European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 133 No 3
July, 2015

Morpho-Physiological Response to Salt Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at the Germination Stage
240-252
Ouhaddach M, Mouhssine F, Ech-chaddadi S, Lakalai F, ElYacoubi H, Hmouni D,Douaik A, Zidane L and Rochdi A
Abstract:
Les paramètres de croissance ainsi que les paramètres biochimiques sont comparés, au stade germination, chez deux variétés de blé tendre (Salama et Achtar) soumises à des concentrations croissantes de NaCl (0, 50, 75 et 100 mM). La longueur des racines est relativement plus affectée que celle des coléoptiles chez les deux variétés, mais Salama montre toujours des valeurs plus élevées qu’Achtar. Les teneurs en sucres solubles et en proline sont plus importantes dans les coléoptiles que dans les racines chez les deux variétés de blé tendre. En outre, l’accumulation de Na+ et la diminution de K+ est plus importante dans les deux parties, cependant Achtar accumule plus que Salama. Ces résultats montrent que les deux variétés étudiées sont sensibles à la salinité et que la variété Achtar est relativement plus sensible au stade de germination que la variété Salama.
Keywords: Blé - Germination - Proline - Sucres Solubles – Salinité - NaCl..

A Framework for Accurate Disease Diagnosis using Cover Data Mining Rule on Homogenous Data
253-266
K. Gayathri and M. Chitra
Abstract:
Knowledgeable Data is the fundamental step for discovering different types of patterns from large database. The pattern to be discovered from vast amount of data employs classification technique. Classification (i.e., classifier) builds a model with the relationship between the attribute set, class set and input data. However, most of the classification techniques do not fit with a good starting point on classifying multiple data sources class patterns. Even if it works on multiple data sources class patterns, it produces both the best and worst cases of result set. On occurrence of worst case result, patterns are not nested properly resulting in the tradeoff while fetching high class accuracy result. These drawbacks in the current work are overcome in our research work by working with sample of large quantities of information about patients and their medical conditions. In this work, an efficient framework for accurate disease diagnosis, Sequential Class Covering Rule based Homogeneous Data Classifier (SCCR-HDC) is proposed. Initially, SCCR-HDC framework uses the classifier tree to analyze medical information about patients from different dimensional level. For analyzing this classifier tree, a modern boosting based machine learning concept is introduced. The analyzed results of the tree are used for rule formation in the second step for efficient diagnosis of the disease patterns. The rule formed is applied on the training and test sample homogenous data to easily diagnosis the disease class accuracy. A Sequential Class Covering Rule is formed to extract the best result patterns in sequential manner from the current set of training data instances. Similarly, to diagnosis the normal, abnormal, critical disease patterns from the test samples, a searching process called, First Order Rule based General to Precise Searching process is performed in SCCR-HDC framework. Experiment is conducted on the factors such as class accuracy rate on disease diagnosis, classifier tree based time rate on predicting disease pattern, and precision rate on categorizing disease patterns.
Keywords: Sequential Class Covering, Disease Diagnosis, First order Rule, Homogenous Data Classifier, Boosting, Dimensionality, Machine Learning

Iris Recognition using Canny Algorithm for Human Recognition System
267-277
Anandhi, M. S. Josephine, Jeyabalaraja and S. Satthiyaraj
Abstract:
Iris Recognition is a highly efficient biometric identification system with great possibilities for future in the security systems to avoid future fraudulent use. Iris recognition systems obtain a unique mapping for each person. Identification of this person is possible by applying appropriate matching algorithm. In this paper, normalization segmentation is done with cann segmentation technique. Descriptive statistical analysis of different feature detection operators is performed; many features are extracted, encoded and for classification hamming distance as a matching algorithm is used. Detection of edges may help the image for image segmentation, normalization, data compression. Here we are seeing various edge detection techniques. On comparing them we can see that canny edge detector performs better than all other edge detectors on various aspects such as give better results for noisy image, remove streaking problem & adaptive in nature etc. Using minimum number of Curvelets coefficients, we can get up to 100 % accuracy and the time consumption of the system is also very low to identify iris. The Implementation and iris detection has given better results.
Keywords: Edge, Edge Detection, Canny, SVM and PCA

