European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 129 No 2
February, 2015

FPGA Implementation of High Speed Area Efficient Lifting Scheme based DWT Architecture for Image Fusion
100-113
G. Mamatha, M. V. Lakshmaiah, V. Sumalatha and Cyril Prasannaraj
Abstract:
Image fusion is extensively used in image and signal processing applications such as medical imaging, aerial and satellite imaging, concealed weapon detection. DWT based image fusion techniques are widely adopted as they provide better fusion results. Complexity in terms of speed, area and power dissipation of DWT and IDWT architectures are the design challenges for VLSI engineers. In this work, lifting based DWT architecture has been designed and implemented on FPGA for image fusion. Software reference model for image fusion using averaging, Haar DWT, Biorthogonal DWT and Daubechies 9/7 DWT has been modelled in MATLAB Simulink 2011a. MSE and PSNR values have been calculated for performance measure of image fusion techniques. Daubechies 9/7 has been chosen as the best filter for implementation.Five sets of different images have been used as test case to validate the algorithm. The design consumes power of 0.32 W and operates at a maximum frequency of 388.34 MHz. Compared to convolution DWT based image fusion method; lifting scheme utilizes less than 50% of FPGA resources.
Keywords: DWT, Image fusion, FPGA, low power, high speed architectures

Analyzing Role of Exchange Rate Volatility, Financial Development and their Interaction on Productivity Growth
114-122
Ayesha Afgun, Naeem Ullah and Qaiser Malik
Abstract:
This research paper evaluates if financial development level of a country and the volatility of exchange rate have any impact on its productivity growth. Although extensive research work has been carried out to investigate this relationship but none of the researches have separately examined its impact on Asia’s developing countries. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to carry out an appraiser whether the results from Asian countries are in accordance with the findings of other common place research works related to our investigation. The data is converted to panel format from time series. Data is examined by using two-step GMM technique. The results of this research are broadly in line with the results of previous research works. The conclusion drawn from this research is that the level of financial development in a country does affect growth positively and exchange rate volatility negatively.
Keywords: exchange rate volatility, financial development, productivity growth

Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Foreig Direct Investment in SAARC Countries
123-130
Aima Azhar, Naeem Ullah and Qaisar Ali Malik
Abstract:
There are many determinants of foreign direct investment but exchange rate is one of the important determinant. The main concern of this research is to inspect the effect of exchange rate volatility on foreign direct investment in SAARC countries which includes Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka. Time series data is used in this paper from 1981 to 2013 which is taken from the World Bank website. The research intends to estimate the impact of exchange rate volatility, real exchange rate, GDP per capita, trade openness and FDI with lag on foreign direct investment. The GMM technique is used to study the relation of these variables with FDI and unit root test is used to check at which level variables are stationary. The result shows that there is a negative relationship between exchange rate volatility and foreign direct investment for these countries and the results of all the other variables are according to our expectation and prior studies.
Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, FDI, time series Analysis, GMM

A Network Intrusion Detection System using Recursive Least Squares Multilayer Neural Networks
131-141
Reyadh Naoum, Omar Al-Sadoon and Eng.Alia Abu-Ghazleh
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel methodology to design anetwork intrusion detection system is proposed. The proposed methodology uses the artificial neural networks learned by recursive least square (RLS) back propagationalgorithm. RLS back propagation algorithm is consideredone of the most powerful algorithms used to learn multilayer neural network. Byexploiting the powerful capability of Kalmanfilter, our proposed IDS has attained high sensitivity and specificity, in particular, for the less frequent attacks (U2R and R2L).Experimental results show that our detection system is successful in detecting the most frequent and the less frequent attacks with nearly same high detection rates and with high detection accuracy. To illustrate the capabilities and the applicability of the new technique, the results of experiments on NSL-KDD dataset is demonstrated.
Keywords: Multi-layer Neural Network, Feed ForwardNeural Networks, Back Propagation, Kalman Filter, Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS), Network Security ,Recursive Least Square.

Design and Implementation of Front-End Bioelectric Sensor by using Field-Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAAs)
142-155
Hayder Mahdi Abdulridha and Alaa Hammood Abed
Abstract:
In the digital hardware design arena, the development of programmable logic devices, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), has greatly enhanced the designer's ability to design and synthesize complete systems within a short period of time and at a reasonable cost. Unfortunately, analog circuit design and signal processing have not enjoyed similar advances. However, new advances in field-programmable analog arrays (FPAAs) have created many new opportunities in analog circuit design and signal processing. Nowadays, the field programmable analog arrays (FPAAs) provides a very promising analog solutions to substitute the most costly analog applications to be implemented into complex systems in the goal of reducing their cost and their prototyping time, in biomedical applications this fact should be very interesting specially for supporting life and portable devices, nevertheless, their parametric characterization to be suitable for this applications is not enough when we take in account the influence of external disturbances on the possible distorted behavior of such devices, in this paper, we present the results of a functional immunity test of an (FPAAs) based biomedical application involving electrocardiogram (ECG) signal conditioning. We choose the biomedical signals because it characterized by their very little amplitude and their very low frequencies and this is a real test for it to demonstrate his efficiency in the amplification of weak signals and noise resistance.
Keywords: Field programmable analog array, Analog signal conditioning, biomedical, electrocardiogram, ECG

