European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 133 No 4
July, 2015

An Efficient Secure Key Management Scheme based on Secret Sharing for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
369-385
Tamer Mohamed Barakat
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have acquired a lot of interest due to huge number of applications. If WSNs are deployed in inimical ambience, the nature of sensor nodes must be considered such as the limitation of memory resources, low computation ability, short communication range and energy constraints. So that it is necessary to use an efficient and secure key management scheme to avoid the mentioned limitation issues as well as to reduce the security risk.
In this paper, we propose an Efficient Secure Key Management scheme (ESKM) based on secret sharing scheme which address the above problems. The proposed scheme generates three security keys; master, cluster, and sensor keys to provide secure data communication for whole nodes in the hierarchical structure of WSNs. Compared to other key management schemes; ESKM scheme has strong security and resistance against captured and forward secrecy attacks. Finally, the simulation results show that, ESKM scheme has low energy consumption, less key storage and low communication overhead compared to the existing key management schemes.
Keywords: Key management, wireless sensor networks, ESKM scheme, secret sharing.

Effet de la fertilisation azotée sur la dynamique d’absorption de l’azote par la pommede terre conduite en mode biologique
386-414
Ahmed Harraq, Rachid Bouabid, Hakima Bahri, Hassan Boumchita, Jihane Agoujil and Safae Laaguidi
Abstract:
En agriculture biologique, la fertilisation azotée est une des pratiques agronomiques qui reste peu maitrisée, surtout dans le cas des cultures maraîchères qui ont des exigences nutritionnelles très importantes. Pour qu’il puisse être assimilé par la plante, l’azote apporté par les fertilisants organiques,nécessite de passer par le processus de minéralisation. Les cultures conduites en système biologique peuvent souffrir d’un manque d’azote en cas d’inadéquation dela biodisponibilité en cet élément par rapport à la dynamique de sa demande par la culture. Le présent travail étudie la réponse de la pomme de terre à l’apport d'une combinaison de fertilisants organiques (farine de poisson et compost) permettant, après leur minéralisation,des apports croissants d’azote de l'ordre de 0, 30, 70, 90, 110, 130 et 180 kg/ha. Les essais en plein champs ont été conduits durant deux saisons (printemps 2012 et 2013) sur deux parcelles laissées en jachère pour plusieurs années conformément aux exigences de la culture biologique et ont concerné trois variétés de pomme de terre. La fourniture en azote à partir de la minéralisation de la matière organique inhérente au sol (de l’ordre de 100 kg/ha) a été également comptabilisée dans les apports. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l'apport de doses croissantes d'azote a eu un effet significatif sur l’absorption totale d’azote, les teneurs et l’absorption d’azote au niveau des différents organes de la pomme de terre (partie aérienne, racines, et tubercules) durant le cycle de la culture. Cette réponse tend à se stabiliser à la dose d’azote de 130 kg/ha correspondant à une fourniture totaled’azote de 230 kg/ha(y compris l’azote minéral issue de la minéralisation de la matière organique du sol). A la récolte, la proportion d’azote absorbée pour ce traitement par les différents organes, à savoir la partie aérienne, les tubercules et les racines est de 26.8, 71.6 et 1.6% respectivement et la proportion moyenne d’azote absorbée par ces différents organes, tous traitements confondus, est de 25.6, 72.7 et 1.7% respectivement.L’indice de récolte d’absorption d’azote ne diffère pas significativement d’un traitement à l’autre indiquant ainsi que la pomme de terre répartie l’azote absorbé dans les différentes parties de la plante indépendamment de la quantité d’azote disponible.La courbe de teneur critique d’azote (production maximale de matière sèche totale possible avec la teneur minimale en azote) est située aux alentours dela dose d’azote de 130 kg/ha en 2012 et en 2013. Lescoefficients apparents d’utilisation d’azote les plus élevés correspondentaux doses d’azote apportées qui ont permis les absorptions totales d’azote les plus élevées à savoir la dose de 130et 180 kg/ha (fournitures totales d’azote de 230et 280 kg/ha). Les coefficients moyens de ces dosesen 2013, au début de senescence, sont de55.5% et 51.5% respectivement pour 130 et 180 kg/ha.
Keywords: pomme de terre, agriculture biologique, minéralisation de l’azote, fertilisants biologiques.