Optimization of Area Efficient and Low Power Reduced Complexity Carry Select Adder
278-284
M. Gnanasekaran and M. Manikandan
Abstract:
In this paper, Reduced Complexity Square Root Carry Select Adder (SQRT CSLA) circuit is designed through Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System design environment. The logic operations of Binary to Excess-1 converter (BEC) based SQRT CSLA are analyzed to estimate the data dependence and to identify redundant logic operations. Traditional BEC based SQRT CSLA circuit consists of Carry Generation (CG) and Carry Selection (CS) units to compute the addition process and hence it requires more hardware complexity and power consumption to implement the design. In order to reduce this problem, data dependence parameters of traditional BEC based SQRT CSLA are identified in this work. An efficient SQRT CSLA design is obtained using optimized logic gates. The proposed Reduced Complexity SQRT CSLA design involves significantly less area and lower power consumption than the recently proposed BEC based SQRT CSLA. Due to small silicon chip size and lower power consumption requirement, proposed Reduced Complexity SQRT CSLA design is a good candidate for digital signal and image processing applications.
Keywords: Carry Select Adder (CSLA), Square Root (SQRT) CSLA, Binary to Excess-1 conversion (BEC) based SQRT CSLA, Reduced Complexity SQRT CSLA, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).


Earth is under Threat "The End", Explanation and Solutions
285-310
Alaa H. Al-Darraji
Abstract:
In the last six years, there is unusual disorder happening and it is increasing continuously in Missan city and in its neighboring cities. This disorder is that many people are suffering from increasing amounts of hemoglobin (Hb) in them bodies. This unusual facts in Missan and neighboring cities is against basic properties of them lands which they are at the level of sea surface.
This research found that this increasing in Hb is a basic scientific result of decreasing of oxygen in atmosphere. Therefore, levels of atmospheric oxygen were measured by a appropriate scientific procedure during three years (8/2011-3/2013). It is well known that levels of atmospheric Oxygen should be 20-21% but this research found it is less than 9%. This decreasing is a normal results due to many factors such as; Decreasing of green lands over the world, increasing of human population over 7 billions...etc, there are another additional factors this research explained them. Oxygen gas is not infinite forever in atmosphere, earth gets it from specific sources; green lands, algae…etc so when these sources are highly decreasing, it will decrease too until the earth reaches "The End" point. Decreasing of Oxygen gas in atmosphere lead to increase a lot of diseases because Oxygen is a fuel of human body when it decreases body’s energy will decrease too resulting a lot of diseases.
Duration of this research is about seven years (2008-2015) and it is experimental tests took about three years (8/2011-3/2013). This research explained how this earth is under threat for reaching “The End” and how it is possible to prevent this.
Keywords: Earth, Atmosphere and the End.

VLSI based Adaptive Encoder and Adaptive Decoder for Ofdm Application
311-319
P. Sadhasivam and M. Manikandan
Abstract:
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the supportive tools for wireless infra-structure less networks. Channel encoder/decoder and Frequency transformation techniques are widely used in OFDM System for data communication. In this article, the model of adaptive encoder and adaptive decoder is designed for OFDM System through Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System design environment. Channel Encoder/decoder is the Error Correction Codes (ECCs) in which single bit error should be corrected while noisy data passed through decoder side of OFDM. One of the basic ECCs is the Hamming error correction code in which single bit error can be detected and corrected successfully. In other hand Adaptive Viterbi Decoder (AVD) is also one of the ECCs (for single bit error correction). Both Hamming ECC and AVD have different advantages in terms of VLSI concerns (Low power consumption, less silicon area and high speed). In this paper, we propose an adaptive encoder and adaptive decoder model for OFDM transceiver System that exploits correlation between Signals to Noise (SNR) values from modulation techniques and Decoder model. Based on SNR values adaptive decoder model can be adaptively choose the type of decoder for lower power consumption and high speed applications. The proposed adaptive encoder and decoder model absolutely helps in wireless infra-structure less networks and Tele-communication networking System.
Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Error Correction Codes (ECCs), Hamming Code, Adaptive Viterbi Decoder (AVD), Adaptive Decoder, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).


