European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 130 No 1
March, 2015

Utilisation des Granulats Naturels Dans les Ouvrages D'art : Qualifiquation Vis-A-Vis de L’alcali-Reaction
7-14
Latifa Kassoumi, Abdellah Ouali, Mohammed Ait Elaal, Rachid Essamoud and Abd Essamad Ghafiri
Abstract:
La qualification vis-à-vis de l’alcali-réaction des gisements potentiels des granulats à béton au Maroc est réalisée sur la base des études géologiques des sites potentiels et des essais de laboratoire. Une première carte de répartition des entités géologiques qualifiées vis-à-vis de l’alcali-réaction est présentée. Les entités reconnues non réactives peuvent être utilisés dans les différents types de béton sans se préoccuper de problèmes liés à l’alcali-réaction et c’est le cas de la plupart des carrières calcaires au Maroc. Par contre, les entités potentiellement réactives, cas des alluvions des Oueds, ne peuvent être utilisées que moyennant des essais de performance et le bilan des alcalins et ce en fonction du niveau de prévention retenu pour chaque ouvrage.
Les résultats du bilan des alcalins et/ou de l’essai de performance des formules des bétons testées ont montré que les granulats potentiellement réactifs peuvent être utilisés pour les ouvrages classés aux niveaux de prévention B ou C ; à condition de limiter la teneur en alcalins des formules des bétons retenues en utilisant des ciments à faible teneur en alcalins.
Keywords: Qualification Versus Alkali-Reaction, Geological Entity, Petrological Analysis, Autoclave, Performance.

Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Evaluation Under Water Stress Conditions in Eastern Algeria
15-21
Bouchareb Radia, Gherroucha Houcine And Moumeni Lyes, Guendouz Ali and Zeltni Abdesselam
Abstract:
The physiological and morphological response of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes are studied under two water treatments, well irrigated condition (100% of field capacity) and stressed condition (35% of field capacity). The statistical analysis showed that the stressed condition (35% of field capacity)affect negatively the leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll content (CC) and leaf area (LA); but, high accumulation of Proline is registered under some condition. Each genotype showed different comportment under these conditions, which is due to the genetic variability in this vegetal material. Sigus and Boussalem are characterized by important accumulation of Proline and high relative water content; but the other genotypes registered intermediate performance under these conditions.
Keywords: Durum wheat, Drought stress, Irrigation, Proline, Relative Water Content, Chlorophyll Content and Leaf Surface.

Optimising the Performance for Diffuse Indoor Optical Wireless Links
22-30
Javed Ashraf, Prof. M .T. Beg and Prof. Mainuddin
Abstract:
This paper analyses the Multispot Diffuse (quasi-diffuse) links. The performance of Multispot Diffuse link improves by reducing the receiver Field of View (FOV) which in turn decreases the Mean Delay Spread (μ), Bit Duration (Tb) and the Root Mean Square Delay (Drms) but increases the corresponding Concentrator Gain (Gcon), and Bit Rate (Rb). The Root Mean Square Delay Spread (Drms) is a parameter for quantifying the time-dispersive properties of multipath channels. The data rate maximizes on minimizing the Mean Delay Spread (μ) and Root Mean Square Delay Spread (Drms), Value of Mean Delay and the Root Mean Square Delay depends on the Field of View (FOV) of a receiver. The Field of View (FOV) of the receiver is related to the collection area of a lens and the photo detector area. In this paper, Mean Delay Spread (μ), Bit Duration (Tb) and Root Mean Square Delay (Drms), Concentrator Gain (Gcon), and Bit Rate (Rb) are calculated for different values of FOV.
Keywords: Field of View, Root Mean Square Delay, Mean Delay Spread, Bit Duration, Bit Rate, Concentrator Gain, Optical Wireless Channels.

