European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 135 No 3
November, 2015

Caractérisation Pétrographique et Géochimique des Métabasites Archéennes d’Amsaga Est
(Dorsale de Rgueïbat, Mauritanie)

228-242
Ahmed HAMOUD, Hassan EL HADI, Said CHAKIRI and Abdelfatah TAHIRI
Abstract:
Le complexe d’Amsaga constitue la partie sud-ouest de la dorsale de Rgueïbat (Mauritanie). Cette partie de la dorsale est caractérisée par des roches métamorphiques archéennes (essentiellement des gneiss migmatitisés) de faciès des granulites intrudées par des corps granitiques majeurs et par des métabasites. Les nouvelles études pétrographiques des métabasites d’Amsaga montrent qu'elles sont composées en général de hornblende et de quantités variables de plagioclases, parfois avec des quantités mineures de clinopyroxène, de quartz et des minéraux opaques. Les minéraux accessoires sont la biotite, chlorite, l’épidote et parfois les oxydes ferro-titanés. Les données géochimiques ont démontré que les métabasites d’Amsaga Est sont co-magmatiques, formées à partir d’un magma de composition comparable aux roches calco-alcalines générées dans les contextes orogéniques. Les résultats géochimiques écartent la dérivation du magma primaire à partir d’une source asthénosphérique de type OIB ou MORB. Les valeurs du rapport Zr/Nb sont élevées (19), indiquent l’origine probable des roches étudiées à partir d’une source du manteau lithosphérique enrichi en LILE.
Keywords: Mauritanie, Amsaga, Métabasites archéennes, Pétrographie, Géochimie

Mining Method to Identify Clinical Attributes Frequently Causing Heart Attack to Patients through Frequent Itemset
243-257
M. Ilayaraja and T. Meyyappan
Abstract:
Medical data are voluminous and contain valuable information. Data mining techniques applied over this huge amount of patients’ data will help doctors to make better decisions in diagnosing and treatment. In this paper, the authors have proposed a novel method to identify patients who are likely to be affected by important clinical attributes causing heart attack through frequent itemset generation. In order to achieve efficiency in the proposed method, column elimination operations are applied to discard insignificant attributes below the support value. Patients’ data (rows) were not affected by the attributes which occurs in majority of the affected patients are eliminated from further analysis. The proposed method can be applied to any medical dataset to identify the severity of disease affecting majority of the patients. Experimental result reveals that the proposed method proves to be an efficient mining method to identify best frequent itemset for any disease.
Keywords: Data Mining, Frequent Itemsets, Heart Attack Prediction, Association Rule Mining, Disease Diagnosis.

Monitoring the Spatio-Temporal Urban Expansion of Casablanca City (Morocco) on more than a Century using Gis and Remote Sensing
258-267
Ikram Loukili, AbdessamadGhafiri, Saida El Moutaki and Mustapha El Hakdaoui
Abstract:
This study explores the spatio-temporal characteristics of urban expansion and densification of Casablanca city, Morocco, on more than a century (from 1900 to 2011) by using GIS and Remote Sensing. Multi-temporal city maps and one scene of multi spectral satellite image were collected and used. The urban area borders in the different periods were determined in order to calculate the extension rate and to evaluate the spatial distribution of urban expansion intensity.
The results obtained show that the urban area of Casablanca city expanded from 0.4 km² in 1900 to 168.47 km² in 2011. During this period, the expansion rate of Casablanca passed by three stages. Low-speed stage during the pre-protectorate period (1900-1912) with an annual speed of around 0.06 km²/year. A second stage, during the protectorate with an annual speed of around 0.9 km²/year and a high-speed stage, after the independence when the annual speed is around 2.3 km²/year.
The spatial patterns of urban growth show high-speed growth districts in the south of the city between 1900 and 1942 in connection with the construction of the "new town" around the old-medina in a radio-centrique form. From 1942 until 1986, the large area of high speed expansion cells is at the east and north-east parts of the city, giving it a linear shape along the coastline, and was essentially for industrial and commercial use. The extension to the south is linked to the appearance of several slums. In the last period from 1986 to 2011, the cells with high-speed expansion are mainly distributed around the old city territory of 1986. The major expansion of the city to the south and southeast is mainly due to the slum clearance policy that emphasizes on building a set of cities resettlement.
Keywords: Urban expansion, Casablanca, GIS, Remote sensing, maps, densification.

