European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 134 No 4
September, 2015

Protein Analysis of Corneal Epithelium Using Different Extraction Agents
347-354
Sheelan Talabani
Abstract:
Purpose: The cornea is a transparent tissue that provides the initial focusing of a light image into the eye. Its epithelium is the foremost part that forms an effective barrier against fluid loss and pathogen penetration. Research targeting corneal protein content and their roles in damage causes are fundamental to molecular-based understanding of corneal function. The aim of this study was to experiment the change in bovine and ovine corneal epithelia protein electrophoresis profile, with the effect of different extraction methods aimed at different sets of proteins, and to examine the difference between transparent and non-transparent corneas.
Method: The use of different extraction solutions aimed at different sets of proteins, and results detected via SDS-PAGE analysis.
Results: Differences and similarities in protein profile of bovine and ovine corneal epithelium were demonstrated, as well as when different extracting agents were used. Using a physiological buffer for extraction resulted in protein bands mostly below 75 kDa, with major protein bands of 55-65 kDa, likely to be of cytokeratins involved in corneal recovery after wound which is an essential process to prevent blindness; or an aldehyde dehydrogenase (54-55 kDa), an enzyme that protects the cornea from oxidative stress. Using a detergent for extraction resulted in few protein bands of which three were present only in the ovine corneal samples, with a major band of about 64-66 kDa, likely to be of cytokeratin 3, or transketolase enzyme. These differences in protein profiles could indicate important biomarkers based on species, solubility and transparency.
Conclusion: Different corneal epithelial protein electrophoretic profiles were exhibited based on different species, extraction agents, and transparent and non-transparent corneas, indicating important biomarkers that could be used for further research.
Keywords: Corneal structure, corneal proteins, SDS-PAGE analysis

Traffic Stationed Routing Algorithm for Traffic Engineering to Ensure Quality of Service in Inertnetworking Operatons
355-361
G.Rakesh and Dr.K.Thangadurai
Abstract:
The internet backbone surpassed with heavy traffic issues in recent scenario mainly due to unpredictable usage of resource due to technology advancement in recent years leads a challenging factor for internetworking environment to provide optimized quality of service for operational efficiencies, so here in this paper by considering the traffic factors we proposed a new traffic stationed routing algorithmic [TSRA] approach for ensuring quality essentials in Traffic Engineering. There are many methods and approaches in Traffic engineering to ensure operational service for quality in network computing but most of them are used for spotting the congestion occurrence rather than traffic distribution. TSRA proposed here logically eradicate the deficiencies by providing routing logically based on traffic in the network that promotes traffic distribution dually with congestion hot spot mechanism. Hence TSRA here represent effective quality of service in Traffic engineering mechanism resulted in effective data communication rate in internet backbone operational to meet the real world challenges.
Keywords: Traffic engineering, open shortest path routing algorithm, network graphs

SDS-PAGE Profiling of Proteins from Corneal Stroma
362-369
Sheelan Talabani
Abstract:
Purpose: The cornea is responsible, along with the lens, for light focusing into the retina: an essential stage of vision signal transduction. For this purpose it is required to be and remain transparent. The molecular machinery that structures and maintains corneal transparency is complex and involves numerous proteins and proteoglycans that interact to structure a uniform diameter of collagen fibrills with regular interfibrillar spacing, in the corneal stroma. Analyzing corneal proteins has been an essential target of several studies for a better understanding of corneal functions and diseases on a molecular basis. In this study different protein extraction solutions were used for bovine and ovine corneal stromal tissues, to determine differences in their protein electrophoresis profile and to aid in the identification of biomarkers, via SDS-PAGE analysis.
Method: The use of different extraction solutions aimed at different sets of proteins, and detection of results via SDS-PAGE analysis.
Results: Different protein band profiles were revealed on the gels following the use of different extraction solutions, indicating major differences in their solubility, interaction and other characteristics. Bands of 64-67 kDa, 60-62 kDa, and 44-45 kDa were the major protein bands revealed by electrophoresis. Although protein electrophoresis is not sufficient to determine their identities, reasonable comparisons with other similar sized protein bands from other studies is drawn.
Conclusion: Different protein electrophoretic profiles were exhibited based on different extracting reagents, species, and transparency, indicating important biomarkers.
Keywords: Corneal structure, corneal proteins, SDS-PAGE analysis.

