European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 134 No 3
September, 2015

Solvent Assisted Hydraulic Pressing of Sterculia Foetida L. Kernels
Robert Manurung, Muhammad Yusuf Abduh and Danu Ariono
A systematic study on the hydraulic pressing of Sterculia kernels were carried out in the absence and presence of ethanol as a solvent. The effect of kernel moisture content (0-6 wt%, w.b.), pressure (0-30 MPa) and ethanol to kernel ratio (0-56 vol/wt%) on the oil recovery was investigated. An oil recovery of 80.5 wt%, d.b. was obtained at 2 wt% moisture content, 20 MPa, 75 oC and 10 min pressing time. An 8.4 % improvement in oil recovery was possible by pressing in the presence of ethanol at 2 wt% moisture content, 56 vol/wt% ethanol, 20 MPa, 75 oC and 10 min pressing time. Applying a gradual pressure increase instead of constant pressure during the pressing increased the oil recovery to 90.5 wt% (2 wt% moisture content, 75 oC, 56 vol/wt% ethanol, pressure step of 5-25 MPa and 10 min pressing time). Relevant properties of the Sterculia oil were determined and indicate that the Sterculia oil obtained in this study can be used as a feedstock for the production of oleochemicals as well as biodiesel.
Keywords: Sterculia kernels, hydraulic pressing, oil recovery, ethanol

Two New Species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Silurus triostigus in Iraq
Abdulkarim Abdulaziz Abdulkarim Shwani, Shamall Mohammad Amin Abdullah and Ghazi Asmat
Two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 were described from the skin, fins and gills of Asian catfish, Silurus triostigus Heckel, 1843 from Greater Zab river passing Guwer district in Erbil city, Kurdistan region in the north of Iraq, between June 2007 and July 2008. These are T. erbilensis and T. kurdistani. Taxonomic and morphometric data for these trichodinids based on wet silver nitrate impregnated specimens were presented. The adhesive disc of these two species are probably more closely related to those of T. gobii and T. ranae respectively.
Keywords: Trichodina erbilensis, T. kurdistani, Ciliophora, Silurus triostigus, Iraq

Determinants of farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Public Agricultural Extension Services in a Deregulated Economy in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Ezike K.N N, Okeowata E.N and Chukwu V. A
Socio-economic Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Public Agricultural Extension Services in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was studied. The specific objectives were to ascertain farmers’ willingness to pay for extension services; analyze the effects of their socio-economic characteristics on their ability to pay for extension services and identified constraints against farmers’ willingness to pay for extension services. A total of 240 contact farmers were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of data analysis showed that majority (67.08%) of the respondents were not willing to pay for extension services; while about 10% of them showed future willingness to pay. High proportion of those willing to pay indicated 21-40% degree of willingness. About 88% and 48% of the respondents noted that deregulation of extension services will cause specialized training for farmers to improve, and most farmers will not be able to afford payment for extension services, respectively. Major extension services the respondents were willing to pay for include the cost of arranging for farm input supply; cost of access to farm machinery; extension agents’ home and farm visits; and cost of processing loans. However, the highest mean amount farmers were willing to pay were recorded for loan processing (N8, 100), followed by cost to arrangement for farm input supply (N6, 450) and support for farm radio programme (N6,100). Results of probit multiple regression indicated that educational level, farming experience, farm income, farm size and frequency of extension contact has positive significant effect on farmer’s willingness to pay for extension in a deregulated economy, while age and household size had a significant negative effect. R2 and chi-square values of 0.512 and 30.965 showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents had effect on their willingness to pay for extension services. Major constraints that limit farmers’ willingness to pay for extension services were identified, using factor analysis, as financial, social, and institutional constraints. The study indicated that the proportion of farmers willing to pay for extension services is low. This could lead to reduced adoption and utilization of improved technologies and decline in farmers’ and farm productivity in a deregulated economy. Recommendations such as educating farmers on cost of extension services and the need for their contribution, backing up extension services with interest free loans, deregulating extension services and improving the country’s educational system to enable farmers understand the benefit of extension were made among others.
Keywords: Socio-economic Features, Farmers, Willingness to Pay, Public Extension Services, Deregulation, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Contribution à la connaissance de la faune malacologique des bivalves marins de la zone économique exclusive de Côte d’Ivoire
Kouato Fulgence, Karamoko Mamadou, Ouattara Siaka and Otchoumou Atcho.
Ce travail est une contribution à la connaissance de la faune malacologique des bivalves marins de la zone économique exclusive de la Côte d’Ivoire. Les bivalves capturés par des chaluts de fond de novembre 2012 à octobre 2014 ont été prélevés au port de pêche d’Abidjan à chaque débarquement des chalutiers préalablement identifiés. Au total huit familles de bivalves, comportant dix-huit genres et vingt et une espèces ont été inventoriés. La répartition des espèces en fonction des saisons marines montre que la grande saison froide enregistre la présence de vingt et une (21) espèces. La petite saison chaude avec huit (8) espèces enregistre le plus faible nombre. Les Cardiidae avec six espèces et les Verenidae avec cinq espèces sont les familles spécifiquement plus riches. Cardium costatum est l’espèce qui présence une abondance élevée sur les quatre saisons marines: 73,37%, 48,63%, 66,49% et 48,34% respectivement la petite saison chaude, froide, la grande saison chaude et la grande saison froide. Trois espèces ont une fréquence relative supérieure à 50% et sont donc des espèces constantes. Il s’agit de Cardium costatum (65,1%), Trachycardium muricatum (51,04%) et Venus nux (51,29%).
Keywords: Bivalves, Bio-écologie, saison marine, distribution, ZEE Côte d’Ivoire.