Moving Object Segmentation Using Median Filter-Based Enhanced Laplacian Thresholding
415-427
P.Vijaya Kumar and Dr A.V.Senthil Kumar
Abstract:
One of the most underlying and essential problems in computer vision applications is the identification of moving objects. Video segmentation is one such application that has been researched for many years using region based matching and fuzzy approach. However, the visual appearance of the segmented images still poses demanding issues and therefore compromising the video quality. In this work, a novel method called Median Filter-based Enhanced Laplacian Thresholding (MF-ELT) for real time video segmentation aiming at improving the quality of video by reducing mean square error is presented. To start with Un-symmetric Trimmed Median Filter is applied on the video frames with the objective of enhancing the quality of frames and improves the Peak Signal Noise-to Ratio (PSNR). Un-symmetric Trimmed Median Filter outs noisy frames applying a three dimension sliding window model. Next, Hierarchy-based Laplacian Thresholding is applied to the preprocessed video frames and complex video image is processed frame by frame. This Frame selection decision model reduces the mean square error substantially. Finally, Otsu method is applied to the fused video frame. This application of Otsu method improves the video quality by applying a threshold factor. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed UTMF algorithm can obtain the quality output image using video images obtained from Internet Archive 501(c) (3). Four performance metrics, namely, video size, PSNR, MSE and video quality were measured during experimentation. All the experiments showed that the proposed real time video segmentation method is an improved version to fuse images when compared with state of the art works.Experimental analysis shows that MF-ELTis able to reduce the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio by 4.09% and improve the object detection accuracy by 12.34% compared to the state-of-the-art works.
Keywords: Median Filter, Laplacian Thresholding, video segmentation, Median Filter, Peak Signal Noise-to Ratio, Mean Square Error

FPGA implementation of modified Data Encryption Standard
428-436
Soufiane OUKILI and Seddik BRI
Abstract:
One of the most popular standards for protecting confidential information is the Data Encryption Standard (DES). Although it is nowadays not considered secure against a determined attacker and it has been replaced by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), it is still used in legacy applications. In this paper, we present secure, area-efficient and high-throughput Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) implementation of the DES with time variable sub-keys and data permutations. This is achieved by combining 16 pipelining concept and compared with previous illustrated encryption algorithms. The sub-keys and data permutations vary over time by the cryptographer. Therefore, every time the plaintexts are encrypted by different sub-keys and data permutations. Our DES design is implemented on Xilinx Spartan-3e (XC3s500e). Final 16-stage pipelined design is achieved with data rate of 10136.2 Mbps and 2706 CLB slices. The proposed implementation is one of the fastest hardware implementations with much greater security.
Keywords: Data Encryption Standard (DES) Algorithm, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Pipelining, time variable sub-keys and data permutations, security.


LCL-filter and PLL Design for Control Three-Level Inverter Neutral-Point-Clamped Connected to Grid for a Multi-megawatt Power Source of Renewable Energy
437-450
Chirine Benzazah, Loubna Lazrak and Mustapha Ait lafkih
Abstract:
This article deals with the analysis, design procedure and performances of an LCL-filter and grid synchronisation (phase locked loop, PLL) for a converter neutral-point-clamped connected to the grid, to be adopted for renewable energies in several megawatts (multi-MW). Hence, it consists in the choice and design of the appropriate filter for the connection to the grid, the adequate grid synchronisation PLL, and the control design which amounts to the voltage oriented control VOC (inner current loop analysis), DC-Link voltage control (outer voltage loop analysis) and DC voltage balance control. Following the requirements based on the IEEE 519-1992 recommendation, simulation results using Matlab-Simulink/ SimPower Systems have been evaluated in order to prove the effectiveness of the performance of the designed filter, controllers and grid synchronisation method, to ensure a good of quality current injected into the grid and to highlight its easy use for renewable energy based electric power generation units.
Keywords: NPC three-level inverter, high power, renewable energy, LCL-filter, Grid side control, PLL.

Influences of Citalopram Antidepressant on Motility, Count, and Sperm viability, Level of Blood Testosterone, LH and FSH in adult Male mice Balb/C
451-458
Mahsa Hadipour Jahromi, Maryam Khosravi and Golnar Golbaghi
Abstract:
This study was conducted to review the influences of oral use of citalopram- an antidepressant drug with serotonin reuptake inhibitor mechanism- on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and testis tissue and its side effects particularly on the movement, survival and count of sperm and also review of FSH, LH, and testosterone. In this research 35 male mice of BALB/C strain were experimentally used. The mice weighted from 25 to 30 grams. Citalopram was administered by oral gavage method for 7 weeks in doses 0.007 mg/kg, 0.014 mg/kg, 0.021 mg/kg. The day before the last does, animals were euthanized for dissection and anatomy using chloroform in desiccator.
Data was analyzed by SPSS software, ANOVA one-way test, and Tukey test. Histograms were drawn and reviewed for comparison of results. P<0.001, P<0.05 is the statistical inference limit for study of the significant difference of mean among experimental and control groups. The results of this research indicate that taking Citalopram has no significant influence on the count and movement of sperm. Sperms stay alive such that their count did not change with increase in the drug dose. Moreover, taking citalopram caused no significant difference in the amount of LH and FSH. Only the thickness of germinal cells layer increased but the sperm tubes diameter did not change. The count of spermatogony cells had no significant difference.
Keywords: Citalopram, spermatogenesis, LH, FSH, testosterone.


