European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 128 No 3
January, 2015

Issues in Nigerian and African Church History, 1849 – 2009
Onah Augustine
Few studies exist on the Northern Cross River State or what remains of Ogoja Province of Nigeria, either singly or as a culture area. Admittedly, this is the fate suffered by many small communities in the former Eastern Province of Nigeria of which the Old Ogoja Province forms an integral part.

Fuzzy Separation Axioms via Fuzzy αg-Kernel Set in Fuzzy Topological Spaces
Qays Hatem Imran and Murtadha M. Abdulkadhim
In this paper, we introduce a new class of fuzzy closed sets called fuzzy αg-closed sets also we introduce the concept of fuzzy αg-kernel set in a fuzzy topological space. We also investigate some of the properties of fuzzy separation axioms like fuzzy αg-Ri-space, i = 0,1,2,3 and fuzzy αg-Ti-space, i = 0,1,2,3,4.
Keywords: Fuzzy αg-closed sets, fuzzy αg-kernel set, fuzzy αg-Ri-space, i = 0,1,2,3 and fuzzy αg-Ti-space, i = 0,1,2,3,4.

Extraction des Geomateraux et Degradation de L’environnement
KOUAKOU Conand Honoré, BOFFOUE Morro Olivier, ASSANDE Aka Alexandre, KOUADIO Koffi Clément and EMERUWA Edjikémé
Been call among the industrials or develops countries, developing countries like Côte d’Ivoireinvest some moneys and energies into building and socials infrastructures development. Those beautiful constructions, expression of prestige and importance of the countyconsume immense quantities of naturals resources (gravier, sand, lateritic soil, …) without take care the impact of environment. In this article,impacts of these exploitations on the hearth of populations, animals, vegetations and nature are examined from data take on manufactures. Noise, vibration, dust and exhaust fumes and space modification have esteem. We note quarries of Geomateriaux are installed without low where there’s muchdemands. These quarries make noise more that 55 decibel, produce dust mixture with exhaust fumes, change physique environment.For reduce these disagreements, coherent management of these resources might take into account unitary programs for the protection of natural resources and environment by economic agents.
Keywords: geomateriaux, environment management, impact, coherent management, physique environment

Fuzzy Based Firefly Algorithm for Iris Segmentation
S.Pon Sangeetha and M.Karnan
In Iris Recognition System (IRS), segmentation phase plays an important role. Because all other following phases like feature extraction and matching phase are based on the success of efficient segmentation of an iris. So far several researches have been done in this area. In those researches, segmentation is carried out using techniques such as canny edge detector with Hough Transform, integro-differential operator, bisection method and histogram equalization, active contour method and clustering algorithms. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for iris segmentation using fuzzy-based firefly algorithm. And also the comparative study of firefly, K-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm has been given. As a result of experiments, it is clear that the firefly algorithm gives better performance with less time duration compare with other techniques. To measure the performance, Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) is used as an evaluation metric.
Keywords: IRS, Clustering, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Firefly and PSNR.

Generation Watermark Key by using Bezier Curve Interpolation
HalaBahjat Abdul Wahab and Sarah Faris Amir
A robust watermark scheme for copyright protection is proposed in the present paper. The present method is combining the curve fitting based on Bezier interpolation and hexagonal structure technique in order to increase the efficiency of security and capability of watermark techniques, watermark key embedding on host image is based on morphological techniques and PVD (Pixel-Value-Difference) method. Further the watermark extraction does not require the original image as in the case of many digital watermarking methods. The experimental results indicate the high image quality and robustness against various attacks when compared to several approaches.
Keywords: watermark key, Bezier interpolation, hexagonal structure (or honey comb), PVD, Morphological border (MB), Wavelet transformation.

Evaluation de la Phytodivérsité et des Caractéristiques Édaphiques de la Steppe à Alfa (Stipa Tenacissima L.) de la Région de Saida (Algérie Occidentale)
Fatiha Chalane, Zoheir Mehdadi, Mokhtaria Hamdaoui and Okkacha Hassnaoui
This study consists in carrying out an evaluation of the phytodiversity and edaphic characteristics of the steppe courses with Esparto (Stipa tenacissima L.) of the area of Saida (Western Algeria). For this purpose, thirty six phytoecological surveys were taken on three stations of sampling: station exclosure where esparto is well developed, station where the esparto is fairly degraded and a station where the esparto is degraded. The species recorded were divided according to their botanical families and respective biological kinds. The specific richness of the three stations was determined by the index of diversity of Shannon and the floristic similarity by the indices of similarity of Sorensen and Jaccard. Some physico-chemical parameters of the ground of the three stations are also analyzed.
The whole of the floristic and pedological data were the subject of a factorial analysis of correspondences (FAC) making it possible to highlight the ecological factors intervening in the distribution of the vegetation in the zone of study. The 61 listed species belong to 18 botanical families of which most important are Compositeae and Poaceae. Biological characterization indicates the strong dominance of therophytes. Soil analyzes showed that the three ground stations texture is sandy loam, with a shallow surface horizon with a thickness between 6 and 15 cm, slightly saline with an electrical conductivity between 0.26 and 0.70 ms / cm and alkaline pH (8.18 to 8.64) and slightly rich in organic matter (0.51 to 2.08%). The total rate of limestone is appreciable (4.62 to 9.43%).
The FAC put forward the independent factors reacting the distribution of vegetation in the zone of study. It emphasized two groups which are characterized by their floristic diversity and their state from degradation: the groupe1 which represents the station where the esparto is well developed (ABV), is correlated with the following parameters: important rate covering of Stipa tenacissima (TR), chamaephytes (Cham), geophytes (Geo), better thickness of the surface horizon of ground (HS), high rate of the organic matter (MO), fine sands (SF), fine silts (LF), coarse silts (LG); group 2 is represented by the station where the esparto is fairly degraded and the station where the esparto is degraded which are correlated with the following parameters: an high rate of the therophytes (The), hemicryptophytes (Hem), coarse fraction soil (FG), coarse sands (SG), total limestone (CT) and clays (A).
Keywords: phytodiversity - evaluation - steppe - esparto - soil - Saida - FAC.