Simulation of Rainfall-Runoff using GIS, Hydrologic Modeling System and SCS Curves Number: Application to the Meghougha Watershed (Tangier, NW Morocco)
31-45
Iliasse Khaddor, Mohammed Achab, and Adil Hafidi Alaoui
Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to simulate the rainfall-runoff process for the event storm, especially the floods event occurred on the 23rd of October 2008, on the Meghougha river basin located inTangier city (Northwest of Morocco). It is also to predict the design of peak discharge for the 200-, 100-, 50-,20-, 10-, and 5-years return periods. In the present study, HEC-HMS hydrological model have been used with GIS to simulate the storm event to set up the rainfall-runoff model in Meghougha watershed, this model provides a various meteorological and hydrological processes to obtain flood hydrograph. SCS Unit Hydrograph (SCS UH) method was applied for the rainfall-runoff transformation computation, while SCS Curve Number method was used for loss infiltration. The results obtained in this study consist on unit hydrographs which generates the rainfall in function of the runoff for watershed outlet as well as the estimation of runoff for different return periods where norecording gauge station is available.
Keywords: Rainfall-Runoff, HEC-HMS model, GIS, SCS curve number, Meghougha watershed, Tangier-Morocco

The Application of Writing Processes in ESP Argumentative Writing Tasks: Written Discourse Analysis
46-56
Eissa Al Khotaba
Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to investigate the writing processes employed by military cadets in an argumentative writing task. The sample of the study comprised a group of 80 students in their 4th year doing their B.A in English language and Literature at Mu'tah University / Military Wing in Jordan. The researcher used two research methods to elicit data from the participants that included an interview and a questionnaire. The findings of this paper provided a number of recommendations and implications for ESP teachers and learners through discussing the theoretical and practical bases of writing process in teaching argumentative writing. The research recommends that educationists and decision-makers be concerned with introducing writing materials relevant to teaching argumentative writing ESP context particularly those doing their military English language course.
Keywords: Argumentative Writing, English for Specific Purpose (ESP), Writing Process, Military Discourse.

A Survey on Cloud Computing Tools and Technologies
57-67
Aswini. J, K. Krishna Kumar and N. Malarvizhi
Abstract:
In recent years, Cloud computing has become an interesting area for research with rapidly growing technologies. Cloud Computing is a popular computer paradigm that provides Infrastructure, Platform and Software as a service to multiple end users, through shared computing resources by distributing data efficiently over the Internet. Recently, many clouds such as Google’s AppEngine, IBM’s Blue- Cloud, Amazon’s EC2, and Microsoft’s Azure are the service providers. There are various tools available for accessing different types of services provided by cloud. In this paper, a detailed survey has been taken on various cloud computing tools. These tools enable a developer to build and deploy an application without downloading anything to the desktop computers.
Keywords: Cloud Computing, OpenNebula, Eucalyptus, CloudSim, Nimbus

Changes in Blood Glucose, Body Weights and Serum Lipids of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic rats Treated with Combined Leaf Extracts of Gongronemalatifolium and Ocimumgratissimum
68-81
I. F. Usoh, H. D. Akpan, I. S. Ekaidem, F. E. Uboh and U. O. Luke
Abstract:
This study investigated the effect of oral administration of combined 80% ethanolic leaf extracts of Gongronema latifolium (GL)and Ocimum gratissimum (OG) on blood glucose levels, body weights and lipid profile of streptozotocin (STZ: 65mg/kg b.w)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six male albino rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Groups A and F received placebo treatment and served as diabetic and normal controls respectively, B and C respectively received extracts of GL (200mg/kg b.w.) and OG (200mg/kg b.w.), D received combined extracts of GL and OG (GLOG:100mg/kg b.w. each) and E received 5 IU/kg b.w insulin (subcutaneously). Treatment lasted for 28 days and during this period daily changes in blood glucose and body weight were measured with the use of a glucometer and animal weighing balance respectively. After this period of treatment, animals were sacrificed and serum collected for lipid analysis. Time-course changes in blood glucose concentrations were inversely proportional to those of body weights of animals measured over this period, both in control and test groups. The treated groups exhibited significant (pp<0.05) decreases in blood glucose levels and increases in body weights when compared to diabetic control. The GLOG treated rats showed significant (p<0.05) time-dependent reductions in blood glucose concentrations and non significant increase in body weights relative to single extracts treated rats. The extracts also attenuated STZ elevation in triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by decreasing their levels and increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations significantly (p<0.05).The significant changes evident in combined extracts compared to single extract treated animals indicated that GLOG extracts may have better hypolipidemic effect than single extracts hence better therapeutic promises in preventing people at high risk of cardiovascular diseases and other lipid related problems. This effect might not be unconnected with the synergistic interactions of several bioactive principles present in the two leaves extracts.
Keywords: Blood glucose, body weight, lipids, streptozotocin, diabetes, Gongronema latifolium, Ocimum gratissimum