Power Management of a Complete Off-Grid AC-Coupled Solar Photovoltaic Battery System
Abou El-Maaty M. Aly
In recent years, more countries over the world have given considerable attention for renewable energy, especially solar energy, to become an alternative of the conventional energy and to reduce the environmental pollution. This paper studies a dynamic behavior of the power flow in a complete off-grid AC-coupled solar photovoltaic (PV) battery system to optimize the size of the system components based on the weather conditions of the selected site and the load power demands. This system consists of a solar PV generator, a battery storage system (BSS), a solar inverter, a battery inverter/charger, and an AC load power. The solar PV generator is intermittent source of energy, so this system has to be combined with a BSS to organize the energy between the solar PV generator and the load. The power management uses the fuzzy power management controller (FPMC) to optimize the system performance by distributing the power inside the system and by managing the charge and discharge of power flow for the BSS. Real-time meteorological data of the site under study and practical load profile of a small household are used as inputs for the proposed management system. The results of the proposed system showed a good performance under various operating conditions, and maintained the state of charge (SOC) of BSS at a reasonable level. In addition, the results gave a clear visualization of the behavior of the switched-mode power supply (SMPS) to regulate the power flow between the sources and the load on one side and to match between all components of the system on the other side. The main contributions of this work are the ability to give a mathematical model of the all components of the system and the control management which determine an optimal design of the system at any site.
Keywords: Solar Photovoltaic Generator, Battery Storage System, Fuzzy Power Management Controller, Switched-Mode Power Supply.

An Evaluation of CAD Tools for Implementing the 2D Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs)
Asmaa M. Jhar
Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are recently used for hardware implementation of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). FPGAs devices have characteristics with the advantage of being reprogrammed. They contained a group of logic cells and routing channels (called chipset) that can be programmed to fit a specific application. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT] is a technology that decomposes a signal in time domain by using expanding/hiring and translation versions of a single basis task, named the prototype wavelet. The study includes a compression between the SIMULINK implementation and the manually implementation through writing VHDL code to implement 2D DWT. The comparative study concluded that although the SIMULINK implementation provide us with a powerful and sufficient tool from many application, the manual implementation still has a better hardware utilization and speed.
Keywords: Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Wavelet Transform.

