European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 131 No 4
April, 2015

Effects of Long-Term Fertilization Practices on Physical Properties a Clayey Red Soil in China
326-335
Mohamed Bassuony and Jiazhou Chen
Abstract:
To explore the effects of long-term fertilization practices on physical properties a clayey red soil in China, a study was conducted since 1998 to investigate the effects of a control treatment (CK), application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), application of organic manure (OM), and NPK fertilizers plus straw returning (NPK+S). Results showed that OM significantly increased soil water retention capacity in all water tensions but with larger increment in low tension at depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm (P < 0.05) when compared with the CK. On the contrary, NPK and NPK+S led to a decrease in soil water retention capacity at both NPK and NPK+S. In the field in wet and dry periods, soil water content was significantly higher in OM than in NPK+S and NPK (P < 0.05), since soil hydraulic conductivity (saturated and unsaturated) are lower in OM than in other treatments (P < 0.05). OM also was found to have the lowest soil bulk density and penetration resistance in the four treatments. Physical soil properties were correlated with soil organic carbon. The high negative correlation was observed between the soil organic carbon and the bulk density and the penetration resistance (P < 0.01). In this way, the application of OM improved the red soil physical qualities.
Keywords: Bulk density, Clayey red soil, Hydraulic properties, Organic carbon content, penetration resistance, Soil water content

Utilisation des Capteurs de Saltation Pour la Détection du Seuil D’érosion Éolienne dans les Zones Arides Tunisiennes
336-346
Mohamed Labiadh, Mounir Abichou and Houcine Khatteli
Abstract:
L’érosion éolienne, la manifestation la plus spectaculaire de la désertification, touche de nombreuses régions à travers le monde situées dans les étages bioclimatiques hyper arides, arides et semi arides. Elle met en péril l’exploitation durable des ressources en terre ayant pour conséquence l’appauvrissement des sols et le déplacement de volumes élevés de particules par le vent. La Tunisie, à l’instar des pays limitrophe du Sahara, est concernée directement par ce phénomène. La compréhension des processus physiques de l’érosion éolienne, en particulier la vitesse de friction de seuil (u*t), vitesse de vent à partir de laquelle la couche superficielle du sol se met en mouvement, est essentielle pour une quantification plus précise du flux horizontal.
Dans ce travail, nous discuterons l’utilisation d’un capteur de saltation, le Sensit©, pour détecter, in situ, le seuil d’érosion éolienne sur une parcelle expérimentale. Au cours de cette expérience, qui a eu lieu pendant les fortes périodes érosives (mars, avril et mai), de mesures additionnelles sur la vitesse et la direction du vent et la distribution en taille des agrégats constitutifs du sol ont été réalisées. Les résultats de ce travail montrent que cet appareil permet de mesurer la vitesse de friction seuil pendent les évènements érosifs les plus intenses, cependant il semble être très limité par la taille des fractions érodables qui caractérisent les zones arides et désertiques tunisiennes
Motsclés: Erosion éolienne, seuil d’érosion, saltation, Sensit©

Effect of Low Intensity Ultrasound on Fibrosarcoma Vasculature and Necrosis in Vivo
347-356
Ahmed Ebrahim Elerian
Abstract:
Background/Aim: For many years ultrasound was used in medical field in the form of clinical imaging as well as for therapeutic action in physical therapy by using its thermal and mechanical effect on soft tissue, while the high focused ultrasound was used significantly in tumor treatment and necrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low intensity ultrasonic on experimentally induced fibrosarcoma solid tumor in mice.
Materials and Methods: The treatment procedures started after 2 weeks from induction of fibrosarcoma solid tumor. Fourteen male mice 6-8weak old with average weight 18-25g were used for this study. The 14 mice were divided into two groups, each one contain 7 mice;the experimentally treated group which was treated by low intensity ultrasound, and the control group which received shame ultrasonic. Comparison in between both groups was done through histopathology examination, for measuring tumor necrotic area and observing the change in Tumor cell viability, Tumor giant cell number, The amount of vasculature either in the stroma or in-between the muscle bundles, Presence or absence of necrotic cell,Presence or absence of hemorrhage and edema, as well as measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression through immunohistochemistry examination.
Results: There are significant differences in tumor necrotic area length measurement and VEGF expression in between ultrasound treated group and control. In the treated group the histopathological findings revealedthat there were marked decrease in the size of solid mass of the tumors,with decrease of the mitotic division and scanty numbers of tumor giant cell was detected,also there was reduction of tumor cell viability,there were necrosis and vasculitis in the blood vessels accompanied with edema around the vessels and in between the muscle bundles.
Conclusion: Low intensity ultrasonic particularly targeted the vascular structures of tumor, and may prevent further tumor growth.
Keywords: Ultrasonic, Antitumor, VEGF, Angiogenesis

