European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 131 No 1
April, 2015

Challenges and Proposed Solutions of Coverage Based Testing Tools
7-21
Samar Ali Abdallah and Ramadan Moawad
Abstract:
Automated test generation for object-oriented software typically consists of producing sequences of calls aiming at high code coverage. Test coverage is sometimes used as a way to measure how thoroughly software is tested. Coverage is used by software developers and sometimes by vendors to indicate their confidence in the readiness of their software. This survey studies and compares 7 coverage-based testing tools focusing on, but not restricted to coverage measurement. We also survey additional features, including program prioritization for testing, assistance in debugging, automatic generation of test cases, and customization of test reports. Such features make tools more useful and practical, especially for large-scale, real-life commercial software applications. This paper discusses the technical challenges that are testing tools need to address when handling Java classes coming from real-world open source projects, and when producing JUnit test suites intended for real users.
Keywords: Unit testing, Automated test generation, Search-based testing, Testing classes, Search-based software engineering.

Preventive Effect of Citrullus colocynthis L. Oil on the Offspring of Obese Rats

Radjaa Kaouthar Meziane, Fouzia Ammamou, Abdelillah Amrouche, Houcine Benmehdi and Chabane Sari Daoudi
22-34
Abstract:
This study aimed to test the effect of colocynth oil extracted from the seeds of Citrullus colocynthis L. on the offspring of obese Wistar rats. After 8 weeks of diet, Blood and organs were harvested. Body weight, lipid profile & renal function (urea, uric acid creatinine) ALT, AST and LDH activities, the oxidative stress hydroperoxyde, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase SOD activity, in addition to glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in serum & tissues were analyzed. The results showed that feeding high fat diet during pregnancy significantly increased final body weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol, & LDL concentration in offspring of obese rat compared with controls, while significantly decreasing HDL; meanwhile treatment with colocynth significantly normalized the lipid profile. Serum ALT, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH, were significantly higher in the high fat group compared with normal controls; and administration of colocynth oil significantly lessened the effect of the HFD.
Thus, the present study shows that the mothers' HFD intake during pregnancy led to disruption of lipid profile, body adiposity, glucose, IR parameters, and liver parameter by adulthood. Treatment with colocynth oil has beneficial effects on the programming responses that control body fat, glucose and lipid metabolism, liver and oxidative stress parameters on the offspring.
Keywords: Obesity, Offspring, Animal model, Pregnancy, Colocynth oil

Mise en place d’une infrastructure de données spatiales intégrant le géotraitement en ligne en utilisant les outils gratuits et les standards internationaux : Secteur de l’eau et de l’environnement au Maroc

Lamiaa Khazaz, Hassane Jarar Oulidi, Saida El Moutaki, Abdessamad Ghafiri and Aniss Moumen
35-44
Abstract:
Given the diversity of formats and data sources, as well as the continuous growth of their quantity and their resolution, implementation analysis and geoprocessing on desktop computers becomes more and more problematic. Especially in the fields of water and environment where the geoprocessing requires a large number of data that has various sources and uses complex models.
This work aims performing an intelligent spatial data infrastructure (SDI) integrating the OGC specification Web Processing Service (WPS). Essentially based on the free and open source tools, it will reduce public spending. This SDI will share reliable data and will geoprocess them online intuitively and with simple clicks. This ensures a better sustainable and integrated water and environment management, by supporting the decision making process.
Keywords: Web Processing Service, Geoprocessing, Geostatistics, Spatial Data Infrastructure, Morocco, OGC, ISO, Water, Environment.

Performance Evaluation of Anaerobic Digestion in Treating Vinasse

Randa M. Osman, I. A. Ahmed and M. S. Mohammed
45-58
Abstract:
The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating distiller’s wastewater (vinasse) was investigated for 450 days at 37°C. After a successful start-up, 83.5–97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 72–10 hrs with organic loading rates (OLR) of 5–36 kgCODm-3 d-1. The biogas mainly consisted of methane and carbon dioxide, and the methane and carbon dioxide content in the biogas was 55–62 and 36–43%, respectively. The yield coefficient of methane production was 0.323 lCH4 g-1 COD removed until OLR at 36 kgCODm-3 d-1. The volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the effluent mainly consisted of acetate and propionate, accounting for more than 95% of total VFA as COD, and other VFA was detected at insignificant concentrations.
Keywords: Anaerobic digestion; mesophilic temperature; UASB; Vinasse

Locally Planes Riemnnian Banach Manifolds

El-Said R. Lashin and Yasin Al Zubadi
59-69
Abstract:
Theory of differentiable infinite dimensional manifolds [1-11] evolved considerably over the last thirty years. The necessary and sufficient condition for a Riemannian Banach manifold to be a locally plane space will be established. Also, in this work we proved that a Riemannian Banach manifold of constant sectional curvature is a locally plane space.
MS classification: 53C40.
Keywords: Banach manifold; Strong non-singular metric; Locally plane space; Space of constant sectional curvature.

