European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 132 No 1
May, 2015

Study on the Use of Systemic Analysis and Image Processing Techniques in a Sports Meeting
7-15
Mohamed Najeh Lakhoua, Imed Jabri, Tahar Battikh,Lotfi Maalej, Yosra Mlouhi
Abstract:
After a presentation of the participative methods in use to enhance participation in Information System (IS) planning and requirements analysis in the one hand and the OOPP (Objectives Oriented Project Planning) method in the other hand, we present a review on different applications in a sports meeting using image processing techniques. In fact, we exploited the OOPP method in order to analysis an athletic event. This method is a structured meeting process based on four essential steps: problem analysis, objectives analysis, alternatives analysis and activities planning. The aim of the work is to describe and to prepare the different steps of the graphics on TV of an athletic event using OOPP formalism.
Keywords: System analysis, image processing, sports meeting, OOPP method.

The Immunological Effect of Tyrosine Inhibitor of a Gleevec In Auto – Immune Thyroid Peroxidase
16-21
Haidar J. Al-Kafaji, Ekhlass Noori Ali and Yusra J. Yaseen
Abstract:
Imatinib (Gleevec) a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the so-called Philadelphia to chromosome characteristic of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), was the first yield complete and lasting responses and is now widely used as first-line treatment as the researchers noted. The drug have been widely used in the treatment of several hematological malignancies. It is the frontline therapy of the majority of CML patients. Many patients are treated for long periods, and there is concern about the long-term immune effects of its use. Autoimmune disorders in patients treated with Gleevec drug may be related to the direct immunomodulating properties or may be linked to a possible toxic effect in target organs, triggering autoimmunity. On the other hand, the immune effects of Gleevec may play a role in its therapeutic actions. In this report we describe the development of symptomatic autoimmune thyroid diseases (thyroid peroxidase) in (9.6%) out of 51 patients with age range (16-70) years male and female and with a cure period (8 months to 10 years) in chronic treatment with recombinant a Gleevec drug (400mg) in patients with CML by using Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA). The patients samples were collected from Iraqi National Center for Research and Treatment of Hematological Diseases/University of Al-Mustansiryiah which were diagnosed for chronic myelogenous leukemia according to physical examination, Real-time PCR technique for detection quantification of mRNA chimerical gene bcr/abl (M-bcr) and mRNA gene/ abl in the clinical material. Epidemiological data such as age, sex and cure period were recorded for all of the patients. The aim of the study was to test the possible association between the generation of autoimmune phenomena on thyroid peroxidase and the effect of gleevec drug.
Keyword: chronic myeloid leukemia, Gleevec, autoimmunity thyroid diseases

Influence d’un enrichissement sommaire sur la biomasse zooplanctonique des étangs piscicoles in situ en zone tropicale (Cameroun - Afrique Centrale)
22-40
Zébazé Togouet S. H., Dakwen J. P., Foto Membohan S., Banga Medjo M. P., Essomba Biloa R. E. and Njiné T.
Abstract:
Afin d’évaluer l’impact d’un enrichissement sommaire sur la biomasse du zooplancton de deux étangs piscicoles, une étude a été menée à Simbock dans la ville de Yaoundé d’avril à décembre 2007. Deux étangs: E1 construit et abandonné sur un bras mort de la rivière Mefou et E2 construit et fertilisé sporadiquement par les déchets ménagers ont été choisis. Les échantillons ont été collectés de façon bimensuelle entre la surface et 0,5 m de profondeur. Les analyses physico-chimiques et biologiques ont été effectuées en utilisant des techniques appropriées.
La biomasse zooplanctonique est restée faible dessinant un profil irrégulier dans les deux plans d’eau. La valeur moyenne de la biomasse enregistrée dans E1, 0,02 mg C/L (maximum à 0,041 mg C/L) est plus faible que celle obtenue dans E2 (0,257 mg C/L avec un maximum de 2,341 mg C/L) (p < 0,001). Les ressources alimentaires sont donc très limitées dans les plans d’eau. Par ailleurs, les copépodes sont les principaux contributeurs à cette biomasse dans E1 alors que dans E2, l’apport irrégulier des fertilisants et l’entretien sommaire faites par le pisciculteur engendrent une alternance de dominance entre les cladocères et les copépodes. Il ressort des analyses abiotique et biologique que ces plans d’eau sont oligotrophes (E1) et oligomésotrophes (E2) et par conséquent ne peuvent produire un rendement piscicole satisfaisant. Il est donc recommandé aux pisciculteurs d’améliorer la qualité de l’entretien et de la fertilisation pour produire un meilleur rendement piscicole.
Motsclés: Etang piscicole, biomasse, zooplancton, enrichissement sommaire