The Study of the Antagonist Activity of Four Bacterial Strains Towards Fungi Causing Postharvest Diseases To Fruits and Vegetables
82-87
Hichar Abdelhadi, Bazdi Omar, Elhartiti Abla, Elhabchi Souad and Ounine Khadija
Abstract:
This work studies the isolation and identification of bacteria producing antifungal substances from soil, roots, leaves and fruits of the strawberry plant.
Of a total of three hundred and ten bacterial purified strains, four strains were selected for their strong antifungal activity. These are Fr43, Fr52, and F101 of Pseudomonas sp genus and F31 of Acinetobacter genus.
These strains induced an inhibition rate of more than 96% when they were confronted directly with the mycelia Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata.
Their dual confrontation with the mycelia resulted in well defined zones of inhibition with a diameter greater than 27mm. This activity is explained by the elaboration of antifungal substances.
The effect of the supernatant of the bacterial suspension of the four strains induces the inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum.
Keywords: fruit, isolation, purification, identification, antagonistic, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata.

Evaluation of the Effect of Salt Stress on Some Physiological and Agronomic Traits in Tunisian Durum Wheat Varieties
88-100
E. Mallek-Maalej, R. Dakhli, N. Abdi, A. Slama and M. Ben Salem
Abstract:
This study was carried out with five Tunisian durum wheat varieties: 2 old accessions (Chili and Mahmoudi) and 3 relatively new (Maghrebi, Om Rabia and Khiar), under two salinity conditions: control (NaCl 0 mM) and NaCl 150 mM in semi-controlled conditions. Germination stress tolerance index (GSI) determinated after 4 days of the 5 durum wheat varieties germination shows that Mahmoudi and Om Rabia varieties seems to tolerate the best salinity. At the 3th well spread sheet stage, the growth evaluated by the dry weight and the leaf area seems to be the best parameter to appreciate the tolerance to salinity. The plants degree of salt tolerance is also correlated with K+/Na+ ratio. According to these criteria, Mahmoudi and Chili behave like tolerant varieties, Om Rabia, Maghrebi and Khiar like fairly tolerant varieties, the last being most sensitive. The results obtained by one or the other of the tests are completely concordant. Indeed, the classification obtained at the stage seedling is in conformity with germination (Mallek-Maalej et al., 1998). Thus the percentage of germination at the coleoptile emergence stage could constitute a reliable criterion for the durum Wheat salinity tolerance evaluation until the seedling stage.
Keywords: Durum wheat, Salinity, Growth, K+/Na+, Stress and Sensitivity Tolerance Indices

Image Steganography Method Preserves the Histogram Shape of Image
101-106
Dr. Mohammed A. Fadhil Al-Husainy
Abstract:
Steganography gained the interest of researchers during the last few years as more common method to hide confidential information. Image steganography got more importance in the field of information security because the huge number of digital images that are transmitted through internet. Steganalysis is an art of discovering the covert message. One of popular used steganalysis techniques is by studying the changes that are happen in the histogram of the image before and after embedding secret message inside image. In this paper, image steganography method has been proposed using the Least Significant Bit (LSB) of the image colors. This method keeps changes in the histogram of the stego-image at minimum. This will help to improve the resistance of the stego-image against the histogram steganalysis. The proposed method has been tested on number of images. The recorded results from the experiments showed that the method can be used successfully to achieve good protection for the secret message hidden in stego-image.
Keywords: Distortion, Comparison, Information Security