European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 135 No 4
November, 2015

Etude du Traitement Thermomecanique dans Un Rva (Analyseur Rapide de Viscosité) Instrumente Sur La Rheologie D’un Systeme A Base D’amidon Natif D’igname
326-337
Dally Li, N’guessan A, Tchoreloff P and Koffi A A
Abstract:
L’amidon est la source d’énergie principale utilisée dans l’alimentation humaine, mais les utilisations alimentaires sont multiples et vont bien au delà de son rôle nutritionnel d’origine [1]. Il possède beaucoup de propriétés physiques et chimiques qui le diffèrent d’autres ingrédients alimentaires et qui lui donnent sa grande diversité d’applications. Portés à ébullition, les granulés d’amidon se dissolvent et libèrent les fragments d’amylopectine dans la solution. La texture devient longue et collante : c’est l’empois d’amidon. Plusieurs paramètres interviennent lors du traitement des empois durant différentes conditions de procédés dont le cisaillement et le traitement à haute température. Ce traitement thermique est souvent combiné à un cisaillement qui joue un rôle déterminant dans la texture finale du système. Une meilleure compréhension de la texture de ces milieux nécessite l’application d’un traitement thermomécanique dans des conditions parfaitement contrôlées.
La présente étude qui porte sur les amidons de tubercules d’ignames du complexe cayenensis rotundata s’inscrit dans le cadre de la valorisation et la recherche d’amidons natifs locaux pour les formulations galéniques et biologiquement conseillées en remplacement des amidons modifiés et capables de résister à certains traitements technologiques tels que la stérilisation et le cisaillement connus pour altérer fortement la structure des hydrogels d’amidons [3].
L’objectif de cette recherche sera d’appliquer le procédé à l’échelle pilote en utilisant un RVA instrumenté. L’effet des paramètres du traitement sur les propriétés rhéologiques du système en mettant en œuvre un ensemble de méthodes d’analyses de caractérisation physico-chimiques (AED, viscosité intrinsèque), rhéologiques (température d’empesage, viscoamylogramme, viscosité apparente, viscosité réelle) et technofonctionnelles (gonflement-solubilité, clarté des hydrogels) a été étudié.
Keywords:

First Determination of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Lobularia Maritima L. Flower Extracts
338-342
Djennane Asmaa, Mahroug Samira and Benhassaini Hachemi
Abstract:
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv., Is a perennial species, native to the Mediterranean region, belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In the present work, two extracts were prepared from the flowers of this plant: methanol and the other aqueous. The quantitative estimation of total flavonoids and phenols by the colorimetric method showed that the extracts are rich in these compounds.
The demonstration of power antioxidant that has been performed using the method of trapping free radical DPPH indicated that the methanol extract has a higher reducing power than that of the aqueous extract.
Keywords: Lobularia maritima L., Brassicaceae, phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant activity.

Integer-Only Operations on Extreme Learning Machine Test Time Classification
343-354
Emerson Lopes Machadoa, Cristiano Jacques Miossob and Ricardo Pezzuol Jacobia
Abstract:
We present a theoretical analysis and empirical evaluations of a novel set of techniques for computational cost reduction of test time operations of network classifiers based on extreme learning machine (ELM). By exploring some characteristics we derived from these models, we show that the classification at test time can be performed using solely integer operations without compromising the classification accuracy. Our contributions are as follows: (i) We show empirical evidence that the input weights values can be drawn from the ternary set with limited reduction of the classification accuracy. This has the computational advantage of dismissing multiplications; (ii) We prove the classification accuracy of normalized and non-normalized test signals are the same; (iii) We show how to create an integer version of the output weights that results in a limited reduction of the classification accuracy. We tested our techniques on 5 computer vision datasets commonly used in the literature and the results indicate that our techniques can allow the reduction of the computational cost of the operations necessary for the classification at test time in FPGAs. This is important in embedded applications, where power consumption is limited, and crucial in data centers of large corporations, where power consumption is expensive.
Keywords: Urban expansion, Casablanca, GIS, Remote sensing, maps, densification.

