European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 135 No 2
October, 2015

Assessment of Level of Pain and its Relation with Breathing Exercise in the First Stage of Labour Among Primi Mothers at Hilla Teaching Hospital.
121-128
Fawziya Mohammed Nattah and Wafa Abdul Karim Abbas
Abstract:
Background: Breathing exercises is one of the most common methods used for natural pain relief during childbirth. In the first stage of labour, such breathing techniques can promote physical relaxation by reducing muscle tension and promotes emotional relaxation by reducing pain and well oxygenated muscles function more effectively and efficiently.
Objective: To Assess the Level of pain with Breathing Exercise in the first stage of labour among primi mothers at Hilla Teaching Hospital.
Materials and Methods :The present study is a quasi-experimental design which held at the labour and delivery room, at Babylon Teaching Hospitals and the hospital was selected randomly at Babylon Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Pediatric. Sample were collected on 2ed December /2014 to the 1st of March /2015.Visual Analogue Scale and Three types of Breathing Exercises were used.
Result: Level of pain was significantly lower in the Slow Deep Breathing type (2.82±0.60) than other two types. During the assessment of level of pain, the mothers in study group have significantly a lower mean score (2.82) than those in control group (3.20) (P=0.035). In addition, the results of assessment the pain score by visual analogue scale every 30 minute, revealed that the mothers in study group have significantly a lower mean score (6.72) than those in control group (9.36) (P=0.001).
Conclusion: The level of pain in both group was increased during the process of labour ,but more less in study group than control group in which the pain reach approximately maximum level of pain score.
Keywords: Labour, Pain ,Breathing exercises, primi mother

Design and Implementation of Reduced Quiescent Current LDO Regulator with Enhanced PSR
129-136
Siddharth Bhat, Shubham Choudhary and J. Selvakumar
Abstract:
A low voltage, ultra-low quiescent current voltage regulator with Low Dropout (LDO) is being presented in this paper which gives an output voltage of 1.97 V when the input voltage is 2.3 V. An operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is being used as an Error Amplifier (EA) to enhance the gain and provide good stability. A low quiescent current of approximately 0.140µA, makes it applicable for low power design. The Error Amplifier has been used in two stages in the proposed LDO regulator having a good settling time of 184 µsec and is based on the 90nm technology using Cadence tool. The power supply rejection is of roughly 84 dB over (0–100) KHz and a compact design has been proposed for the chip area of the LDO regulator.
Keywords: Error Amplifier, High PSR, Settling time, Ultra-Low Quiescent Current.

Implications of Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of PKC-α: Balance Between Life and Death!
137-142
Nail Hasan
Abstract:
This study describes and compares published research results that show protein kinase C (PKC) band shift on gel electrophoresis experiments after different treatments in order to reach a unified and comprehensive explanation of this phenomenon. PKC isozymes play a major role in cell signaling, are effectors of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the main targets of phorbol-ester tumor promoters. PKC plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, cellular survival, malignant transformation and death / apoptosis. Different experimental results were compiled and compared to our own experiments. It was shown that treatment of cultured cells with hypoxia/ reoxygenation and / or serum starvation has lead to the induction and increased phosphorylation of PKC-α and the conversion of the main PKC (80 kDa) into two bands, one is slightly higher (81-82 kDa) and one is slightly lower (78-79 kDa) than the original band and that the two new bands coexisted in the nuclear fraction. There was no evidence of the appearance of an expected proteolytic (a 47-49-kDa catalytic) and/or a 36-kDa regulatory fragments. It was also shown that these events were reversed upon the removal of the stress agent but there was no explanation or justification for the appearance of the PKC-alpha lower band at the same time as the upper phosphorylated band. In this study more light will be shed on this issue by comparing it with similar investigations and suggesting a reasonable explanation which may initiate future research aiming to resolve this very important issue.
Keywords: PKC-α, phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, proteolysis

