European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 127 No 2
December, 2014

Evaluationde la Pollution Metallique des Sediments de la Baie Estuarienne du Banco (Lagune Ebrie; Cote D’ivoire)
113-120
Aoua S. Coulibaly, Valérie Ama Irma Wognin, Mathieu Yao N’guessan,Sylvain Monde, Aka Kouamé and Gérard Blanc
Abstract:
Les activités anthropiques se sont accrues autour de la baie du Banco notamment les lavandiers, les rejets urbains, les entreprises de carénage, etc. Cette pression croissante a occasionnée une importante dégradation de cet environnement. L’estimation de la pollution polymétallique des sédiments de la baie du Banco a été faite par la détermination des indices que sont le PLI (indice de charge de la pollution), le CF (facteur de contamination) et le facteur d’enrichissement.Ces valeurs du PLI sont croissantes de l’entrée à l’extrémité de la baie du Banco. On note par ailleurs la présence de sédiments à enrichissement significatif en Pb, avec un EF (facteur d’enrichissement) de 6,5. Le Cr, Zn As et Pb sont modérément enrichis dans l’ensemble de la baie. En outre, on a un taux de EF<2 pour Ni, Cu et Cd, qui traduisent un faible enrichissement en ces ETM.
Keywords: activités anthropiques, pollution polymétallique, PLI, CF, EF, ETM


The Egyptian Western Desert - Radioactivity and Chemical Analysis
121-128
Ghada Bassioni and Nabil EL-Faramaw
Abstract:
Groundwater is the vital source for the water supply of the Egyptian oases in the Eastern Sahara (Western Desert of Egypt). Due to the great depth the groundwater temperatures range from about 40°C to 60°C and thus the hydrochemistry is influenced by dissolved minerals from surrounding rocks. The chemical composition and morphology of seven sedimentary rock samples collected from the Egyptian Western Desert are investigated by environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray analysis (ESEM/EDX). The specific activities of their natural radionuclides are evaluated. Experimental results are obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma-ray spectrometer. It is found that the specific activity of the sedimentary rocks ranges from 6.9 to 33.7 Bq kg-1 for 238U, from 0.5 to 33.9 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and from 6.5 to 1007.7 Bq kg-1 for 40K. The maximum value of gamma dose rate in air is found to be 49.8 nGy/h and the maximum annual effective dose is 0.31 mSv/y. The impact on ground water composition found in that area is investigated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
Keywords: Gamma Spectroscopy; sedimentary rock; morphology; groundwater; ICP-MS; ESEM/EDX


Importance de l’immobilisation des Ressources Hydriques et L’impact sur le Developpement Durable dans le Bassin De Timgad Algerie Nord Orientale
129-138
Fouad Djaiz, Ali Athamena and Malika Athamena
Abstract:
La région de Foum Toub (Timgad) appartenant à l’Aurès, se situe dans l’Atlas Saharien orientale. La moyenne annuelle des précipitations est de l’ordre de 800 mm. L’hydrologie tributaire du relief est la conséquence directe des eaux de surface et de la fonte des neiges. La retenue est alimentée essentiellement par Oued Rebaa qui se dévese dans le barrage situé au nord de Timgad. Les formations géologiques de la région se caractérisent par un substratum impermiable marno-calcaires. L’objectif principal de l’implantation de la retenue est de minimiser le phénomène d’envasement à l’aval du barrage, de régulariser le débit d’Oued Rebaa et de contribuer à l’irrigation de la plaine. Cette étude rentre dans le cadre de la mobilisation des ressources en eaux superficielles décidée par le ministère de l’agriculture en vue d’une utilisation rationnelle et planifiée.
Les matériaux meubles argilo-limoneux ainsi que les grès servent comme zones d’emprunt pour les matériaux de construction. La stabilité est importante pour le choix finale de ce site, afin d’éviter le phénomène du retrait-gonflement sur les rives de l’Oued. Toutefois la possibilité de glissement peut être générée au sein des dépôts meubles. La décision finale pour l’implantation de cet ouvrage reste tributaire des essais de laboratoire.
Keywords: Retenue collinaire, Argile, Géotechnique, Matériaux de construction