An Automatic Trilateral Root Extraction for Arabic Words
Alaa Albtoush, Laiali Almazaydeh and Lowai Aledinat
Arabic language is one of the most widely spoken language in the world but very few automatic mining methods have been implemented to extract the trilateral root. The trilateral root extraction is very beneficial in natural language processing application such as, information retrieval, machine translation, text summarization and compression. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for handling Arabic trilateral root extraction. Our algorithm provides fast and accurate root extraction and the experiments demonstrate that the new approach is useful for trilateral root extraction with a high performance, approximately 74 %.
Keywords: Natural language processing, Stemming, arabic language, trilateral root extraction.

Current-Mode MISO-Type Universal Biquad Employing Single FDCCII and Grounded Passive Components
Kasim K. Abdalla
New two current-mode universal multiple inputs single output (MISO) type biquads using a single second generation fully differential current conveyor (FDCCII), two grounded capacitors and two grounded resistors is presented. The circuits have three inputs and one output can realize all the five basic filtering functions namely, low pass (LP), high pass (HP), band pass (BP), Notch-filter (NF) and all pass (AP) in current mode. The proposed circuit enjoys the following features: orthogonal control of resonance angular frequency (ωo) and quality factor (Q) by varying the two resistors simultaneously, low active and passive sensitivities and all grounded passive components. The workability of one of the new configurations has been demonstrated by PSPICE simulation results based upon a CMOS FDCCII implemented in 0.35 m technology.
Keywords: Analog signal processing, Active filter, current-mode circuits, multiple input single output biquad filter, Analog circuit design, second generation fully differential current conveyor.

An Efficient Fuzzy Cylindrical Partial Relations Clustering Algorithm for the Classification of Remote Sensing Images
D. Napoleon and E.Ramaraj
It has almost been half a century; Observation towards Earth becomes more valuable and powerful contrivance to monitor the Applications on Earth which has a significant impact on the acquisition and analysis of environmental data. Thus, Remote Sensing based mapping offers great opportunities to map the phenomena of classifying different remote sensing data to manage the land resources based on satellites. In consequence a satellite image has focused largely on analogous neighborhood. Hence, appropriate analysis of multi sensor and multi temporal data is more important in ongoing research in the field of remote sensing image classification. Hence numerous substantial algorithms have been developed in order to classify the remote sensing images. Thus the focus of this research work is to classify the remote sensing images with high accuracy. In this research work, a new Fuzzy Cylindrical Partial Relations (FCPR) Clustering Algorithm is proposed with Level Set theory to classify the remote sensing images. The Proposed algorithm stimulates the clustering process by using the Fuzzy Partial Order Relations followed with cylindrical closure which shows higher accuracy in classification of remote sensing images. The Classified image has been measured using confusion matrix and kappa analysis. In order to measure the accuracy various statistical measures have also been implemented in the classified image. The proposed FCPR is tested with different existing clustering algorithms with various satellite image datasets which gives high accuracy in classification.
Keywords: Fuzzy relation, Cylindrical closure, Classification and Level set theory.

Effect of Macroeconomic Stability, Import Liberalization and Trade Liberalization on Privatization
Sara Asif, Naeemullah, and Naintara Sarfaraz Raja
Privatization is transfer of assets, property and business from government to private sector. Privatization alone cannot do much to the economy; there are other reforms which need to be accompanied in order for its successful implementation. Macroeconomic Stability, Import Liberalization and Trade Liberalization are all important financial reforms. According to the economic conditions of Pakistan, it is important to see how these financial reforms affect Privatization. Macroeconomic Stability and Import Liberalization have been measured by using indexes adopted from the literature. Trade Liberalization has been calculated as suggested in the literature. GMM analysis has been used to testify the financial model. Secondary data has been used in the study collected from various web-sources, databanks, and organizations. This study concludes a positive significant relation between macroeconomic stability and privatization, trade liberalization and privatization. This study also concludes a positive insignificant result between import liberalization and privatization.
Keywords: Privatization, Trade Liberalization, Import Liberalization, Macroeconomic Stability, Financial Reforms