Kinetics of the dissolution of Akwuke kaolin in hydrochloric acid solution
357-377
Chukelu, C.C., Onukwuli, O.D., Nnodi, L.A., Okey-Onyesolu, C.F. and Okoye, C.C.
Abstract:
The leaching kinetics of alumina from Akwuke kaolin by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The investigation was carried out under various process variables viz; calcination temperature, dissolution temperature, acid concentration, clay/acid ratio, particle size and stirring speed. The experimental data was studied using the kinetics models for heterogeneous reaction development by graphical and statistical procedures. Thermodynamics study of the dissolution reaction was mathematically estimated. The result from the experiment indicate that increase in calcination temperature, dissolution temperature, acid concentration, stirring speed and decrease in clay/acid ratio and particle size enhances the rate of dissolution of alumina and the controlling step for alumina extraction was found to be the ash/product layer diffusion. The kinetics equation is given by while the activation energy was estimated to be 17.701kJ/mol. Also, ΔHo of -57.68KJ/mol, ΔSo of -918.56J/mol.k and ΔGo of 182.15 KJ/mol depicts that the reaction process is exothermic and spontaneous with low degree of disorderliness. This investigation has indicated that extraction of alumina from Akwuke kaolin can serve as an alternative raw material for aluminium industry and can be produced in a large scale by using the kinetic data in designing the process equipment.
Keywords: kaolin, alumina, dissolution, hydrochloric acid, kinetics, thermodynamics

Social Security and Public Ethics and its Relationship to Social Trust (Case Study: the Youth in Tajikistan, Dushanbe)
378-385
Malek Malekshahi1 and Yarmohammad Ghasemi
Abstract:
This article aims to investigate the relationship of social security and public ethics to the social trust of youth in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. This study is descriptive-explanatory research in essence. Research quantitative data are collected through survey and researcher-made questionnaire. Statistical population includes all youth from 18 to 29 years old (girl and boy) of Dushanbe city in 2013-2014. 383 samples were selected using Sharp and Cochran’s sampling formula, which are specific to unlimited statistical population. The probabilistic sampling was carried out by multi-stage cluster sampling with 0.05 error level and reliability of 0.95. Qualitative face content validity was used to determine the validity of indicators; indicators’ reliability was assessed using items’ internal harmony or consistency through Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from zero to one. The findings indicate that the mean of social trust in the youth of Dushanbe is 2.6884; it uncovers the moderate to high level of social trust in this regard. Moreover, the variables of social security with 2.3169 and public ethics with 2.3474 have influenced on social trust of the youth in Dushanbe.
Keywords: social trust, social security, public ethics, the youth, Dushanbe.

Advanced Atmosphere Temperature Sensitive Railway Line Thermodynamic Water Dispenser
386-393
Surender Dhanasekaran, Vignesh Prasanna, Aron Anandraj, Bhanusree Bukya, Venkatesh Acharya and Manchikatla Sathvik
Abstract:
Railway journeys needsa lot of hydration to the human body. The destiny of the locomotive is not limited to specific locations and so does the temperature variance within the separate blocks of the locomotive. The water bodies within the train tends to get variation in temperature in relation to the actual temperature felt by the body, this variation in the temperature makes the nature of drinkable water inconsumable and uncomfortable. The variation of climatic condition also makes the necessity of varied temperature state of water demanded in commuting. Nominal cost of water in commuting is not the uniform case. This new invention has the tendency to obtain temperature & quantity preferences from the consumer and analyses the state of atmospheric temperature in reference to the real feel temperature. By nominal cost input, the preferred variance of water could be served to the consumer. The government has a considerable profit by serving the needy.
Keywords: Atmospheric Temperature, Water Dispenser, Temperature Sensitive and Railway water.

