European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 129 No 3
February, 2015

The Application of Extended Technology Acceptance Model in Testing the Relationship between Attitude and usage of Mobile Devices
200-223
Nurdlyana Binti Abd Rahman Haron, Mas Bambang Baroto and Sulaiman Aris
Abstract:
Malaysia is one of the countries riding the wave of telecommunication evolution, and mobile device such as smartphone and tablet PCs flooded the market.Malaysia is positioned at number 2 behind Singapore among ASEAN Countries. The purpose of the research is to test the relationship between attitude of the user with the actual usage of smartphone or mobile devicein Malaysia.In order to test the relationship of mobile device attitude and usage, an extended of technology acceptance model (TAM) is implemented. The research takes a quantitative approach involving the distribution of 152 questionnaires to graduate and postgraduate students of International Business School of UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, who are already familiar with smartphone or mobile devices and subscribing to mobile internet services.Since this research is implementing TAM, therefore the relationship of smartphone attitude and usagewill be influenced by the following factors: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived access barriers, attitude, and actual usage. The authors conduct descriptive research, reliability tests, and correlation tests are conducted. The findings show that ease of use of the technology was more important and higher significant than technology usefulness. However, perceived access barriers has no direct effect on attitude and reflects the actual usage, hence rejecting hypotheses that posited such effects to exist. In predicting acceptability among graduates student in higher learning institutions, it suggests that early user perceptions and attitude have influence on future usage of the technology. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use shown to be important to user perception on the actual usage on internet social network from smartphone or mobile device.
Keywords: Perceived usefulness, perceived of use, perceived access, attitude, and usage

Approaches to Design Feasible Error Control Scheme Based on Reversible Series Gates
224-240
Neeraj Kumar Misra, Subodh Wairya and Vinod Kumar Singh
Abstract:
As per the circuit complexity is increased there is a need of advancement of technology by using reversible logic. The circuit complexity comprises number of gate, size, power, delay and other parameters.Furthermore, error control methodology is required in reversible area which processes input, maintains data integrity, testing, error detection and checking the required output. The various approaches are categorized for error control which are significantly different and provides optimized solutions. In this paper, we design a various compact circuits related to error control schemes. Two 4x4 reversible series gates, namely inventive gate and inventive Parity preserving gate are introduced, to optimize the various error control circuits. We also introduced feasible methodology of concurrent error detection (CED), hamming single bit error correction (SBEC) and double bit error detection (DBED), 23×3 priority encoder circuit and dual rail checker circuit with parity- preserving behavior all with its detailed algorithm.
Keywords: Reversible Gate, Concurrent Error detection, Hamming code, Priority encoder, Fault- tolerant, Inverse Property, dual rail checker

The Social Responsibility of SMEs: A Cognitive Mapping Approach
241-250
Djilali BENABOU, Abdellatif CHELIL, Habib TABETI and Soumia TABETI
Abstract:
This proposal is part of the debate on the perception of SMEs managers, on theme social and environmental responsibility. We propose a cognitive approach of social responsibility. This approach is illustrated through the representation of cognitive map of two managers of Algerian SMEs. The cognitive approach considers the system as a set of individual and collective performances, which it is necessary to identify and submit to thorough analysis. In this approach, the managers are considered to be actors who build their own representations of the system. Thus, the perception of the environment by the managers - key players in the system - company is considered to be a determinant of the diagnosis of the situation and possibly an important decision making tool. In other words, of these perceptions depends the formulation of problems and solutions there instead of bringing about the issue of social responsibility of SMEs in Algeria.
Keywords: Social and environmental responsibility, managers, SME, Algeria, perception, cognitive mapping JEL Classification: M14

Etude Floristique et Ethnobotanique des Plantes Médicinales Utilisées dans le Traitement des Maladies de L'appareil Respiratoire au Niveau du Gouvernorat de Hadhramout (Yémen)
251-264
Bahassan A., Zidane L., El Yacoubi H. and Rochdi A.
Abstract:
Une étude ethnobotanique des plantes médicinales a été réalisée à l’aide de 545 fiches questionnaires, au niveau de 14 municipalités du gouvernorat de Hadhramout, afin d'identifier les plantes utilisées en médecine traditionnelle par la population locale contre les maladies de l’appareil respiratoire. Les résultats obtenus montrent que 44 % des répondants utilisent la médecine traditionnelle seule et 54 % combinent la médecine traditionnelle et la médecine moderne, tandis qu'environ 2 % n'utilisent que la médecine moderne uniquement. La médecine traditionnelle à Hadhramout est très répandue, surtout dans les zones nomades et dans l'île de Socotra. En effet, nous avons recensé 87 espèces de plantes médicinales appartenant à 68 genres et 41 familles botaniques qui sont utilisées en phytothérapie traditionnelle pour les soins des affections de l'appareil respiratoire. Les familles des Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae et Solanaceae sont les plus utilisées dans la zone étudiée. Les résultats montrent aussi que les affections respiratoires sont traitées surtout par le feuillage qui est la partie végétale le plus utilisée (31.13 %) et que la décoction est le mode de préparation le plus dominant (39.13 %).
Keywords: Yémen (Hadhramout), Île de Socotra, plantes médicinales, ethnobotanique, affections respiratoires.

