European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 130 No 3
March, 2015

Corporate Social Responsibility and Consumer Behavior in Hospitality Industry
209-215
Anahita Naderian and Rohaizat Baharun
Abstract:
Restaurant industry is one of the service sectors which its growth and internationalization hasbecome increasingly significant in recent years. In many parts of the world, dining out is one of the fastest growing service aspects.Considering the growing of eating out culture and the increasingly competitive environment, it is definitely important for restaurants to be customer-oriented by understanding customer needs andinvestigating factors to increase loyalty. Hence, this research takes two steps towards assessing loyalty at hospitality industry particularly restaurant sector. First, study investigates the impact of corporate social responsibility on customer satisfaction. Second, examines whether customer satisfaction exerts some influence in driving loyalty inrestaurants.The overall objective of this research is to provide some insight into loyalty at restaurants, which shed light into the establishment of successful model, towards those kinds of restaurants, by taking into consideration and understanding the areas of consumer behavior, customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty, Restaurant and Hospitality.

Evaluation of Some Biomarker Levels in Women Infected with Giardiasis, Iraq.
216-222
Dr.Saleem k. A. Al-Hadraawy, Dr Ali Hassan Abood Al-khafaji and Hayder Muhsin Khalfa
Abstract:
The research was conducted on 60 patients and 30 healthy female to determine the levels of Iron, ferritinand IL-12 in females infected with Giardia.lambliain compared with control group. Who have visited Al-Sadder medical city and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf Province during the period from January till August 2014.Diagnosis infection with this parasite by using the wet amount microscope for stool from patients. The results showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in Iron, ferritinin G. lamblia infection women in compared to controlgroup.While the results showed(IL-12)are significant increased (P< 0.05) in G. lamblia infection patients in compared to control group.

An Automatic Pronunciation of Definite Nouns for Arabic Words
223-225
Salem Alazazmeh,Laiali Almazaydeh and Yahia Alemami
Abstract:
Arabic language is spoken in a wide range of the world but very few automatic pronunciation methods have been implemented to help in learning to read Arabic.The difficulty to learn to read Arabic words due to the same graphic shape with different sounds for the Arabic letters. Arabic definite article has different pronunciation based on attached prefix and suffix letters. In this paper, we propose a simplified algorithm for handling definite article pronunciation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is useful for learning to read definite article with a high accuracy, approximately 95%.
Keywords: Arabic language, definite article, pronunciation.

Quelques Aspects Bacteriologiques du Recyclage Agricole des Boues Residuaires en Tunisie
226-234
Monia Trad Rais, Sonia Sabbahi, Salma Meddeb
Abstract:
Une caractérisation bactériologique des boues résiduaires produites dans sept stations d’épuration tunisiennes a été réalisée durant l’année 2013 et le dé-but de l’année 2014. Cinquante-quatre échantillons de boues séchées ont été ana-lysés. Avec une concentration moyenne inférieure à 2 x 106 coliformes fécaux/g MS, les boues des différentes stations étaient conformes à la norme Tunisienne 106-02. Cependant, des salmonelles ont été retrouvées dans 69,2% des échantil-lons analysés. L’impact de l’épandage des boues sur la qualité bactériologique des produits récoltés a été étudié dans le cas des céréales et de différents fruits frais. Tous les échantillons de produits analysés ont présenté une qualité bacté-riologique satisfaisante avec absence de salmonelles et une densité négligeable d’indicateurs fécaux. Le recyclage agricole des boues résiduaires selon les dis-positions indiquées dans les textes règlementaires en vigueur, ne présente pas de risques microbiologiques pour les consommateurs.
Keywords: Boues résiduaires, Epandage agricole, qualité bactériologique, Indicateurs fécaux, Salmonelle.

Adsorption Dynamics of Copper (II) on Zn/Fe Layered Double Hydroxide
235-248
Ayawei, N, Ekubo A. T, Wankasi, D. and Dikio, E. D.
Abstract:
Zn/Fe-CO3 layered double hydroxide with Zn:Fe ratio of 2:1 was synthesis by co-precipitation method for the adsorption of copper ions in aqueous solution. The layered double hydroxide (Zn/Fe-CO3) was characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and SEM/EDX analysis. The experimental data fitted both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms with regression correlation coefficient values of 0.9996 and 0.9909 respectively. The results fitted zero-order kinetic mode, first-order kinetic model, second-order knietic model and pseudo-second order model. The ΔH° and ΔS° were -6.458KJ/mol and 22.0J/molK respectively, thus showing the exothermic nature of the process and the randomness of the system. The low activation energy (Ea) value is consistent with physical adsorption and isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔHx) which is the energy difference between the state of the system before and after adsorption of the a differential amount of adsobate on the adsorbate surface was calculated to 16.3KJ/mol.
Keywords: Freundlich Isotherm, Kinetics Layered double hydroxide, Langmuir Isotherm, Thermodynamics.

Issues in Nigerian and African Church History, 1849 – 2009
249-256
Onah Augustine Odey
Abstract:
Few studies exist on the Northern Cross River State or what remains of Ogoja Province of Nigeria, either singly or as a culture area. Admittedly, this is the fate suffered by many small communities in the former Eastern Province of Nigeria of which the Old Ogoja Province forms an integral part.