Performance of Audio Steganography Method Using Bi-LSB Embedding
370-377
Mahmood Maher Salih and Mudhafar Al-Jarrah
Abstract:
The main issue for the majority of internet users is the information security. To ensure having secured use of internet, several steganography methods have been proposed. Those methods are mainly utilized to solve the security problems using two main processes; embedding and extracting. However, the current steganography methods, cannot verify the presence of attacks in secret messages. Therefore, this work introduces the development of an advanced Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique; Bi-LSB to solve the low security and capacity problems of the traditionally used LSB techniques. The performance of the developed Bi-LSB technique is compared with that of three traditional LSB techniques; 1-LSB, 2-LSB and 4-LSB based on using them in embedding the same secret messages in the same cover ones and then computing the Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) values. Results demonstrated that the implemented system outperformed the three methods 4-LSB, 2-LSB and 1-LSB.
Keywords: Steganography; Least Significant Bit (LSB); Bi Least Significant Bit (Bi-LSB); embedding; extracting.

The Effect of Heat Treatment on The Structural Properties of The (Alnico-5) Alloy Prepared by powder Metallurgy Method
378-389
I.K. Jassim, Kh.H. Erzaich, Muataz A. Majeed and O.F. Abdullah
Abstract:
The aim of this work is studying the (Alnico 5) alloy by using powder metallurgy method. Containing after testing by device of atomic absorption (5% Al, 13% Ni, 17% Co, 2% Cu, 63% Fe) Structural properties have been studied at different heat treatment temperatures (X-Ray and Atomic Force Microscope examinations).
The X-ray diffractions result show that crystal structure for samples is Face Center Cubic (F.C.C) . Also the results show that the suitable heat treatment can give best homogeneity surface structure with order phases at (900° C) for one hour so the structural properties have been changed to the best contribution phases with excellent properties .
The surface topographic of the samples was studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) which shows that the (Alnico 5) increase in smoothness and homogeneity surface with the increasing of sintering temperatures .
Also noticed decrease in grain size with increase of sintering time (87.08 nm at R. T. → 64.07 nm at 900° C) .
Keywords: Heat treatment , Structural properties , (Alnico 5) alloy , Powder metallurgy

Analysis of Formal Micro-Credit on Investment Potentials of Rural Farmers in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
390-398
Nwibo, S. U. and Mbam, B. N.
Abstract:
In spite of the strategic importance of farm credit to enhance productivity and promote standard of living of the rural farmers, the role of formal micro credit on the investment potentials of rural farmers in Afikpo North Local Government Area (L.G.A.) seems not to be empirically documented. To address the problem, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of rural farmers who accessed formal micro-credit; analysed the various source of micro-credit available to rural farmers; determined the effect of micro-credit delivery on the investment potentials of the rural farmers; and analysed the constraints to micro-credit utilization by the rural farmers in the study area. Data for the study were collected using questionnaires that were administered to the purposively selected farmers that benefited from formal micro-credit delivery. Objectives of the study were achieved using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Specifically, inferential statistics involving ordinary least square regression analysis and principal component factor analysis were used to realise objectives (iv) and (v). The results showed that the major source of formal micro-credit to rural farmers is the micro-finance bank and that the formal microcredit obtained has positive effect on the investment potentials of the farmers at 5% level of significance in farm buildings, farm machineries, fertilizer procurement, and improved seeds/livestock. The major constraints to formal micro-credit delivery to rural farmers in enhancing investment potentials are the institutional and productive factors. Based on the findings, the study recommended for farmers enlightenment campaign on the need for loan repayment by farmer borrowers so as to enhance their credit worthiness.
Keywords: Rural farmers, micro-credit, bank, investment, farm.

Channel Reservation with Class and Measurement Based Prioritized Queuing Scheme to handle Handoff Failure in Mobile Cellular Networks
399-414
Alagu S and Meyyappan T
Abstract:
In this paper, the authors propose a novel channel allocation and queuing strategy to reduce the handoff failure rate and thereby to increase the Quality of Service in Mobile cellular Networks. The proposed scheme reserves the required bandwidth for an ongoing call, in the neighboring cells for expected handoff calls. It does the reservation bandwidth based on mobility prediction method. It also queues the handoff requests based on the priority of handoff call and measurement of signal level towards the current base station. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is that the reservation of required bandwidth in the neighboring cells reduces the handoff failure rate. Besides, the proposed method allocates channel dynamically by observing the traffic in the network. In addition, the proposed scheme dynamically sort the handoff queue based on the type of call, time of issue of handoff request and signal measurement of the call towards the receiver’s threshold. Through this call admission and queuing mechanism, efficient channel utilization strategy is incorporated in the proposed scheme in order to utilize the scarce available spectrum in the mobile cellular network. The proposed method is implemented using NS2 Simulator. Simulation results and comparisons are given to illustrate the tradeoff.
Keywords: Handoff, Handover, Channel, Bandwidth, Cellular Network.