L’impact de l’utilisation du Merchandising sur la performance des supermarchés au Liban Nord
Dr Aline AL AM et Dr Antoine TANNOUS
Le merchandising est l’ensemble des méthodes et des techniques aboutissant à la présentation et à la mise en valeur des produits sur les lieux de vente. Le merchandising est en d’autre terme l’étude du comportement du consommateur dans le point de vente. Il a pour but d’organiser et gérer la relation distributeur- consommateur.
Le but de cette recherche est de découvrir l’impact de l’utilisation du merchandising sur les supermarchés et sur le comportement du consommateur dans le point de vente pour améliorer l’efficacité du merchandising.
Pour réaliser cela, une étude qualitative et quantitative ont été effectués dans le but de savoir l’intensité du pouvoir du merchandising dans les hypermarchés. En effet, il influence tous les comportements du consommateur dans le point de vente en le poussant à agir différemment, le consommateur se voit achetant beaucoup plus des produits, et passer beaucoup plus de temps à l’intérieur de l’hypermarché. Dans le but d’améliorer le merchandising, les professionnels doivent toujours effectuer des études de marché pour mettre à jour tout ce qui concerne les besoins des consommateurs afin de les satisfaire en recourant à la meilleure façon possible.
Keywords: Merchandising, supermarché, perception, performance.

Ordering of the Optimal Allocation of Policy Limits in General Model
Meriem Bouhadjar, Halim Zeghdoudi, and Mohamed Riad Remita
This paper focus on several types of stochastic order affecting random variables and linear combinations of random variables which we obtain the ordering of the optimal allocation of policy limits. In addition, many applications and some examples of convex order are given : Individual and collective risk model, Reinsurance contracts, dependent portfolios increase risk.
Keywords: Convex order, Comonotonicity, Policy limits.

Constant Bit Rate Based Simulation Performance on Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Jogendra Kumar, H.S.Bhadauria and M.K.Panda
Mobile autonomous nodes are communicating each other using different wireless routing protocols or Ad-hoc wireless networks are a set of autonomous mobile nodes that are connected together without using any infrastructure, wired, access point and backbones. Different ad hoc wireless routing protocols purposed to gives the better performance. Classified ad hoc wireless routing protocol based on CBR mechanisms routing protocol respectively reactive and hybrid protocol for wireless ad hoc network. Depending routing performance on simulation tool to used various researchers’ performance analysis and evaluation perform of wireless ad hoc networks to used simulation tools like NS2, OPNET, Qualnet etc.
In this paper discuss the comparative study and performance analysis of routing protocols AODV, DSR and ZRP in ad-hoc wireless networks. The performances analysis and evaluate is done performance metrics Average Time In Queue, Total Packets Queued, Longest Time In Queue, Total Packets Dropped, Average Queue Lengths (Bytes), Peak Queue Size (Bytes) and Total Packets De-queued on CBR apply form source to destination in Random Waypoint Model.
Keywords: Ad-hoc Network, Routing Protocols, Qualnet, CBR, RWM.

FPGA Based Image Processing Algorithms (Digital Image Enhancement Techniques) Using Xilinx System Generator
Mohammed Alareqi, Khalid Mateur, Rachid Elgouri and Laamari Hlou
FPGAs has many significant features that serves as a platform for processing real time algorithm. It gives substantially higher performance over programmable Digital Signal Processor (DSPs) and microprocessor. At present, the use of FPGA in research and development of applied digital systems for specific tasks are increasing. This is due to the advantages FPGAs has over other programmable devices.These advantages are high clock frequency, high operations per second, code portability, code libraries reusability, low cost, parallel processing, Capability of interacting with high or low interfaces, security and Intellectual Property (IP).
This paper presents concept of hardware digital image processing algorithms using field programmable gate array (FPGA). It focus on implementation an efficient architecture for image processing algorithms like image enhancement (point processing techniques (by using fewest possible System Generator Blocks. Image enhancement techniques improve the visibility of the images. Enhancement results, the output image is more suitable for a specific application rather than input image. It is used in many image-processing applications like medical imaging, SONAR and RADAR as a preprocessing step. In this paper, Modern approach of ‘Xilinx System Generator’ (XSG) is used for system modeling and FPGA programming. Xilinx System Generator is a tool of matlab that generates bit stream file (*.bit), Netlist, timing and power analysis. Performance of these architectures implemented in FPGA card XUPV5-LX110T.
Keywords: image processing, Xilinx system generator, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), image enhancement.