A Review of Reforestation Approaches in Ghana: Sustainability and Genuine Local Participation Lessons for Implementing REDD+ Activities

Mark Appiah, Murray Fagg and Ari Pappinen
70-99
Abstract:
The sustainable management of reforestation activities is increasingly dependent upon local communities' cooperation and participation. However, their involvement in project activities has been challenging because of conflicting interests in forest utilization on the one hand, and conservation on the other. In Ghana, for instance, this challenge is compounded by unclear government land use policies. However, while these challenges remain, there are some steps that can still be taken in order to secure the long-term commitment of local people to the governance and management of reforestation projects. This article reviews research findings on reforestation projects focusing on four cases in Ghana with high levels of achievement of sustainability indicators. The review provides an overview of the key sustainable approaches utilized that could become a model for sustainable management of “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus” (REDD+) activities involving reforestation and livelihood development elsewhere. While seeking improved forest policy, a pressing need is to build the capacity of local people and institutions to manage integrated tree-crop systems independently and also to include all social groups in management and decision-making. The projects’ initiators took steps to ensure land tenure confidence, as opposed to outright ownership (which is difficult to achieve), and suggest that it has been one of the main drivers in achieving successful local commitments.
Keywords: Forest Governance, Land Tenure Confidence, Land Use Policies, REDD+, Stakeholder Participation

Islamic Bank: What is the possible impact on the Moroccan Economy?

El hachloufi Mostafa, Makboul Mina and Diaz Taoufiq
100-106
Abstract:
Recognizing the central role of investment in their development process, companies have programmed to use it all the time.
Financing may remain a stumbling block in this process because not all companies are able to finance their investment programs.
Same logic applies to project leaders who often face the non-existence or lack of financial resources.
The problem is exacerbated by the attitude of the conventional financial system, which, for the sake of vigilance requires an arsenal of guarantees, in response to any financial support solicitation of an investment project.
At this level, the question on a possible alternative to the conventional financial systemarises.
The answer is, of course, in the islamic financial offer. the latter is as an important remedy, including , for project leaders who cannot respond favorably to guarantee requirements of the conventional financial system , a role that do not go without a major positive impact on the local economy,
In this paper, we present an economic analysis of the impact of Islamic mode of financing, including the product Mudaraba on Morocco’s economy in terms of absorption of a number of major economic and social problems, principally unemployment.
Keywords: Islamic Finance, Mudaraba, Investment, Morocco's Economy, Economic and Social Problem.

Optimizing DC-Motor PID Controller Using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

Riyadh Abdulhamz
107-121
Abstract:
This paper aims to introduce a new optimization algorithm to be used as a means to solve the PID controller optimality problem. The Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is a powerful tool with exceptional capabilities to find the optimum point for a system cost function. It combines the particle or swarm optimization concepts and the intelligent communities’ social behavior, like human communities. This powerful tool was implemented to solve the problem of PID best settings to drive a DC-motor. Two models for the DC-motor were used for this purpose. The first model was built using the mathematical model of a DC motor to serve as a control sample for the behavior of the ICA while the other was built by adding the fine details for the load and the impairments affecting the motor operation and how the PID compensate for their unwanted effects. Matlab/Simulink was used to test the optimized system and acquire the results.
Keywords: PID, DC-motor, ICA, Evolutionary optimization.

Effect of Neural Mobilization Versus Spinal Manipulation in Patients with Radicular Chronic Low Back Pain

Waleed Salah El-din Mahmoud
122-132
Abstract:
Objective: to investigate the effects of neural mobilization and lumbar manipulation techniques on leg pain, functional disabilities, and degree of nerve root compression of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with sciatica resulted from lumbar disc herniation at L5-S1 level and also to determine which treatment was more effective than the other.
Design: Randomized clinical trial.
Materials and methods: Sixty patients with confirmed unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5–S1 disc herniation from both sexes were involved, aged between 30 – 50 years. They were randomly divided into two equal groups, (group A) received neural mobilization techniques and (group B) received lumbar manipulation techniques.
Main outcome measures: Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and degree of nerve root compression by grading system were measured for all patients before treatment, after 6 weeks of treatment.
Results: There was a positive significant effect of both types of treatment on all outcome measures, however there was a significant difference between the (group B) and (group A) adjusted to baseline values and at 6 weeks post treatment in respect to: leg pain (P=0.006), Oswestry Disability Index (P =0.001), and degree of nerve root compression (P=0.037).
Conclusion: The lumbar manipulation was more effective than neural mobilization; this may be due to direct influence of lumbar manipulation techniques on reduction of nerve root compression than neural mobilization techniques.
Keywords: Chronic low back pain, neural mobilization, lumbar manipulation.

Survey on Nano-Composite Polymerization Modeling

Hassan Hasheminezhad
133-139
Abstract:
This research aims to survey the properties of Polymer Nanocomposites using modeling techniques. Modeling techniques of chemistry and mechanics calculations are presented to put it briefly. In proposed and theoretical terms, modeling techniques are provided based on continuum and molecular environment. Several kinds of techniques also are presented and compared each other using recent results which modeling polymer Nanocomposites will be achieved. In order to present Nanocomposites properties and compared to previous techniques have been used for composite, its equations are provided. Impact of volume and aspect ratios on Nano Polymer are examined.
Keywords: Modeling, Nanocomposite, properties