Effect of Fish Oil and Omega-3 in Reducing some Sterility Criteria Induced by Lead Acetate in Female's Albino Rats Rattusrattus
257-272
Hassan Ali Farman and Arshad Noori Al-Dujaily
Abstract:
This study shows a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the weight of ovary after treated rats by concentration (6) mg/kg of lead acetate. Whereas, the interaction between the same female treated by lead acetate and different concentrations (100,200 and 400) mg/rat of fish oil and omega-3 were led to a significant increase (p< 0.05) in the weight of ovary at all concentrations also shows a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the weight of uterus after treated rats by lead acetate, whereas, interaction between the same female treated with lead acetate and different concentrations were led to significant increase (p < 0.05) for fish oil and omega-3 as comparing with lead acetate group.
Keywords: fertility; fish oil; omega-3, sterility

The Potential Use of Imputation by Interpolation Techniques to Impute Missing Values in Solar Radiation Dataset
273-285
Mohd Lutfi Zainudin, Azizan Saaban,Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar and Kamal Khalid
Abstract:
This paper intended to review some related cases of missing values prediction techniqueused interpolation approach and try to propose the similar works on solar radiation dataset to investigate the possible use. Commonly, Automatic Weather Station (AWS) monitor and record the solar radiation intensity data in form of long-term data. The exhibition of long-term data is very significantly for solar energy development and other related area of studies. However, the long-term data frequently plugged with missing values causes by several factor. Availability of missing values in long-term variable data represents the main problem in climatology analysis. Problematic issue of missing values in solar radiation data has been admitted by numerous of the researchers and very limited study has been conducted on imputation strategies to cope that matter. Imputation by interpolation methods provide simpler computational techniques and often use as an estimator for predicting the absent values in time series datasets. Furthermore, an effort has been made to introduce and investigate the affordability of the imputation by interpolation technique that reported in this paper. Two (2) percentage levels of simulated missing values in hourly global solar radiation data have been used and linear interpolation technique has been chosen to impute absent values in both generated data. Then the proposed technique has evaluated by compare the goodness of prediction performance results that given by both simulated data. The result revealed that linear interpolation is a good estimator to impute missing values in global solar radiation data and that proposed technique also performed well in higher simulated missing values dataset.
Keywords: Missing Value, Imputation, Solar Radiation

Contribution à l’étude du comportement filtrant du système sol-géotextile par essai de Gradient Ratio: cas du sol de la région de Tébessa-Hammamet (NE Algérien)
286-298
Karima Seghir, Abdelkader Houam, Henri Yves Faure and Cyril Guidoux
Abstract:
Les géosynthétiques sont des nappes synthétiques, perméables, utilisées en association avec les sols, pour améliorer leurs caractéristiques mécaniques et/ou hydrauliques ; et assurer des fonctions très particuliers à savoir : la filtration, le drainage, la séparation, et le renforcement. Dans le but d’étudier le comportement filtrant du système sol-géotextile, une étude expérimentale de filtration par des essais de Gradient Ratio du sol de la région de Tébessa-Hammamet (Algérie) et des géotextiles de différents types, a été réalisé au Laboratoire LTHE (Laboratoire d’étude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement) appartenant à l’Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France).
Les résultats ont permis de constater que le mécanisme de filtration est un phénomène très complexe et dépend de plusieurs paramètres liés au type de sol et à sa stabilité interne, au type de géotextile, et aux conditions hydrauliques du milieu. Ces éléments interviennent de façon très significative dans le comportement filtrant du système sol-géotextile.
Motsclés : Géotextile non-tissé, Gradient Ratio, Filtration, Stabilité interne du sol, Colmatage

An Adaptive Layered Approaches for Intrusion Mitigation System in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
299-315
Savitha Devi.M
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) becomes a major part in our day-to-day life as they are widely used due to their nature. It cooperatively sense the environmental condition and realize the integration of the communication link. However, due to the nature of WSN, the attacker can easily interrupt and eavesdrop the data streams. In this paper, an Adaptive Layered Approach for Intrusion Mitigation System (ALA-IMS) is proposed for Heterogeneous WSN. Three tier architecture is used in this model, i.e the entire network is categorized into Base Station (top level), Cluster Heads (middle level) and normal sensor nodes (low level). The Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected based on the nearest to the Base Station. A Credit based Checking mechanism is introduced and it is based on three criteria: Energy, throughput and acknowledgement.Based on the three criteria, a set of uncertain rules are generated and it is varied periodically due to the dynamic nature of WSN. In case of invalid acknowledgement message, a One Time Frame (OTF) is generated to check the nodes are authenticated or not. The unauthenticated nodes are declared as the malicious nodes and isolate into the block list. The simulation results of the proposed ALA-IMS are compared with the existing Game Theoretical Framework (GTF). The results shows that the proposed method yields lesser packet drop rate, lesser latency and overhead with increased packet delivery ratio and throughput.
Keywords: Cluster Heads (CHs), Game Theoretical Framework (GTF), Intrusion Mitigation System, One Time Frame (OTF), Three Tier Architecture, and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs).