European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 131 No 3
April, 2015

Optimal Control for Non-Cooperative Parabolic Systems with Conjugation Conditions
215-226
A. H. Qamlo, H. M. Serag and E. A. El-Zahrany
Abstract:
In this paper, some control problems of distributed parameter systems described by non-cooperative parabolic equations with conjugation conditions and by quadratic cost functional are considered. First, the existence of the state for (2x2) non-cooperative systems described by parabolic equations with conjugation conditions is proved, then, the optimal control of distributed type for these systems is discussed. The problem with control under conjugation conditions is also studied for (2x2) non –cooperative parabolic systems. Finally, the discussion is generalized to (nxn) non-cooperative parabolic systems with conjugation conditions.
Keywords: Optimal control, existence of solutions, parabolic systems, conjugation conditions, non-cooperative systems, quadratic cost functional

Recovery and identification of phenolic acids in honey samples from different floral sources of Pakistan having antimicrobial activity
227-235
Samiyah Tasleem, Muhammad Abdul Haq, Syed Baqir Shyum.Naqvi, Muhammad Abid Husnain and Sajjad Haider Naqvi
Abstract:
The objective of the present study was: a) to investigate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples of different floral sources of Pakistan, b) to recover the phenolic acids in them as a possible contributing factor of antimicrobial activity. Six honey samples from different floral sources, namely: Trachysperm copticum , Acacia species , Helianthus annuus , Carissa opaca, Zizyphus and Magnifera indica were used. The antimicrobial activity was investigated by the disc diffusion method against eight freshly isolated clinical isolates ( Staphylococci aureus, Staphylococci epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans ). Antimicrobial activity of honey was compared with five commercial antibiotics, namely: doxycycline (DO-30ug/mL), oxytetracycline (OT-30ug/mL), clarithromycin (CLR–15ug/mL), moxifloxacin (MXF-5ug/mL) and nystatin (NT – 100 UT). The fractions responsible for antimicrobial activity were extracted using ethyl acetate. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to recover the phenolic acids of honey samples. Identification was carried out via High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that antimicrobial activity was present in all honey samples and found comparable to the antibiotics used in the study. In the microbiological assay the ethyl acetate honey extract was found to exhibit a very promising antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms tested, indicating the existence of phenolic compounds. Six phenolic acids, namely: gallic, caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, benzoic and cinnamic acids were identified besides some unknown substance by HPLC. In conclusion Pakistani honey samples showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and promising antifungal activity. Identification of six different phenolic acids showed that Pakistani honey samples are rich sources of phenolic compounds that could be the contributing factor of antimicrobial activity.
Keywords: Pakistani honey, Antimicrobial activity, Phenolic acids

Mechanical Stresses Effect and Artificial Anisotropy Using In Optical Fiber Components
236-241
Hassan Khayyat and Al-Gawagzeh Mohammed Yousef
Abstract:
This paper study the effect of mechanical stress in fiber optics, it's also consider the implementation of anisotropy and self-focusing optical fiber.The characteristic of anisotropic optical fiber light guides is tested. It was given Examples of anisotropy using in components of optical fiber cables. This paper provides a possibility to change the transmission parameters, and a possibility to reduce the loss in fiber optic by changing the bend parameters.
Keywords: Mechanical stress, Anisotropy, Fiber optic, self-focus, dielectric permeability, bends parameters.

Environmental Problems from an Economic and Fiscal Perspective: An Empirical Evaluation for Turkey and OECD Countries
242-255
Burcu Gediz Oral and Ferhan Sayin
Abstract:
One of the most effective means of compensating for external costs arising from the fight against environmental pollution is environmental taxation. In countries where environmental tax is an effectively integrated part of the tax system emission volumes are expected to be relatively low. The main purpose of this study is to determine the prospects of environmental taxes in internalizing the negative environmental externalities and the effect of economic growth on pollution. To that end and in the same vein with the Morley (2010a) analysis from the literature, the effect of environmental taxes on pollution and energy consumption was analyzed with Generalized Method of Moments-GMM, a Dynamic Panel Estimation method proposed by Arellano and Bover (1995) for Turkey and OECD countries. The dynamic panel analysis showed that there is an inverted U-shaped pattern for income variables, pollution and energy consumption.
Keywords: Growth, Environmental, Externalities, Environmental Externalities, Environmental Taxes

Brassware effluent physical filtration treatment using three columns: activated carbon, fly ash and pozzolan
256-267
Omar Laidi, Mohammed Merzouki and Mohamed Benlemlih
Abstract:
The main goal of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the activated carbon, fly ash and pozzolan as filters to treat a brassware effluent. In a brassware effluent with a maximum of chemical oxygen demand (COD: 4000 mg/L), the concentration of heavy metal such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were found to be maximum of 0.69 mg/L silver (Ag), 9.46 mg/L copper (Cu) and 230 mg/L nickel (Ni) respectively.
The results have indicated that the rate of nickel removal on activated carbon, fly ash and pozzolan are 98 %, 98 % and 93 % respectively with a rates higher than 67% for other metals. Whereas the rate of COD removal are 95, 28%, 93, 17% and 91, 1% respectively on these three filter matrix. The filtrates obtained follow the Moroccan discharge standards.
On the other hand, the originality of this system lies in its application at the level of industrial scale to treat brassware effluent with high concentrations of heavy metals whose investment and operating costs are lower than other treatment systems.
Keywords: brassware effluent, filter matrices, heavy metals, organic pollutants.