Etude de Quelques Paramètres de la Germination des Semences de Cinq Variétés de blé Tendre (Triticum aestivum L.) Soumises au Stress Salin
320-338
Mouhssine Fatine, Ouhaddach Moussa, Laklai Fadoua, Ech-cheddadi Sara,ElYacoubi Houda, Zidane Lahcen, Hmouni Driss and Rochdi Atmane
Abstract:
L’étude de l'effet de la salinité (0, 3, 6, 9 et 12 gL-1 NaCl) sur certains critères de germination de cinq variétés (Massira, Nassim, Tigre, Wafia et Wissam) de blé tendre a été réalisée sur des graines mises à germer sur du papier-filtre dans des boîtes de Pétri. Les paramètres évalués pour décrire le déroulement de la germination sont : le taux de germination, la germination corrigée, le pourcentage de réduction de la germination, le pourcentage final de germination, la moyenne journalière de germination, l’indice de germination, l’indice de vigueur de la germination, l’indice de taux de germination, le coefficient de vitesse de germination et le temps moyen de germination des semences, ainsi que la longueur des coléoptiles et des racines des jeunes germinations des cinq cultivars. La variabilité de la réponse du blé tendre vis-à-vis de la salinité est relativement importante. En effet ces critères ont varié significativement sous l’effet de la salinité et de la variété. En outre, les tests de germination ont permis de retenir sept indices ayant montré le même classement des niveaux salins, soit le taux de germination, le pourcentage final de germination, le pourcentage de réduction de la germination, la moyenne journalière de germination et l’indice de taux de germination, en plus de la longueur du coléoptile et aussi de la racine. Cependant, relativement à l’effet cultivars, seulement trois critères ont permis une même hiérarchisation des différentes variétés, soit le taux de germination, le pourcentage final de germination et la moyenne journalière de germination. Ces trois paramètres s’avèrent donc les plus adéquats pour étudier les effets de la salinité sur la germination. En effet ils ont varié significativement sous l’effet de la salinité et d’une façon homogène (diminution chez toutes les variétés), conjointement à des réactions spécifiques qui ont permis le classement de différentes variétés. Les trois paramètres descripteurs de la germination des graines du blé tendre ont montré que les variétés Massira et Nassim sont plus performantes (relativement plus tolérantes) puisqu’elles enregistrent les valeurs les plus élevées parmi les cinq cultivars et que la variété Wissam est la plus affectée par la salinité.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum, Germination, Salinité, Tolérance, Sensibilité.

Vehicle Routes Simulation for Controlling Traffic Light System based on Ad hoc Networks
339-348
Yusor Rafid Bahar AL-Mayouf, Mahamod Ismail and Salih M. Al-Qaraawi
Abstract:
In this paper the use of wireless ad hoc sensor network has been emphasized for developing intelligent transport systems. Wireless sensor networks provide exceptional attributes for controlling and regulating traffic at road junction crossings and highways in terms of cost, simplicity of implementation and subsequent maintenance, and improved efficacy for measurements. The proposed wireless sensor network based traffic control system is formed by arranging different sensors over major and minor roads unlike conventionally used integrated approach. The effectiveness of this algorithm was tested by exploiting different types of controllers like actuator traffic control and green wave algorithm against the traditional fixed time control. The simulation results extracted using OMNeT++ and other simulators demonstrate that the proposed design results in better traffic regulation and decreased waiting time required by the vehicles at the intersection.
Keywords: Ad hoc network, intelligent transport systems, fixed time control, Actuator traffic control, Green wave algorithm, OMNeT++ simulator.

Use of E-Resources at Thiruvalluvar College of Engineering & Technology Library Vandavasi Tamilnadu Inida
349-357
M. Nagarajan and R. Mangayarkkarasi
Abstract:
Library functions is a very important role in this fast changing go green of publishing. Their role includes identification of selection of information, its organization of management, storage retrieval and dissemination to right users at the right time at right place at right price and in right format. At present the online databases, E-resources facilitate formation of the colleges at resource sharing among the libraries. Engineering colleges prove to be one of the major solutions to the existing problems of budget crunches among the libraries and information centers. The advent of e-publishing has brought a revolution in journal publication, subscription and access delivery mechanism. This paper describes various facets in collection development an e- resource in the engineering college libraries. A survey has been conducted in the form of questioner and data were collected from our Thiruvalluvar College of Engineering and Technology from the 209 users. All the collected data’s were used to analysis and the results were given in the table form.
Keywords: e-resources, engineering college, library, Assess

Enhanced Inverse Mixcolumn Design for AES Decryption
358-368
J. Balamurugan and E. Logashanmugam
Abstract:
In the perspective of improving wireless technology, secured communication is one of the essential features to transfer the information to desired receiver. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the best cryptography algorithm to transmit the original information to only receiver. However, hardware implementation of AES causes poor performances due to utilization of more silicon chip area. Especially in Inverse MixColumn transformation of AES consumes more hardware to implement the Coefficient multiplication. In this paper, enhanced Inverse MixColumn is presented by eliminating the redundant functions of Inverse MixColumn transformation. Redundant functions are identified with the help of suitable equations and common resources are shared for redundant functions. This proposed model reduces the hardware complexity effectively. In addition, Composite Substitution box (S-Box) is designed for reducing the memory size of S-Box design. Further enhanced Inverse MixColumn is incorporated into AES decryption process to improve performances of AES decryption process. In this paper, enhanced Inverse MixColumn design is implemented in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System design environment. Low power consumption, high speed and less area utilization are the main concerns in VLSI System design environment. Hence, enhanced Inverse MixColumn based AES decryption improves the performances in terms of VLSI concerns than best existing structures.
Keywords: Composite Substitution Box (S-Box), Inverse MixColumn, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Reduced Xtime multiplication, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).