Perception of Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision of Undergraduate Nursing Students
355-363
Raed M. Shdeifat, Adlah Mohammad Hamlan and Mohammad H. Bani Khaled
Abstract:
Healthcare is changing rapidly and nursing faculty members are challenged to adapt accordingly, in order to be able to prepare nursing students for their future roles. The purpose of this study was to identify the perception of clinical learning environment and supervision of undergraduate nursing students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross-sectional research design was used and the sample was 171 second- and third-year nursing students at a military college in Jordan. Data were collected using a translated version of the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) evaluation scale. The findings indicate that approximately 40% of the students were generally satisfied with their clinical learning environment. The mean of participants’ perceptions of the clinical environment was 92.8 ± 18.4, with a range of scores between 34 and 170. Second-year students had statistically significantly higher mean scores on the perception of clinical learning environment scale (95.2 ± 17.9, compared to 87.9 ± 18.4; t test 2.6, p=0.01) and on the pedagogy subscale (25.7 ± 4.6 compared to 24.0 ± 5.2; t-test 2.2, p = 0.03. One-way ANOVA showed that there were statistically significant differences attributed to the area of clinical practice on the total clinical learning environment scale (F = 3.3, p = 0.02) as well as on the ward nursing care subscale (F = 3.0, p = 0.03) and the leadership style subscale (F = 5.4, p = 0.001). Students’ perceptions of the clinical learning environment and of supervision also had a statistically significant positive relationship with their satisfaction with clinical training (r = 0.54, p = 0.000). The findings of the present study provide baseline data on nursing students’ perceptions of the clinical learning environment and supervision.
Keywords: Nursing Students, Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision

Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in India: A Macro Level Study of the Commercial Banks
364-372
Dr. Manoj P K
Abstract:
It is widely recognised that the liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation (‘LPG’) policies initiated in India have given emphasis on market alone and has resulted in the exclusion of the vast majority of the population – the poor, marginalised and such other disadvantaged sections of the society including the rural poor, women etc. Rural population in general, particularly the women and various socially disadvantaged sections, and also those engaged in the traditional occupations, informal sector employments etc. get more and more marginalised and hence excluded from the development process. This in turn points to the utmost significance of inclusive development by bringing in or including such sections also into the mainstream. Inclusive growth as above is vitally significant in India in the ongoing regime. Financial inclusion is central to inclusive growth, because it seeks to include the disadvantaged sections in the formal financial system which has so far been inaccessible to them. Financial inclusion as a powerful tool could prove to be instrumental in attaining inclusive growth and distributive justice. In this context, this paper makes a critical analysis of the performance of commercial banks in India and makes suggestions for more effective functioning of the banking sector– the backbone of the economy – for bringing about balanced, equitable and hence sustainable economic development in the country.
Keywords: Inclusive growth, Financial Inclusion, Indicators of Financial Inclusion, IT.

Implementation Of Enhanced Turbo Coded Signal In Wireless Communication System
373-383
Ahmed Fahem Albaghdadi
Abstract:
The Maximum A-posteriori Probability (MAP) algorithms the optimal decoding algorithm for turbo codes but it is computationally complex and not practical for implementation. The more practical algorithm for turbo decoding is the Soft-Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA), which suffers from some performance loss. It is suggested that the reason behind this degradation is the overestimation of reliability values and the correlation between intrinsic and extrinsic information generated by the SOVA decoders. In this work, the performance of adaptive turbo decoding is tested using computer simulations and practical experiments. Based on the channel state and coding parameters, scaling factors are estimated to reduce the effects of optimistic nature of a-posteriori information generated by each constituent SOVA decoder. The correlation between extrinsic and intrinsic information can be also reduced by scaling the extrinsic information by another scaling factor. The complexity resulting from incorporating scaling factors is almost the same as that of the traditional method without these factors. The simulation results show a significant improvement about 0.2-0.9 dB over Additive White Gaussian Noise channel (AWGN) at BER = 10-4, while the improvement in practical experiments about 0.4-1.5 dB over wireless channel at BER = 10-3.
Keywords: Soft-input soft-output SOVA, UMTS interleaver, Turbo Cod-e.

L’effet Adverse De L’éthylène Glycol Monométhyl Ether (EGME) Sur La Reproduction Chez Les Lapines De Race Locale Algérienne : Etude Biochimique Et Hématologique
384-393
Bouchikhi Nour elhouda, Bendahmane Malika and Zahzeh Touria
Abstract:
Les éthers de glycol (EG) sont des solvants organiques ont de nombreuses applications industrielles, domestiques et cosmétiques, ils sont connus pour induire des perturbations de la fonction de reproduction.
Ce travail est consacré à évaluer l’effet toxique d’un solvant : l’Éthylène glycol monométhyl éther (EGME) sur les paramètres de la reproduction, les paramètres hématologiques et biochimiques chez les lapines de race locale Algérienne.
Trois lots d’animaux ont été traités à l’EGME par gavage quotidien de 1 mL de solutions (50 ppm, 100 ppm et 150 ppm) pendant toute la durée de la gestation (31 jours). Un suivi journalier des lapines gestantes (poids corporel, déroulement de la gestation) a été effectué.
Un dosage de certains paramètres biochimiques (ALAT, ASAT, créatinine et urée) et hématologiques : globules rouges (GB), hémoglobines (Hb), globules blancs (GB), plaquettes (PL) a été réalisé.
Le poids du foie a été mesuré après dissection des animaux morts des groupes 100 et 150 ppm après avortement et de ceux des groupes 50 ppm et témoin après la mise bas.
La comparaison entre les animaux témoins et traités montre la reprotoxicité de l’EGME (réduction du poids des lapines, avortement spontané, mortalité maternelle, prolongement de la gestation, hypotrophie fœtale), l’hépatotoxicité (augmentation du poids du foie), l’hématotoxicité (détérioration significative des paramètres hématologiques) et l’altération hautement significative des paramètres biochimiques.
Keywords: EGME, lapines, reprotoxicité, hépatotoxicité, hématotoxicité