The Effects of Corporate Brand Attributes on Consumer Attidudinal Loyalty (The Case of Truck Owners in IRAN)
156-166
Hamid Faraghian and Seyed Reza Jalalzadeh
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the corporate brand on attitudinal and behavioural consumer loyalty.This paper tentatively presents relationship between consumer-perceived corporate brand and consumer attitudinal and behavioural loyalty.The research is based on a sample of consumers of an automobile (truck) manufacturer in Iran.This paper sets up two groups of corporate brand attributes: corporate and marketing-level.Corporate-level dimensions include corporate activities,corporate associations,organizational values,and corporate personality.Marketing-level dimensions comprise functional,emotional and symbolic brand benefits.by consideration of factors affecting the intention of truck owners imported to IRAN,we postulated an optimum criteria for import agencies.this paper shows the relationship between consumer’s attitudinal and behavioural loyalty due to imported trucks in IRANIAN market. And also shows the effect of each of factors on perception of drivers about each truck, important for drivers regarding as main issue purchasing specific brand (crucial for determination of consumers buying behaviour).
Keywords: Corporate branding, Customer loyalty, trucks.

Assessment of Heavy Metals Soil Contamination in the Abandoned Pb-mine of Zaida (Morocco)
167-178
Meriem Laghlimi, Bouamar Baghdad, Hassan El Hadi, Rachid Moussadak and Meryem Taoufik
Abstract:
Soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most pressing environmental issues. The mining activities are among the main sources of this contamination. The current study was conducted to evaluate levels of heavy metals in the soils in the vicinity of the abandoned mine of Zaida (Upper Moulouya, Morocco). A total of 51 soil samples collected in the area surrounding the tailing were analyzed for Co, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb. Physico-chemical parameters revealed neutral to alkaline soil Ph (7-8.6), with a low value of organic matter (0.3-2.66) and low electrical conductivity (0.10-1.43). The result of the heavy metal analysis showen high total contents in soil samples that exceeded the natural background limits for the soil. A significant positive correlation existed between Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb which can be an indicator of similar origin of contamination. According to the geo-accumulation index (Igeo), used to assess soil contamination degree, soils in the vicinity of mining residue were strongly contaminated by Pb, Cr and Cd.
Keywords: Heavy metals, soils, contamination, Zaida, Geo-accumulation index

Histochemical and Pheromonal Components of Mouse Preputial Gland in Relation to Estradiol Treatment
179-186
Homady M. H. and Majeed A. A.
Abstract:
The effect of 5µg/ml/day of estradiol 17-β on melanocortin-5-recepter (MC5R); total lipid compounds, essential pheromonal compounds and the histological structure of the preputial glands of intact male mice for 42 days of treatment was investigated. The treatment is resulted in a significant increase of MC5R level as compared with the control group (P<0.01), whereas total lipid contents was altered from that of the control and most of the essential pheromonal compounds were disappeared. The histological structure of the gland is atrophied with a concomitant increase of necrosis regions in the paranchymatous stroma.
Keywords: melanocortin, lipid, pheromone, necrosis, histology, mouse

Investigation of the Role of the Roentgen Interaction in Angular Momentum Transfer within an Electric Bose Einstein Condensate
187-194
Leda G Bousiakou, Omar M Aldossary and Wedad S Almarhoon
Abstract:
The exact action of the Roentgen effect at an atomic level is investigated within the context of vortex formation using two Laguerre Gaussian beams. Starting from a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the dipole approximationthat takes into account the coupling of the atomic system to the electromagnetic fields the Röntgen interaction term is introduced and viewed within the context of such a Raman transition. A rigorous investigation of the corresponding Rabi frequency reveals that the Roentgen term acts at different levels compared to the (–d.E) term and thus would not cause any changes in a fully quantum mechanical treatment.
Keywords: Bose Einstein Condensate; Laguerre Gaussian beam;vortex; Roentgen term;Raman transition.

Comparison of the Angle of Shooting Accuracy through Experimental and Simulation Data
195-199
Wan Nur Syazana Wan Zulkifli, Wan Rozita Wan Din and Azmin Sham Rambely
Abstract:
The main objective of this study is to compare the angle of shooters from simulation and experimental data. Ten male subject volunteered for this study. The experiment conducted by using Vicon 1.8.1 motion analysis with four infrared cameras and thirty-nine markers attached to the subjects’ bodies. The results showed that each of the shooters have their own exact angle for the posture in order to get accurate shooting results. Even though the shooters posses the most steadiest position where both the firearm and upper body being supported, but it will not ensure the accurate hit at the target. This is apparently due to the incapability to recognize the required segmental angle needed for them to shot accurately considering they manage to overcome the barrel movement. The accurate angle of the segments does increase when the subjects have greater height. It is also revealed that the mean angle of wrist taken from experimental data differs by only 4.55 in comparison to the simulation data done. Mean elbow angle differs with the value of 27.68 while the mean angle of shoulder showed a difference of 12.21 as compared to simulation data. Small changes in angle of shooters’ posture may lead to significant changes in their performance. Thus, it is concluded that the angle of a shooter’s posture does affect the shooting accuracy of M16 rifle at the target.
Keywords: angle of shooter, posture, shooting accuracy.