Diversités floristique et structurale des espaces anciennement cultivés du Parc National d’Azagny (Sud de la Côte d’Ivoire)
415-427
Koffi Kouadio Arsène Dieudonné, Adou Yao Constant Yves, Vroh Bi Tra Aimé, Gnagbo Anthelme and N’Guessan Kouakou Edouard
Abstract:
Azagny National Park (ANP) is original by the variety and richness of its different types of vegetation. Among them, there are ancient cocoa and coffee farms abandoned since 1986 and 2000, which become secondary forests. This study that took place in the ANP aimed to characterize the floristic and structural diversity of these secondary forests according to the age and the type of crop preceding the abandonment. It has consisted in delimiting plots of 500 m² in which all woody individuals with dbh ≥ 5 cm have been counted and measured. The juvenile species with dbh < 5 cm have been identified and counted. A total of 3006 individuals belonging to 186 plant species, 148 genera and 67 families have recorded. The study showed that the older secondary forests were more diversified than younger ones. Secondary forests derived from cocoa farms abandoned in 1986 were more diverse than those resulted from coffee plantations with the same age, while we observed the inverse situation in the less aged secondary forests. The dominance of tree species confirmed the forestry characteristic of those spaces. The high proportions of juvenile species with dbh < 5 cm is the sign of a good regeneration and a stability of these forests.
Keywords: secondary forests, plant species diversity, tropical rainforest, Azagny National Park, Côte d’Ivoire.

Beneficial Effect of Selenium on Lead Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice
428-437
Boussekine S., Rouabhi R. and Tebani M.
Abstract:
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of selenium against lead-induced oxidative damage in experimental mice. Males were randomly divided into four groups where the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups were respectively treated with sodium selenite (3 mg/kg b.w.), lead acetate (5 mg/kg b.w.) and a combination of lead acetate and sodium selenite. Changes in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined after 3 weeks experimental period. Exposure of mice to Pb caused a significant increase in liver TBARS compared to control, but the co- administration of Se was effective in reducing its level. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) of Pb-treated group were found lower compared to the control and the Se-treated group. The co-administration of Se had an additive protective effect on liver enzyme activities compared to Pb-treated animals. On the other hand, a significant increase in plasmatic activities of AST, ALT and ALP was observed in Pb-treated group. The co-administration of Se has decreased the activities of AST, ALT and ALP and improved the antioxidant status as well. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of Se. To conclude, results suggest that Pb exposure enhanced an oxidative stress by disturbing the tissue antioxidant defense system, but the Se co-administration protected liver tissues against Pb intoxication probably owing to its antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Lead, Antioxidant enzymes, Liver, Oxidative stress, Mice, Selenium.

Soils Derived From Shale Deposits In Egypt. II. Soil Genesis and Classification of "Mokattam group"
438-448
Ageeb G. W. and M.A. Wahab
Abstract:
In this current study attention has been paid to the most important features of Mokattam group which is one of nine shale types, most abundant in Egypt from pedological aspects. The main goal of these investigations is the exploration of the area which covered with Mokattam group in order to maximize its use either in agricultural purposes or other industrial utilization. Mokattam group belongs to the Middle Eocene sediments exposed at east Maghagha, east Beni Suef and Gebel Qarara areas in Egypt. This sequence occupies about ± 2,886 km².This group consists of three main shale types which are MSDS (±315 km²) BSDS (± 54 km²)and QaSDS (± 517 km²). The obtained chemical data show that salt content are extremely high in these shale derived soils. Microstructure of MSDS and BSDS are moderately developed platy and subangular blocky. Different degrees of grains in the groundmass with a very small amount of quartz are recognized . Iron oxides is dominant component with the fine clayey part of the groundmass. While gypsum and calcite crystals are considerably present in MSDS and BSDS. Montmorillonite and mixed layer were the main clay minerals. On the other hand quartz and halite were the main non-clay minerals.
Keywords: Mokattam group, shale derived soils, micromorphology, clay mineralogy, soil genesis.