Reproductive Consequences of Organochlorine on the Hormone level & Ovarian Follicular Development in Swiss Albino mice Mus musculus: In Vivo Study
459-470
G. B. Chand, Prakriti Verma, Reeta Gupta &, S.K.Srivastava
Abstract:
Swiss Albino mice Mus musculus was exposed to commonly use organochlorine endosulfan @ 2mg/Kg body wt for one, two and three weeks respectively. At the termination of each exposure blood sample were collected and serum was extracted to analyse the quantitative estimation of Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Estradiol level by ELISA technique. The ovarian tissues were processed for light microscopic studies. All the experimental group of mice showed loss in body weight in contrast to control during the period of experimentation. The post treatment group did not show any significant gain in body weight. Serum TSH showed an increasing trend in all the experimental groups. Similar trend was observed in serum estradiol as compared to control. Light microscopic observations of ovarian tissues revealed a marked reduction in the number of healthy developing follicles and increased number of atretic follicles in the experimental group of longer duration exposure of endosulfan in comparison to control group. Besides Graafian follicles, granulose cells and germinal epithelium also showed massive degeneration. The results of present investigation suggests that endosulfan being a potential endocrine disruptor sets a wave of endocrinal Imbalance which was later associated with gametogenic arrest in female Swiss Albino mice.
Keywords: Endosulfan, Estradiol, Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Light microscopy, Mus musculus, Ovarian tissues.

Unnoticed Daily exposure to Radon in Cairo’s subway
471-481
Ghada Bassioni, Mennat Allah Labib and Nabil El-Faramawy
Abstract:
Radon, as the heaviest radioactive gas, can accumulate in confined areas such as underground subway stations and mines; the concentration of radon present in the air can reach very high, toxic levels if there are improper ventilation systems. This study as first of its kind, assesses the concentration of radon in Cairo’s underground metro system. Two of the most central, busiest stations are chosen (El-Abbassia and El-Shohadaa Stations). Twenty samples of CR-39 are prepared and placed in 10 plastic sample holders, such that one piece of CR-39 is placed inside each container at its base, then the container is covered with filter paper, and a second piece is placed on the surface of the filter paper. The samples are stored for about 2 months, and then removed, etched with 6.25N sodium hydroxide, washed under running water, dried and analysed under a microscope. The track density is found to be higher in samples of El-Shohadaa Station than in El-Abbassia Station. The concentration of radon is found to be very high. The ratio of the tracks density in El-Abbassia Station equals 61.2% of that detected in El-Shohadaa Station for the inner samples. And, this ratio decreases for the samples at the surface and reaches up to 52.6%. The results reveal that the average radon concentration inside El-Abbassia Station is 3.4 ± 0.18 pCi/l which is less than half the concentration in El-Shohadaa Station. For the outer sample surface the average radon concentration in El-Abbassia Station and in El-Shohadaa Station is found to be 5.6 ± 0.27 pCi/l and 8.9 ± 0.46 pCi/l, respectively. The calculated risk of lung cancer disease for people using Cairo’s subway on a daily basis reveals that 40 persons bear the risk of lung cancer disease for every thousand riding from El-Abbassia Station while this number increases to 60 persons riding from El-Shohadaa.
Keywords: Cairo’s subway; Radon concentration; CR-39; Risk factor; nuclear track detectors.

Naga Arts in Luang Prabang: Allegory and Symbolism
482-495
Mr. Kittisan Sriruksa, Dr. Niyom Wongpongkham and Dr. Sitthisak Champadaeng
Abstract:
This article is part of the Ph.D. qualitative research basing on the information gathered from the field in combination with the documents that had been researched during the study. The content of the article is a presentation of the allegory and symbolism of the Naga arts in Luang Prabang, which is one of the significant terms within the objectives of this research. The result of the study shows that the allegory and symbolism of the Naga arts in Luang Prabang are the result of two main components: the allegory and the symbols of the Naga arts that exist in the area. The allegory can be analyzed into three dimension: ethnicity characteristics, god of water and land, the protector and guardian of the religion. The symbol of the Naga art can be categorized into three parts: the symbol of ethnicity characteristic, the symbol of god of water and land, and the symbol of the protector and guardian of the religion. Both the allergories and the symbols are both related through the Naga arts which act as a medium in communicating the meaning of the ideas and norms based from the livelihood of the people in the society that still relies on nature which has been passed down from the ancestor.
Keywords: Naga arts in Luang Prabang, Allegory and Symbolism.

Improvising Group Work Using Clustering and Sequential Pattern Mining
496-500
Mohammed Yusuf Khan, Md. Sabeelur Rahman K, Albert Mayan .J and Saravanan.M
Abstract:
Group work could be a type of cooperative learning that undergoes challenge assumptions today. the first goal is to enhance the cluster work learning with a various vary of tasks. the most aim is to extract patterns victimization sequent pattern mining and alternative info from the cluster logs and gift it along with the specified patterns to interpret and improvise it. It’s evident that TRAC tool is employed to trace the learner’s statistics with the varied vary of things could be a troublesome task to seek out the correct balance between the teams. In adverse to it, JFREE tool is employed to beat the difficulties.
Keywords: Collaborative learning tools, intelligent tutoring systems, Authoring tools.