When Can VAM with Balanced Feature Provide an Improved Solution to an Unbalanced Transportation Problem?
268-275
Z. A. M. S. Juman and A.K.S.S. Perera
Abstract:
Transportation problem appears to be one of the most important areas of Operations Research. Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) proposed by Reinfeld and Vogel (1958) is considered to be a better efficient heuristic, since it often gives a minimal or near minimal total cost solution to this problem. Recently, the effect of dealing with the balanced and the unbalanced features in applying this VAM for solving an unbalanced transportation problem (UTP) had been examined. It had been found that in certain unbalanced transportation problems, if these unbalanced transportation problems are balanced (by adding a dummy column) to make it ready for solutions by VAM then an improved initial cost solution could be attained to each of them. In contrast, improved initial cost solutions to another certain unbalanced transportation problems could be found by direct application of VAM. Therefore, when they solve an unbalanced transportation problem using VAM procedure, it is vital to solve the same UTP in both ways with and without balancing (by adding a dummy column). Then the smallest one is taken as the initial cost to the considered unbalanced transportation problem. In this paper, we present certain conditions to an unbalanced transportation problem where an improved solution to this unbalanced transportation problem could be found by an application of VAM considering balanced feature (VAM with balanced feature). Thus, based on the condition, it is quite enough to apply only one method (either VAM with balanced feature or VAM with unbalanced feature) for obtaining an improved solution to an UTP. Hence, it is quite useful in the application of VAM to an UTP.
Keywords: Heuristic, Vogel’s approximation method, unbalanced transportation problem.

Evaluation of soil capability by using thematic maps
276-282
R.R. Ali, M.A. El Semary, E.F. Essa and M.A. Wahab
Abstract:
The main objective of soil capability assessment for agriculture is to expect upcoming conditions after development has taken place. It is necessary to forecast the benefits to farmers and the national economy and whether these will be sustained. This study aims to use multi-thematic maps to evaluate the land capability of newly reclaimed areas west of the Nile Delta. Located to the south of El Bustan Extension Area, the National Research Centre (NRC) farm was selected as study area. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area was extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) images. Semi detailed land surveying were performed for morphological description and collecting soil samples using the FAO guidelines. Laboratory analyses were performed including salinity, CaCO3 content, CEC, gypsum%, ESP and NPK. The data of soil analyses were processed to produce multi-thematic maps of soil properties by using Arc-GIS 9.2 software. The obtained maps were used to calculate the capability index of the farm. Results indicate poor productivity of the NRC farm due to coarse soil texture, Low CEC, low content of N, P, K and high ESP values.
Keywords: Soil capability, GIS, DEM, west Nile Delta, Egypt

Counter Fighter: Multiplayer Mobile Game using Photon Unity Cloud
283-290
Mirza Waleed Iftikhar Baig, Muhammad Gulfam, Amna Wajid and Shahid Islam
Abstract:
Cloud computing is nowadays one of the top emerging technologies in computer science field all over the world due to its enormous advantageous features. These days internet has become easily accessible to everyone. This is one of the major reasons that everything is going on cloud. Here in this paper we are presenting an idea of cloud gaming, development and hosting. It includes photon unity cloud that is a cloud based server. It is working in collaboration with Unity 3D. Unity 3D provides us platform for developing games for different platforms while Photon Unity Cloud provide us hosting facilities for our games. In this project we have developed a multiplayer 3D game for android mobiles. This is a mission based game in which 2 players will work combine and fight against AI enemy. The team will win if both of them or at least one is alive and all the enemies are killed.
Keywords: Counter Fighter, Cloud Computing, Unity 3D, Photon Unity Cloud.

Design of a Novel High Speed and Low Power MCM based FIR Filter by using Hybrid Adder structure, Retiming and Pipelined Techniques
291-298
P.Radhika and T.Vigneswaran
Abstract:
Multiple Constant Multiplication (MCM) technique is a one of the hardware efficient technique which is applied to shrink the number of additions and shifts. It is only appropriate to set of constant multiplicands (coefficient) that multiply a common variable (input). Hence it is incorporated to the FIR filter since the set of coefficients of the FIR filter that multiplied by the given FIR filter input. The main aim of this research work is to reduce the area, power and increase the speed by introducing hybrid adder structure, retiming technique and pipelined technique. In this paper, Hybrid adders are designed by mixing the reduced RCA (Ripple Carry Adder), reduced CBA (Carry By pass Adder) and reduced CSLA (Carry Select Adder) structures to achieve the low area. Retiming is nothing but changing the location of delay elements in order to achieve the low power. Pipelined technique is used to increase the speed of circuits by reducing the circuits delay. Also greedy scheduling algorithm is incorporated into MCM based FIR filter to reduce the total delay of the circuits. Simulation is executed by using Modelsim6.3c & Synthesis is carried out by using Xilinx10.1. Verilog Hardware Description Language is used to design a FIR filter circuit.
Keywords: Hybrid adder, Retiming technique, Low Power, Pipelined technique, MCM based FIR Filter and Greedy Scheduling algorithm.