Pathway Phenotype Association Using Improved Weighted Random Forest
41-48
Aiswarya Uday, Pooja Krishna C.U, Hari Narayanan A.G, M.V Judy
Abstract:
The identification of genetic variants associated with a complex disease is a challenging problem. Gene-gene interactions are ignored in this kind of analysis and have very less power in genetic effects detection. But this is attainable using data mining techniques called random forest and weighted random forest. Random forest is an ensemble learning method that operates by generating a number of decision trees such that each of the trees is generated based on random sample values with replacement and each of the trees in the forest is about the same size. Weighted random forest is an improvement to random forests which makes use of weighted voting and variable subspace selection. Research works in this area intend on improving either accuracy or performance of this approach. In this paper, we present an improved approach of weighted random forest where the decision trees are generated using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) classifiers, which is known to have improved accuracy and performance over weighted random forest technique. We applied this method to an SNP dataset and interesting pathway-phenotype associations were found. From our study, we inferred that improved weighted random forest approach is more accurate and less time consuming when compared to the weighted random forest approach.
Keywords: Pathway; Phenotype; Random Forest; Weighted Random Forest; ANN classifier; SNP

Assessmentof Wear Elements in Food Productby Dry Milling Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Techniques
49-55
B. G. Jahun, Abubakar S.M. and Habib I.A
Abstract:
The Assessment of Wear Elements in Food Products by Dry Milling Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Technique was carried out to determine the levels of Wear Elements introduced into food consumed by humans after being dry milled. Samples were collected from selected milling houses in Dass Town in Bauchi State Nigeria and were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The wear element and its depositional levels for both maize and guinea corn flour sample shows that Magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) element has high depositional level of 113.99mg/kg and 83.92mg/kg respectively in maize sample and 129.75mg/kg (Mg) and 94.01mg/kg (Ca) in Guinea corn sample.Zinc (Zn) element present has a depositional level of 6.048mg/kg in Maize sample and 7.110mg/kg in Guinea corn food sample as set by WHO (2003). Iron(Fe) element present has a depositional level of 5.932mg/kg in Maize flour sample and 7.644mg/kg in Guinea Corn sample. Copper(Cu) element has a depositional level of 3.684mg/kg in Maize flour sample and 5.136mg/kg in Guinea Corn sample.Lead(Pb) element from experimental result shows that lead has a depositional level of 0.674mg/kg for Maize flour sample and 0.853mg/kg in Guinea corn flour sample. Other wear elements were found to be within the safe levels.
Keywords: Wear Element, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Heavy Metals and Dry Milling.

Third - Order Differential Subordination And Superordination Results For Mermorphically Univalent Functions Involving Linear Operator
57-65
Abdul Rahman s. Juma, Mushtaq Shakir A. Hussein and Mohammad F. Hani
Abstract:
In the present paper, we derive some third - order differential subordination and superordination results for meromorphically univalent functions, which are defined by linear operator I^k L(a,c). The results are obtained by considering appropriate classes of admissible functions.
Keywords: Analytic function, meromorphic univalent function differential subordination, superordination, hypergeomtric function, Hadmard product, admissible function.
JEL Classification 2010 : 30C80, 30C45.

Programming Language Operational Semantics
66-72
Makanjuola Daniel and Adelakun-Adeyemo Oluwatoyin
Abstract:
Usually, semantics is defined in terms of the program run-time behavior; what happens when the program is executed with a certain set of inputs, what statement are executed, what values are assigned to the variables and what output is produced.
Since the basic goal of programming language design is to define the means for describing the computational process, the syntax occurs principally to serve these semantics ends. Thus, semantics goals are the original motivation for syntax design. The semantics of a language describes “the meaning” of any syntactically correct program in that language. It describes the meaning of basic language concept such as variables, binding, runtime structures in terms of virtual machines. The approach is what we call “Operational Semantics”[1].