Design Of a Recognizer For Hausa Names
143-152
Harouna Naroua and Bachir Moussa Idi
Abstract:
In this article, a recognizer of Hausa names has been designed. This study is a contribution to the automatic processing of the Hausa language which is the second most spoken language in Africa and do not yet have processing tools. The main objective of this work is to make use of the language processing capabilities of finite state automata to facilitate the development and integration of the Hausa language in the domain of Information technology and Communication (ICT). After a synthetic description of the Hausa language and a brief review of its processing level, a finite state automaton has been designed in order to recognize Hausa names. To make this process possible, all roots of Hausa words have been collected and etiquetted. The roots are classified according to their number of syllables and the rules of name formation. Though the Hausa language is of a tonal system obedience which must play a very important role in phonology, the roots are entirely based on the spelling of the word. The recognizer is essentially based on a dictionary and characteristics of the Hausa language. The rules of formation of Hausa names as described in the literature have been used in the design of the automaton.
Keywords: Finite Automata, Recognizer, Natural Language Processing, Computerization, Hausa Language

Fuzzy Optimal Solution to Intuitionistic Fuzzy Transportation Problem: A New Approach
153-167
K. Prabakaran and K. Ganesan
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new approach for solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy transportation Problems (IFTP) involving triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFN). We solve the Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Transportation Problem by applying the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Vogel’s Approximation Method (FVAM), Fuzzy Modified Distribution Method (FMODI) and a new ranking method without converting the intuitionistic fuzzy transportation problem into equivalent crisp transportation problem. Numerical examples are provided to show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: Intuitionistic Fuzzy set, Intuitionistic Fuzzy number, Triangular Intuitionistic fuzzy number, Intuitionistic Fuzzy transportation problem

Luang Prabang Buddhist Master: The Art Style, Aesthetic and Beliefs
168-181
Mr. Khamvieng Viravongsa, Dr. Sunet Phothisan and Assist. Prof. Dr. Panya Naphaengmuean
Abstract:
The objectives in this study were to study the history of Buddha images in Luang Prabang, to study the current status of Luang Prabang Buddha images, and to study the forms, aesthetics and beliefs of people in Luang Prabang towards the Buddha images. The study areas were 33 Buddha images in temples in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR. The study’s methodology included data collection from field study trips, field surveys, in-depth interviews and sub-focused group discussions. The results revealed in 3 aspects as following.
History of Luang Prabang Buddha Images: Buddha images in Luang Prabang were created originally since before Lan Xang Kingdom period, in transitioning to Davaravadi Kingdom period ( around 12th Buddhist Century) due to the evidence found of stone Buddha images in Wichunaraj Temple. Later in during Khmer-Xai Phong period (around 12th-16th Buddhist Century), evidences of Buddha images were found in That Luang Temple and Mai Temple. However, until when King Fah Ngum had gathered the land into LanXang Kingdom, he invited Prabang Buddha image to locate in the city of Luang Prabang. In the first period, the creation of Luang Prabang Buddha images were influenced by Lanna and Sukhothai art styles, and subsequently developed into their own unique identity. It was considered as the great time of Buddha images during the reign of King Suriyavongthammikarat.
Current Situation of Luang Prabang Buddha Images: The study area was 33 Buddha images in Luang Prabang. These images were located in Wichunraj Temple, That Luang Temple, Manorom Temple, Maisuwannapoomaram Temple, Nong Srikoon Temple, Xiang Thong Temple, Xiang Man Temple, Paak Ou Temple, Khokwa Temple, and Museum of Luang Prabang. Each of them was recorded for sizes and materials used to make.
Forms: The forms of each Buddha image were made following the Buddhist characteristics of Maha Puri. However, the maKing of these Buddha images in each period of time was different. Aesthetics: The aesthetics were different in different period. The differences were in terms of forms, some details, attitudes, materials used and techniques of maKing. Beliefs: the beliefs among Luang Prabang people towards the Buddha images were transmitted through the beliefs in Buddha image attitudes. The Attitude of Subduing Mara (Pang Marawichai) was the most popular attitude. People in Luang Prabang believed in the results of maKing Buddha images in this one life would mean in the future life, for both who made and respected.

