d’exploitation des nappes locales, et d’un transfert interrégional des eaux, rendant ainsi la région largement dépendante pour son approvisionnement. Pour satisfaire les besoins futurs, la préservation des acquis et le développement des eaux non conventionnelles sont fort nécessaires pour assurer une gestion intégrée des ressources hydriques.
Keywords: Grand Sousse, Ressources en Eau, Déficit Hydrique, Semi-Aride, Tunisie.

Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Storytelling Curriculum: Eagle Books Series among African American Children on the Eastern Shore of Maryland
335-350
Virginie M Zoumenou, Rebecca Gyawu, Malinda Cecil and Nina Bennett
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum, Eagle Books Series, originally created to teach American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children, while teaching African American children about diabetes prevention and a healthy lifestyle. Pratt's (1980) tridimensional curriculum evaluation model was used to examine the efficiency, effectiveness, and acceptability of the curriculum while teaching African American children. Cooperative Extension educators, preschool, and elementary school teachers were introduced to the curriculum and their feedback was collected to assess the acceptability and the effectiveness of the curriculum. African American preschoolers, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders (N=100) enrolled in summer camp programs in the Tri-County area of the lower Eastern Shore of Maryland participated. Pre and post-tests and qualitative research were used to measure the efficiency of the curriculum. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used for data analysis. The results indicate that the Eagle Books Series curriculum was accepted by the educators and teachers on the Lower Eastern Shore of Maryland. A reinforcement tool and the addition of a gardening component were suggested. The survey results indicate desirable student outcomes in terms of diabetes knowledge and the importance of food choices, origin of food, exercise and fruit and vegetable consumption in preventing diabetes. The evaluation indicated that the Eagle Books Series can accomplish its goals and objectives among African American children. Overall, the Eagle Books Series has merit for use not only among Native American children but also among African American children.
Keywords: Curriculum Evaluation, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Acceptability, African American children, Extension Educators, Eagle Books Series.