Determinants and Relative Risks of Low Back Pain among the Employees in Al-Kharj Area, Saudi Arabia
299-308
Ragab K. Elnaggar, Fathy A. Elshazly, Waleed S. Mahmoud, Ahmed S. Ahmed
Abstract:
Objective: To study the prevalence of low back pain and the likelihood of association of low back pain development with specific working conditions and work related emotional factors.
Methods: Participants were 256 employers, their mean age was 40.8 ±7.72 (68% males, 32% females). A self-reported Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used to collect participant’s demographic and occupational data, history and characteristics of low back pain before and after their current work. Pearson’s Chi square correlation and binary logistic regression analysis were used.
Results: The prevalence of low back pain was 53.5% among the respondents. Statistically significant correlation of low back pain and ages, number of working hours/day, work duration and work related emotional exhaustion (p-value <0.05) was recorded. Ages (OR 1.336, 95% CI 1.284-1.690), number of working hours/day (OR 2.474, 95% CI 1.605-3.814), and work duration (OR 1.592, 95%CI 1.413-1.794) are risk factors of low back pain.
Conclusion: A high work related prevalence rates of LBP was recorded among the employers at Al-Kharj region and affect their daily activities. It necessitates the development of education of coping strategies and prophylactic measures for them.


Estimating the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Carbonate Rocks Using Gene Expression Programming
309-316
Saeid R. Dindarloo and Elnaz Siami-Irdemoosa
Abstract:
Conventionally, many researchers have used both regression and black box techniques to estimate the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of different rocks. The advantage of the regression approach is that it can be used to render a functional relationship between the predictive rock indices and its UCS. The advantage of the black box techniques is in rendering more accurate predictions. Gene expression programming (GEP) is proposed, in this study, as a robust mathematical alternative for predicting the UCS of Iran’s carbonate rocks. The two parameters of total porosity and P-wave speed were selected as predictive indices. The proposed GEP model had the advantage of the both traditionally used approaches by proposing a mathematical model, similar to a regression, while keeping the prediction errors as low as the black box methods. The GEP outperformed both artificial neural networks and support vector machines in terms of yielding more accurate estimates of UCS. Both the porosity and the P-wave velocity were sufficient predictive indices for estimating the UCS of the carbonate rocks in this study. Nearly, 95% of the observed variation in the UCS values was explained by these two parameters (i.e., R2 =95%).
Keywords: Genetic programming; ANNs; support vector machines; UCS of carbonate rocks

Nano-Emulsions of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Suppresses Inflammatory Response in Macrophage but not in Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Condition
317-325
Masao Yamasaki, Hisatoshi Kanazaki, Ryoya Fujioka, Kazuaki Kishita, Kazuo Nishiyama, Kenji Yamamoto, Shingo Hamayama and Masataka Shimizu
Abstract:
We have prepared the nano-emulsions of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-NE) by membrane emulsification method for the application to the anti-inflammatory material. Here, 90 nm and 200 nm diameter NE with negative zeta potential (-23.7 to -26.1 mV) were prepared. Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. 90 nm CLA-NE potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) whereas 200 nm CLA-NE did not. Accumulation of CLA was more efficient in 90 nm CLA-NE treated cells compared with 200 nm CLA-NE. To evaluate the substantial anti-inflammatory effect in vivo, 90 nm CLA-NE was administered to the mice suffering from experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induced by dextran sodium sulfate. 90 nm CLA-NE slightly ameliorated the severity but had limited effectiveness against the condition of IBD. In addition, apparent accumulation of CLA was not detected in the bowel after 90 nm CLA-NE administration. Taken together, although 90 nm CLA-NE is a promising material for the amelioration of inflammatory disease, targeting to the inflammatory focus is remaining subject.
Keywords: nano-emulsion, inflammation, conjugated linoleic acid, inflammatory bowel disease