Sleep Awake Scheduling Control Mechanism for Clustered Wireless Sensor Network Based on Adaptive Gur Game
139-150
Eman M. Elshahed, Shahinaz M. Al-Tabbakh and Rabie A. Ramadan
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consists of a large number of sensor nodes that are limited in energy, processing power and storage. The primary limiting factor for the lifetime of a sensor network is the energy supply. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach which already contributes to overall system scalability, lifetime, and energy efficiency.The paper considers the limitation of the nodes in handling many messages at the same time especially the CH nodes and sink node. The Gur game algorithm used to control the number of messages that sent to the sink node by defining some nodes to send at certain time allows other nodes to go to sleep mode.Certainly, this QoS control enhances the operation of the network and positively affects the nodes’ consumed energy. Applying Gur game to a LEACH clustering framework increases the network lifetime and saves energy. However, it turns out that the Gur game convergence is taken too much time. Therefore, the Adaptive Gur (AGur) is proposed to solve such problem. Therefore, the authors proposed a distributed protocol to conserve energy and load balancing in hierarchicalWSN namely, Sleep Awake scheduling Mechanism for hierarchical Wireless sensor networks based on Adaptive Gur Game. This work aims to increase the life time of hierarchicalWSN , increase the quality of service ratio of this type of networks and satisfy the load balancing through decreasing the residual energy of the nodes.A set of experimentsare examined and the results are presented.


Product Mix Model Based on Theory of Constraints
151-160
Namepalli Srikar, Mandaappa Reddy, Muppala Sumanth, Balchaaditya Kumar and Dega Nagaraju
Abstract:
In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed for application of Theory of Constraints (TOC) in manufacturing organization. Due to the presence of constrained resources in an organization restrict the management from achieving higher profitability. So, constrained resources in manufacturing organization lead managers to take decision on outsourcing of products in order to improve the profits.
This paper compares the possible solution between standard accounting analyses, theory of constraints (TOC) and the extended theory of constraints (ETOC) to decide outsourcing. In this paper linear programming is implemented along with TOC to make outsourcing decisions. These three methods allow the management to take decisions on products which are to be outsourced and which are to be manufactured within the organization. On comparing these methods it has been derived that ETOC is simple and more profitable. This model is proposed in order to improve the financial stability of the organization.
Keywords: Theory of constraints (TOC), Bottlenecks, Standard accounting analysis, Linear programming, Throughput


β2-Microglobulin Amyloidosis in Moroccan Haemodialysis Patients: Usefulness of Labial Salivary Glands Biopsy
161-170
Essadik Rajaa, Essiarab Fadwa, Lebrazi Halima, Taki Hassan, Ramdani Benyounes and Saïle Rachid
Abstract:
Dialysis-related amyloidosis secondary to beta-2-microglobulin (β2-M) deposits is a cocomplication known by long-term dialysis patients. β2-M amyloid deposition involves osteoarticular tissues. The aim of this study was to access the value of labial salivary gland biopsy (LSGB) in the diagnosis of systemic amyloid deposits related to β2-M. We studied 18 patients aged 28 to 66 years, receiving regular hemodialysis treatment of 7 to 18 years for chronic renal failure due to non-amyloid nephropathy. LSGB were performed in all patients. The biopsies were examined by a specific Congo red-stained after treatment with potassium permanganate and by immunohistochimical characterization using antibodies anti-SAP, SAA and β2-M. Amyloid deposits, characterized by Congo red staining, were detected in 4 patients. Immunohistochemically, it stained positively with anti-SAP antibody, confirming the histological diagnosis. After treatment with potassium permanganate, the amyloid deposits in all 4 cases lost their affinity for Congo red. Immunohistochemically, it reacted towards anti-β2-M but none of them displayed any immunoreactive deposits of protein AA. This study confirms the systemic β2-M type amyloidosis and shows that it may occurs without apparent clinical signs, in a relatively short dialysis period (7 years) compared to literature data.
Keywords: Amyloidosis, Beta-2-microglobulin, Hemodialysis, Labial Salivary Gland Biopsy


Leaf Histology, Evaluation of some Parietal Compounds and Morphometry of Stipa Tenacissima L. from four Western Algerian’s Habitats
171-184
Yassine Ilies Moulessehoul and Zoheir Mehdadi
Abstract:
Our job is to carry out a comparative study on the leaf anatomy, analysis of cell wall compounds and morphometry of four ecotypes of esparto grass (stipa tenacissima L.): mountain (Mount Tessala); forest (forest Messer); steppe (Ras El Ma) and coastline (Beni-Saf).
The anatomy and histology of the basal portion (10 to 15 cm) of the third order leaf were used to identify and distinguish tissues and fiber characteristics of these four ecotypes putting significant development of the mesophyll with cellulosic wall in esparto grass leaves of the station Ras El Ma, biochemically confirmed by recording high rates of cellulose in the same station.
The biochemical study also revealed that the hemicellulose fraction varies from one sampling station to another (P <0.01). The highest rate is recorded in the leaves of the forest esparto grass (Messer forest). For the lignin, there are no variabilities between stations studied. However, leaves of the station of Tessala Mount recorded a slightly higher rate.
The morphometric study revealed that on the one hand esparto grass forest patches (Messer forest) are more developed, and other parts, the variability among the four ecotypes on floral settings.
Keywords: Stipa tenacissima L., anatomy, histology, parietal compounds, morphometry