Analyzing Role of Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Development and their Interaction on Productivity Growth
265-273
Ayesha Afgun, Naeem Ullah and Qaiser Malik
Abstract:
This research paper evaluatesif financial development level of a country and the volatility of exchange rate have any impact on its productivity growth. Although extensive research work has been carried out to investigate this relationship but none of the researches have separately examined its impact on Asia’s developing countries. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to carry out an appraiser whether the results from Asian countriesare in accordance with the findings of other common place research works related to our investigation. The data is converted to panel format from time series. Data is examined by using two-step GMM technique. The results of this research are broadly in line with the results of previous research works. The conclusion drawn from this research is that the level of financial development in a country does affect growth positively and exchange rate volatility negatively.
Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, financial development, productivity growth

Fertilized Nitrate Removal from Polluted Water using Nano-Rod Zinc Oxide for Reusing in Plants Irrigation
274-287
Marwa Farouk Elkady, Hassan Shokry Hassan and Hoda Farouk Zahran
Abstract:
The feasibility of synthesized zinc oxide nano-rods for nitrates sorption from aqueous solution was evaluated using batch technique. The crystal and morphological structural of prepared zinc oxide was established using XRD and SEM characterization techniques. Sorption capacity of nano-zinc oxide was investigated under different conditions via variations in contact time, sorbent dose, initial concentrations of nitrate, its temperature and pH. Nano-zinc oxide exhibits high efficiency for nitrates removal and the equilibrium states could be achieved in 4 h for the different studied initial nitrates concentrations. The most effective pH value for nitrate removal was recorded at 1. The equilibrium sorption of nitrate ions has been well explained using both Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum mono-layer sorption capacity was 89 mg/g as per Langmuir isotherm at 27°C under this particular study. In order to determine the nitrate sorption mechanism onto nano-zinc oxide, four simplified kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first order, the pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion rate models were tested. Kinetics was well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a contribution of intraparticle diffusion. Results from this study demonstrated the potential utility of nano- zinc oxide for nitrate removal from water.
Keywords: Equilibrium Isotherms, Kinetic Models, Nano-rod zinc oxide, nitrate removal, Plant Irrigation.

Mathematical Model of Fluid Dynamics in a Static Mixer
288-295
R. Akila, M. Venkatesan, S.K. Nayak and K. Balu
Abstract:
A mathematical model for simulate mixing process of static mixers in tubular reactor of different operation principles is proposed and developed to improve the understanding of static mixers. The model is used to simulate the tubular reactor with inlet mass flow at various volumetric flow rates, and the residence time distribution (RTD) and flow field were investigated. The results of this model, i.e. predicted RTD is presented in terms of different volumetric flow rate are validated with experimental RTD curves. The distribution of residence time shows that the flow field is very turbulent when the fluid flows along brazed helical element. The comparison between experimental and simulated results of mean residence time and variance is made. As the fluid flow rate increases, the mean residence time and variance of RTD decreases proportionally. The tubular reactor with Brazed Helical element can improve the flow profile by narrowing the RTD curve, decreasing mean residence time and avoiding back mixing.
Keywords: Mathematical simulation, Mean Residence Time Distribution, Volumetric flow rate, Tubular reactor, Brazed Helical element.