Perceived Self-Efficacy and Decision Making Skills of Recovering Addicts and Non-Addicts in State of Kuwait
394-405
Mariam Ali Al Hassawi and Prof. Hussein Salem Al Sharah
Abstract:
The current study aimed at comparing between recovering addicts and non-addicts in perceived self-efficacy and decision-making skills. The study sample consisted of (120) persons, (60) recovering addicts and (60) non-addicts with age range (24-40) years old. In order to achieve the goals of the study, perceived self-efficacy and decision-making skills were developed and applied on the sample after assuring their validity and reliability. The results of the study showed statistically significant differences between recovering addicts and non-addicts in perceived self-efficacy and decision-making skills, that is, recovering addicts were less than non-addicts in total score and dimension of perceived self-efficacy and decision-making skills. Also, the results revealed positive and significant correlations between perceived self-efficacy and decision-making skills for recovering addicts and non-addicts.
Keywords: recovering addicts, perceived self-efficacy, decision-making.

A Comparative Study Between Single Mothers and Non-Single Mothers in Psychological Stress and Perceived Self-Efficacy
406-421
Maryam Nazal S. Alanazi and Prof. Hussein Salem Al Sharah
Abstract:
The current study aimed to compare between single mothers and non-single mothers in psychological stress and perceived Self-efficacy. The study sample consisted of (70) mothers, (34) of which were single, while (36) were non-single mothers. In order to achieve the objectives of the current study, psychological stress and perceived Self-efficacy scales were developed and applied on the study sample after verified their validity and reliability. The result of the study revealed that single mother was higher than non-single mothers in total score of psychological stress and its dimension, and there were no statistically significant differences between single mothers and non-single mothers in perceived self-efficacy. Also, the results showed a negative and significant relationship between psychological stress and perceived self-efficacy for single mothers. The results showed that increasing the number of single mothers' children led to increase the level of life events stress, also the employed single mothers were higher than unemployed single mother in psychological stress.
Keywords: single mothers, psychological stress, perceived Self-efficacy.

A Novel Approach for the Extraction and Recognition of Images using Multiclass SVM
422-434
P.Pandi Selvi, Dr.T.Meyyappan and P.Dandapani
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel method for character extraction and recognition from Vehicle number plate images was proposed. Initially pre-processing operation was performed to remove any noise in the image. The Characters found in the image are made clear through proper localization with the help of novel Morphology based Compound operations. The compound operation involves dilation, erosion and subtraction of the filtered image. Certain operations were repeated to attain an eminent binary morphological image. A novel multiclass Support Vector Machine having 36 classes proposed in this work recognizes the characters from the morphological image. The Confusion matrix used classifies both positive and negative cases. Matlab7 coding is used for implementation. The experiment was conducted with 75 different images and the recognition accuracy lies in the range that was better than various other existing methods.
Keywords: Morphology based compound operation, Multiclass SVM, Erosion, Dilation, Median filter.

Synthesis and Spectral Study of New B-lactam Derivatives from D-Mannitiol
435-459
Eman Abdul Wahab Alkuwaity and Dr. Ezzat Hussein Zimam
Abstract:
The present work includes synthesis of new B-LACTAM compounds of carbohydrates through reaction of D- Mannitiol t with (benzoyl chloride, benzaldehyde , and sodium methoxide). Then oxidation in atom carbon number (1 and 6) from compounds (1-4 )to produce di carboxylic acid. The resulting compound react with imines compounds to give two B-lactam rings during the synthesis of carbohydrate back boon in atom number(1 and 6) from compounds (5-36). The structure of these compounds were characterized by (H1.NMR ,C13NMR , FT.IR) –Techniques , their melting points and other physical studies.
Keywords: B-lactam rings ,D-Mannitol ,imines compounds ,Schiff basis, bi cycle.