Impact du Stress Salin sur Quelques Paramètres de Germination de Cinq Variétés blé (Triticum Aestivum L.) Sous les Conditions de Laboratoire
185-201
Mouhssine Fatine, Ouhaddach Moussa, ElYacoubi Houda, Zidane Lahcen, Hmouni Driss and Rochdi Atmane
Abstract:
Cette étude sur l'effet de la salinité sur certains paramètres de germination de cinq cultivars (Amal, Arrehane, Kanz, Radia et Rajae) de blé tendre a été réalisée dans des conditions de laboratoire. Les cultivars utilisés étaient Arrehane, Radia, Amal, Kanz et Rajae. Les graines ont été semées sur du papier-filtre dans des boîtes de Pétri et arrosées avec 0, 3, 6, 9 ou 12 gL-1 NaCl. Les effets de la salinité sur le taux de germination, la germination corrigée, le pourcentage de réduction de la germination, le pourcentage final de germination, la moyenne journalière de germination, l’indice de germination, l’indice de vigueur de la germination, l’indice de taux de germination, le coefficient de vitesse de germination et le temps moyen de germination, ainsi que la longueur des coléoptiles et des racines des cinq cultivars ont été évalués. La variabilité intraspécifique du blé tendre vis-à-vis de la salinité est relativement importante. Cependant, les critères taux de germination, taux de germination final, indice de taux de germination et indice de vigueur de germination se sont avérés les plus adéquats pour étudier les effets de la salinité sur la germination. En effet ces paramètres ont varié significativement sous l’effet de la salinité et d’une façon homogène (diminution chez toutes les variétés), conjointement à des réactions spécifiques qui ont permis le classement de différentes variétés. Ces critères distinctifs, ont en outre permis une hiérarchisation identique des degrés de sensibilité/tolérance que pendant la croissance ultérieure concernant l’allongement de la coléoptile et de la racine qui ont été pareillement négativement affectés par la salinité. L’ensemble de ces paramètres descripteurs de la germination des graines du blé tendre ont montré que la variété Rajae est plus performante (relativement plus tolérante) et que les variétés Radia et Kanz sont les plus affectées par le stress salin.Les résultats ont également montré que le sel retardela vitesse de germination pour lesvariétés Arrehane, Kanz et Radiamais pas pour les variétés Rajae et Amal.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum, Stress salin, Germination, Tolérance, sensibilité


Impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance
202-207
Saghir Javed, Mubina Pathan, Khalid Noor Panhwar,Barkatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Ali Pasha and Murad Iqbal Panhwar
Abstract:
The following study examines the impact of training and development on employee performance in context of supermarket industry of Karachi, Pakistan. The research is based on a questionnaire where 100 respondents are taken as sample size. Each variable Employee performance (Dependent variable) and Training and development (Independent Variable) comprises of 10 questions. The data was tested on SPSS 17.0 to analyse the relationship between two variables and Descriptive Statistics, correlation; Regression and ANOVA were used to evaluate the results of respondents. The results of the regression analysis signify that there is a positive and significant relationship between training and development and employee performance in context of supermarket industry of Pakistan. The study emphasizes on a transparent process for employee performance evaluation. Also, the training and development process should be quantitative and effective.
Keywords: Training Development performance and employment


Optimal use of the Available Static Resource Spectrum in Code Division Multiple Access Network
208-216
M. Nasim Faruque and S. N. Ahmad
Abstract:
The Global System for Mobile communication is bandwidth limited whereas the Universal Mobile Telecommunication Services (UMTS) using CDMA system is interference limited. There is tremendous increase in the number of users in the recent past years. These users are not given access into these networks due to insufficient channels and poor quality of radio channels. This continuous increase in the cellular mobile users and the associated impairments in the system are the major concern of the network operators. This paper looks at the CDMA system and finds the suitable approach to increase the cellular capacity using cell sectoring. The enhanced cell capacity can provide more mobile users access to network by making the optimal use of the available static resource spectrum i.e. channel. The cell sectoring technique utilizes the directional antenna system to reduce the number of interfering users so that co-channel interference which is prevalent in CDMA system is drastically reduced for optimum channel usage. A drive test measurement is carried out on an existing mobile cellular network system with CDMA access technology at Greater Noida. The derived models for the enhancements of cellular capacity through cell sectoring are simulated using Matlab. The results show that the reduction in interference brings about an increase in the number of users that access the network.
Keywords: UMTS, CDMA, cell capacity, co-channel interference reduction, signal to interference ratio, directional antenna, mobility management.