Analysis of Ophthalmic Images: Study of Contour and Excavation Optic Nerve
268-279
Maroua Ben Mansour, Yosra Mlouhi, Imed Jabri, Tahar Battikh and Mohamed Najeh Lakhoua
Abstract:
This article describes the new strategy of observation and analysis of the ophthalmologic images in order to detect the glaucoma which, in the absence of adequate treatment, causes an irreversible blindness. We have treated the imagery applied to the Retina and we were able to develop some algorithm of digital image treatment, and the motif analysis techniques for the detection of the optic disc. And to do this, we have exploited the pretreatment of the image techniques such as morphological filters to improve the quality of the image and the Canny filter for the edge detection. Under the framework of the detection of circular shapes, we have opted the use of Algorithm which is the most famous detector of shapes and Hough Transform to detect the Papilla and Excavation. All these images will be applied on the fundus in order to create software illustrating some techniques of the image treatment, capable of determining precisely the relationship between the excavation diameter and the Papilla diameter which is a determining factor in the diagnosis of the Glaucoma.
Keywords: Ophthalmologic images analysis, Glaucoma, Papilla, Techniques of image pretreatment, Canny filter, Hough Transform, Excavation.

Digital Logic Implementation of Memristor: Material Science
280-290
Anjo C.A. and Dr. Aruna Priya P.
Abstract:
A memristor is considered to be a fourth basic circuit element. This paper describes about how memristors can be used for the digital logic implementation. The memristor is explained with the physical structure and model equation of linear drift. The distinct property of memristor as circuit element having a lissajous pattern is used for construction of the digital memristrics. The boolean implication logic method is considered for constructing memristor based circuits. The present research highlights that memristor can be used for constructing logic gates. A SPICE simulation model is created for memristor implication logic and functionalities are verified.
Keywords: Memristor, Implication logic, Digital Memristrics

Molecular Study on Uricase encoding (puuD) gene in P.aeruginosa Uricase Producers Isolates
291-298
Suhad Kadhim Abdullah and May Talib Flayyih
Abstract:
In previous study we reported the screening of uricase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different clinical specimens by plate assay methods. In this work we study uricase enzyme at the molecular level .Out of 43 isolates of P.aeruginosa , 38 isolates (88.37%) were found to be carrier for uricase encoding (puuD ) gene by application of polymerase chain reaction while only 5 isolates (11.62%) were found to be negative for this gene . These results were similar to those obtained by qualitative and semi quantitative detection methods for uricase production. Sequencing of uricase encoding gene resulted in confirmation of correct identification of uricase encoding gene (puuD ), the identity was 100% when compared with reference strains P.aeruginosa PAO1H2O and P.aeruginosa PA96 with an accession numbers CP008749.1 and CP007224.1,respectively.
Keywords: Uricase, P.aeruginosa, puuD, Sequencing.

Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Subgroups
299-309
Hussein K. Al-Hakeim, Iman M. Jebur and Shroq S. Hassoon
Abstract:
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered a local growth factor and acellular differentiation factor of PCOS. In females, AMH is secreted exclusively by the granulosa cells of ovarian early developing follicles. The relationship between AMH and different parameters in PCOS subgroups was investigated in this study.
Methods: Sixty PCOS patients and 30 healthy women participated in the study. Serum hormones (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and prolactine) were measured by using ELISA kits.
Results: A significantly higher AMH level was observed in PCOS patients compared with the healthy control group. A mild correlation was found between serum AMH with serum cortisol (r=0.327, p=0.011) and testosterone (r=0.390, p=0.008), whereas a negative correlation was observed between age and AMH (r=-0.421, p=0.001). Regression forecasting equation was developed to predict AMH from these three parameters, which significantly affects the AMH level in PCOS patients. PCOS patients were divided into groups according to insulin resistance.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that AMH level is higher in PCOS patients compared with the control group. Age, serum cortisol and testosterone are significantly affect AMH level in PCOS patients. Subdividing PCOS patients into groups provides more information than evaluating them as a whole group, especially when the patients are subdivided according to insulin resistance.
Keywords: Antimullarian hormone, PCOS, Hormone, and reproduction.

Determinants of Employee Happiness: A Causal Research
310-325
Anas Habib and Zubair Azam
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to explore and test motivation, curiosity, insight and engagement as determinants of employee happiness. The four identified determinants are psychological aspects of an employee’s job experiences. The research provides a conceptual overview of how employee happiness has been characterized in the literature to date, and how it increases or decreases as motivation, curiosity, insight, and engagement increase or decrease. Causal analysis has been performed multiple linear regression Analysis. Results indicated significant yet weak relationship between independent and dependant variables. Future research areas have been identified along with managerial and academic implications.
Keywords: Employee Happiness, Social Capital, Employee satisfaction.