Traditional Consumption Stateous of Wild Food Plants and Mushrooms Species in Abidjan and Agboville (Côte d’Ivoire)
182-195
Aké Claude Bernard, N'guessan Koffi and Kouamé N’Dri Marie-Thérèse
Abstract:
This study was carried out to analyze the traditional consumption’s stateous of wild plants and mushrooms species between populations of Abidjan and Agboville (Côte d’Ivoire). On the basis of semi-structured survey nearby 200 households, 47 wild plants and 6 mushrooms species were identified. A hierarchical ascending classification led to the determination of homogeneous groups among which 4 plants species are most consummated. The frequency of citation for consumption (Fc) values were: Aframomum exscapum (68%, 57%), Myrianthus arboreus (67%, 92%), Piper guineense (64%, 74%), and Ricinodendron heudelotii (85%, 93%), respectively in Abidjan and Agboville. Four mushrooms species were also well consummated, with Fc values as follow: Psathyrella tuberculata (45%, 71.7%), Termitomyces letestui (27%, 67%), Termitomyces schimperi (3%, 78%) and Volvariella volvacea (63%, 71%), respectively in Abidjan and Agboville. Significantly differences (P < 0.01) in the consumption of plants and mushrooms’ organs have been observed, through a Chi-square test, especially for the 10 well consummated species: Capsicum frutescens, Corchorus olitorius, Dacryodes klaineana, Irvingia gaboneensis, Myrianthus arboreus, Spondias mombin, Talinum triangulare, Psathyrella tuberculata, Termitomyces letestui and Termitomyces schimperi. Such differences would suggest that alimentary customs are different from one area to another one.
Keywords: Consumption, Wild plants, Wild mushrooms, Abidjan, Agboville

Differential Search Algorithm for Optimal Placement of Capacitor in Radial Distribution System
196-210
A.Gopi and V.Ganapathy
Abstract:
An objective function which aids in curtailing the cost incurred in lieu of active power loss and the cost incurred for installing capacitor banks has been proposed as a combinatorial optimization problem subjected to voltage constraints. This paper adopts a population based algorithm called Differential Search algorithm (DS) to solve the objective function which consists of a set of solution members distributed randomly to the answer space in search of global minimum value in the solution space by performing the migration front. The correctness and reliability of the adopted method were validated and confirmed on two dissimilar radial distribution networks. IEEE 33 and IEEE 69 bus test system were used to assess the precision of the anticipated algorithm. Computational results attained showed that the usage of Differential Search algorithm (DS) is proficient in generating optimal solutions.
Keywords: Differential Search algorithm (DS), Capacitor Placement (CP), Radial Distribution System (RDS), Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF), Sensitivity Analysis, Real power Loss, Cost, Savings.

Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Constipation in Employees in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia
211-218
Ahmed Fathy Samhan, Nermeen Mohamed Abdelhalim, and Ahmed S.Ahmed
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Chronic constipation is a prevalent disorder that significantly reduces the quality of life particularly in sedentary subjects. The role of exercise in the management of chronic constipation is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise program on chronic constipation in employees in Al-kharj City, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Forty Saudi male and female employees in Alkharj city diagnosed with chronic constipation (20 to 50 years) were randomly assigned into group A (n=20) and group B (n=20). Group A subjects performed a 12-week aerobic exercise program on a treadmill for a duration of 1 hour at 65-80% of their heart rate reserve (HRR). Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Wexner and quality of life scores were assessed before and at the end of the program for both groups.
Results: At the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with the group B subjects regarding Wexner Constipation Score, and quality of life score (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure between both groups at the end of the exercise program (P > 0.05).
Conclusion: Regular aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on constipation symptoms and quality of life in subjects with chronic constipation and it is advisable to include aerobic programs in the management of chronic constipation in subjects with sedentary life style.
Keywords: Chronic constipation; Aerobic exercise; Quality of life

Initial Data on Poaching of Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792) Near-Threatened Species in Côte D’ivoire, West Africa
219-227
Magloire Jean Coffi Niamien, Blaise Kadjo, Noël Dougba Dago, Inza Koné and Eliézer Kouakou N’Goran
Abstract:
For this paper, we studied poaching of straw-coloured fruit bats Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792), a near-threatened species, in the area of Plateau in Abidjan (south of Côte d’Ivoire), from August 2005 to July 2006. The present study based on both direct observations and questionnaire survey aim to highlight the dynamics of Eidolon helvum poaching activities and evaluating their socio-economic impact. Moreover, the present study proposed practical solutions to overcome the extermination of the latter’s. The present finding s revealed that 306 poachers from four detected social categories resulted active in 10 zones of the analysed site. We also evidenced that the intensity of the poaching activities depend on both sector site and season parameters. Poachers killed as many as 306,000 straw-coloured fruit bats generating a consistent revenue (around 183,600 USD). However, as our findings, it is imperative to find adequate solutions to overcome the current pressure of Eidolon helvum poaching activities, otherwise this species will surely face extinction with dramatic consequences for human as well as for ecology and ecosystem.
Keywords: Côte d’Ivoire, Eidolon helvum, poaching, impact, socio-economy