Re: Post Basic Education in Nursing – Qualitative Study
296-306
Raed Shudifat
Abstract:
Background: Post-basic professional education is any kind of Continuing Education (CE) which is directed at maintaining and improving the quality of care provided to the public.
This descriptive exploratory study aimed to identify the perception of nurses of the effect of post basic nursing education on the nursing profession and identify factors affecting participation of nurses in post basic education
Methods: Semi structured interviews, guided by the interview schedule, were utilized. Twenty nurses from the department of health care studies, Manchester Metropolitan University were interviewed.
Results: The importance of post basic nursing education was identified as fundamental for professional development. The needs for post basic education is motivation, either personal or professional and availability of courses encourage participants to participate in post basic nursing education courses. Time, funding, and limited opportunities inhibit participants.
Conclusion: In order for nurses to remain proficient it is necessary to continue to absorb new knowledge and skills and keep a breast of new developments and innovations in her field.
Keywords: Professional nurses, grounded theory, post basic education in nursing, British nurses, nursing profession.

Impact of Cargo Handling Equipment on Port Productivity in Tin can Island Port, Apapa, Lagos
307-314
SOMUYIWA, Adebambo Olayinka and OGUNDELE, Ayodele V.
Abstract:
The study examined impact of cargo handling equipment on port productivity in Tin Can Island Port, Apapa Lagos, in an attempt to compare the pre and post reform era. Data were sought through a modified questionnaire administered on 35 randomly selected plant operators that formed the sample size. These data were subsequently analyzed applying t – test analysis. The result revealed that cargo handling equipment in pre – reform era were obsolete unavailable and mostly unserviceable. While in post – reform era cargos handling equipment was available, serviceable and of high lift capacity. Therefore, the study recommended that faulty cargo handling equipment should not be allowed to root away government and concessionaires should imbibe modern cargo handling practices as this will lead to good performance enhance productivity and more income generation for the government and other stakeholders.
Keywords: Productivity, Infrastructure, Operation, Equipment Capacity, Cargo handling.

Performance Enrichment Analysis of an Optical Wireless Channels
315-325
Javed Ashraf, M .T. Beg and Mainuddin
Abstract:
This paper analyses the performance of an Optical Wireless Channels for various modulation techniques such as OOK, PPM, DPPM, DPIM and DH-PIM at different bit resolution and Field of View directed line of sight. For getting high average-power-efficiency, OOK and PPM are implemented extensively in optical wireless communication. In optical wireless communication, DPPM, DPIM and DH-PIM are three new modulation techniques which may become the replacement of PPM because of their better results in bandwidth efficiency and power efficiency. In this paper, the bandwidth and power requirement of the typical modulation techniques such as OOK, PPM, DPPM, DPIM and DH-PIM are analysed by considering different symbol length. Theoretical analysis and simulation results by Matlab shows as the symbol length increases corresponding power requirement decreases and bandwidth requirement increases. The Field of View of the receiver is related to the collection area of a lens and the photo detector area. The FOV of the detector is smaller than the radiation incident angle. The line of sight channel gain is calculated at different values of FOV. The concentrator gain or channel gain increases when the value of FOV decreases. It is an observation that in future the performance of these modulation techniques can be further improved by increasing the power ratio between the line of sight and the diffuse links which in turn reduces the receiver Field of View (FOV).
Keywords: FOV, CDMA, TDMA, FDMA, LED Nonlinearity, Optical Wireless Channels, DH-PIM, DPIM, OOK, PPM.

Effects of Learner Autonomy on Teaching Practices and Outcomes in an ELT Classroom
326-339
Muhammad Umar Farooq
Abstract:
An English language teacher introduces a variety of learning activities in the classroom with an aim to expand students’ language skills and to test their competence. At the same time, it is important for the teacher to provide the students with appropriate tools and feedback to encourage the feelings of success and autonomy. The learner autonomy engages the students academically and personally to understand and master the language. The present research focused on Developing Autonomy-Supportive Teaching Practices for Positive Outcomes in the Classroom. A sample of 60 teachers and 300 students from male and females campuses was selected randomly for this study. Two questionnaires were designed to get the opinion of the teachers and students regarding the concept and practices of the concept of learner autonomy in the classroom based on the criteria defined by Stephenson & Yorke (1998). The main sections of the questionnaires were ‘belief in the value of ‘taking it on’, supportive and enabling course structure, teacher support for learner responsibility, support from students, and a focus on learning’. The findings revealed that the teachers are aware of the concept of learner autonomy but it is not practiced by most of them due to the curriculum and physical constraints. On the other hand students want to be the best in the class but they lack motivation and training to be autonomous learners. The present study implementations included a growing demand to train the students to set learning goals in the beginning of the semester by their teachers. They should know what is to learn, why they are learning and how the learning is helping them to acquire new information, strategies and skills. This will make the students highly motivated, goal oriented, well-organized and making use of every opportunity to improve their language skills.
Keywords: Learner autonomy, English language teaching, motivation, Arab learners