A Conceptual Model for Transport and Biodegradation in a Saturated Porous Media
394-401
S.A. Kammouri and M.El.Hatri
Abstract:
Actually, the importance of microbial activity in degradating organic substances in both subsurface and deep groundwater has been widely recognized by many authors. Several models have been developed that couple unstructured microbial growth kinetics with the transport of bioactive components in groundwater systems. These models can be broadly grouped into two categories: Those that include mass transfer limitations between the fluid phase and the microbes (multiple-phase models), and those that assume that the mass transfer limitation between the biomass and the aqueous phase can be neglected (single-phase models). In this work, we have presented first a single phase model for transport and biodegradation in a saturated aquifer (we have considered a rectangular mesh in a two dimension space). Mathematical formulation of such processes leads to a set of non linear partial differential equations coupled to ordinary differential equations. The transport equation is approximated by a finite volume scheme whereas biodegradation equations are treated separately as a system of ordinary differential equations. Numerical results for biorestoration using Monod Kinetics are presented.
In a second part, we have described a two-phase model for transport and biodegradation in a system of a column of soil in order to examine when the use of a single phase model is appropriate.
Keywords: Memristor, Implication logic, Digital Memristrics

The Impact of Audit Quality on The Effectiveness of Detecting Frauedlent Financial Statements in Jordan
402-425
Dr. Mohamad A. Al-Dahiyat and Asma Znaimat
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of audit quality on the effectiveness of financial statement fraud detection. Towards this aim, a research model was developed and tested within the context of the auditing firms working in Jordan. The proposed model assumes that audit quality dimensions (technical competence, auditor’s independence, and audit planning) are key factors that would enhance the use of fraud detection red flags.
A survey methodology was utilized to gather data by sending questionnaires to a random sample of 100 audit offices. A total of eighty three questionnaires were received representing a response rate of (83%). Descriptive and regression analyses were used to test hypotheses and achieve the research objectives. The main findings of the study reveal that audit quality factors collectively have a significant impact on the effectiveness of financial statement fraud detection. Based on the research results, a number of implications are proposed.
Keywords: Audit Quality, Fraud Detection, Red Flags, External Auditing; Fraudulent financial

Expérimentations en conditions contrôlées des paramètres aérodynamiques de l’érosion éolienne pour différents états de surface du sud tunisien
426-437
Mohamed Labiadh
Abstract:
Soil erosion by wind is controlled by the friction velocity u*, which depends on the wind speed and the surface roughness. In neutral conditions, aerodynamic parameters (aerodynamic roughness height (z0) and u*) are determined from the wind speed (u) at a height (z) above the ground using a logarithmic profile wind speed.
Twelve soils samples from different sites in south Tunisia were the subject of a simulation of soil erosion by wind in the wind tunnel of the Arid Regions Institute to measure aerodynamic characteristics. Additional experiments were performed to determine the size distribution of tested soils.
The results of this work show that the surface of soil spread in the working section of the wind tunnel are aerodynamically smooth. The values of the aerodynamic roughness height (z0) measured are between 10-7 and 10-2 cm. This order of magnitude of z0 shows that the tested soils are very vulnerable to wind erosion process. In addition, measurements of threshold condition show also that there is an optimum diameter of 100 µm for which the threshold friction velocity is minimal (20 cm.s-1). Keywords: Soil erosion by wind, southern of Tunisia, wind tunnel, surface roughness, threshold friction velocity

Personality-related leadership effects of Millennials in 21st century organizations
438-446
Bargavi.N, Anand A. Samuel and James Daniel Paul
Abstract:
Purpose: The primary objective of this paper is to determine the dominant personality traits of millennial leaders, and toexplore the evolving themes under resilience in personality of Gen Y leaders.
Methodology: This is a literature review paper that analyzes the flexibility in personality of Millennials into tenacious narration; augmented by several peer journals, research works.
Findings: The dominant traits of the leader’s personality were found to be emotional stability (neuroticism), extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, along with an added aspect of self-esteem (narcissism), prevalent in many studies. Similarly, the resilience in personality can be managed by identifying the propensity, changing leader’s attitude, establishing preferences and having positive perception.
Originality/Value: Even though there are several works published around the personalities of millennials, this paper builds upon the author’s motive to explore about the variance in personality by Gen Y leaders in organizations.
Keywords: Gen Y leaders, Personality, Resilience, Self-esteem, Variance.