An FTDD Scheme for the Reduction of EM Radiation based on Asymmetric UL -DL in Hetnets
73-82
V.Rama Krishna Sharma and P.Chandrasekhar
Abstract:
With the revolutionary evolution of digital mobile data wireless communication services, there is a need for serious thrust on efficient ways to mitigate the harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation due to Uplink power of the user equipment on the human body. Mobiles phones radiating uplink power and operating near the human ear are the main sources of Electro-magnetic (EM) radiation for brain tissues. Smart phones in particular and other portable wireless mobile devices like tablets, notebooks and laptops etc., which are in close vicinity or on the human body have increased the complexity of EM radiation on different body regions. To thoroughly understand the impact of EM radiation on human body in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) Levels, different cases are discussed with statistical support and models. Under the restriction of EM radiation, the equivalent bandwidth of uplink should be narrower than that of downlink in view of the duplexing schemes. In this paper, we propose a Flexible Time division duplex (FTDD) scheme which can efficiently split the common wireless cellular resources between uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) users. The optimisation scenario of EM Asymmetry between UL and DL is formulated as a noncooperative game between the small cell base stations (SCBSs). Using the proposed scheme, a Base station (BS) is able estimate the UL/DL traffic loads autonomously and thereby optimising its UL/DL configuration accordingly. Simulation results show that in the case of asymmetric traffic, significant gains are achieved in terms of packet throughput, relative to the existing schemes. The proposed scheme is best suited for dynamic traffic conditions and also in the case of severe cross-link interference.
Keywords: FTDD, SAR, Asymmetry, EM Radiation, Hetnets, Cross-link interference

Numerical Solution of Hyper Singular Integral Equations by using Differential Transform Method
83-89
Mohammed Abdulkawi Mahiub and WadiaFaid Hassan Al-shameri
Abstract:
In this paper, the differential transform method is extended to solve the hyper singular integral equations. New theorems for transformation of singular integrals are given with proofs. Numerical results are shown to illustrate the efficiency and accuracyof the present numerical method.
Keywords: Singular integral equations, Hyper Singular Integral Equations, Differential Transform Method, Approximation.
2000 MSC: 65R20, 45E05.

Bayesian Models with Coregionalization to Model Gene Expression Time Series for Mouse Model for Speed Progression of ALS Disease
90-107
Sura Z. Alrashid and Nabeel H. Al-Aaraji
Abstract:
Background: The analysis of gene expression of time series underpins many biological studies. The aim of the paper was to determine a candidate list of genes or pathway that would give insight into the mechanism behind this difference of phenotype. This work has focused on the difference in transcriptional regulation between two strains of mice. The mice were considered in two forms. Wild type and SOD1 mutations(SOD1 is a transcription factor Protein which induces ALS). The data interest because the phenotype of the two mutant strains differs. One of the strains succumbs to ALS far quicker than the other.
The resultsy: We review Gaussian process (GP) regression with Coregionalization model for determining a candidate list of genes or pathway that would give insight into the mechanism behind this difference of phenotype.We build this model on differential gene expression time series to account for more structure within the time series; these Data have a correlated output for mouse model for ALS disease, showing that the proposed approach considerably outperforms its task.
Conclusions: Gaussian processes offer an attractive trade-off between efficiency and usability for the analysis of microarray time series. The Gaussian process framework with Coregionalization model offer a natural way of handling biological replicates and correlated output and provides confidence intervals along the estimated curves of gene expression where this model was well done to detect gene expression differences associated with the difference in the phenotype for four cases the genes alter its behavior and the new information that we discovery it genes have the same behavior in two mutations and two strains. Therefore, we believe Gaussian processes should be a standard tool in the analysis of gene expression time series
Keywords: Gene Expression, ALS Disease, C57 and 129sv strains, Mmgmos, Coregionalzation Model, Gaussian Process Regression.