65 European Journal of Scientific Research

European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 127 No 1
December, 2014

Signing Messages in the ElGamal Cryptosystem over the Group of Units U(n) Wheren= pt,or 2pt
6-10
Hayder Raheem Hashim
Abstract:
Background: A new signature scheme of ElGamal cryptosystem is proposed which uses over the abelian group of units U(n) where n is one of the following forms pt, or 2pt where p is an odd large prime and t is a positive integer. The security of this systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over U(n). This study is mainly about one of the most important applications of number theory which is about signing messages in the ElGamal cryptosystem over the abelian group of units U(n) where n is one of the following forms pt, or 2pt where p is an odd large prime and t is a positive integer. In a previous published article that is listed in the references, I suggested an interesting way to deal with the ElGamal Cryptosystem using that abelian group of Units U(n)={x: x is a positive integer such that x<n and gcd(n,x)=1} in the setting of the discrete logarithm problem. Objective: In this paper, I modify and apply that idea in signing messages in the ElGamal Cryptosystem. Since I show in this paper that we can use the abelian group U(n) where n is one of the following forms pt, or 2pt in signing messages. Also, I hope to show this new study maintains equivalent (or better) security with the original ElGamal cryptosystem that works over the finite cyclic group of the finite field. Results: This idea gives another way to sign messages that are being encrypted using the ElGamal cryptosystem, and that would help the receiver to make sure that the received message(s) came from the right sender. Conclusion: The ElGamal signature scheme over this type of abelian group of units is much more securer than before.
Keywords: The ElGamal cryptosystem over the group of units U(n): n=pt, or 2pt for a positive integer t and p is an odd large prime, The Discrete Logarithm Problem,ElGamal signature scheme.


Effet de L’azote Organique sur les Paramètres de Croissance, Dedéveloppement et de la Productivité de la Pomme de Terre Conduite en Mode Biologique
11-38
Ahmed Harraq, Rachid Bouabid, Hakima Bahri,Hassan Boumchita, Jihane Agoujil and Safae Laaguidi
Abstract:
La fertilisation azotée en agriculture biologique est l’une des pratiques agronomiques qui reste encore peu maitrisée, surtout pour les cultures maraîchères qui ont des exigences nutritionnelles très importantes. Pour qu’il puisse être assimilé par la plante, l’azote apporté par les fertilisants organiques nécessite de passer par le processus de minéralisation. Les cultures conduites en système biologique peuvent souffrir d’un manqued’azote à cause de l’inadéquation entre la bio-disponibilité de cet élément par rapport à la dynamique desa demande par la culture. Le présent travail étudie la réponse de trois variétés de pomme de terre à l’apport d'une combinaison de fertilisants organiques (compost et farine de poisson) permettant un apport azote de l'ordre de 0, 30, 70, 90, 110, 130 et 180 kg/ha. Les essais aux champs ont été conduits sur une parcelle laissée en jachère pour plusieurs années conformément aux exigences de la culture biologique. Les résultats obtenus montrent que l'apport de doses croissantes d'azote a présenté un effet significatif sur les différents paramètres de croissance et de développement étudiés, à savoir, la biomasse aérienne, la biomasse racinaire, le nombre et le poids des tubercules ainsi que le rendement en tubercules.Cette réponse tend à se stabiliser à la dose de 130 kg/ha correspondant à une fourniture d’azotetotal de 230 kg/ha d'azote,y compris la fourniture à partir de l’azote minéral résiduel et celui issue de la minéralisation de la matière organique. Les rendements en tubercule enregistrés varient entre 34 t/ha pour le témoin et 52 t/ha pour la dose de 130 kg/ha d'azote. En outre, ni la variété ni l'année n'ont montré de différences significativesen termes de rendement. L’ajustement de la réponse avec un modèle quadratique a permis de considérer l’apport autour de 180 kg/ha, correspondant à la fourniture d’azotetotale de 280 kg/ha,comme dose optimale dans les conditions del’essai et peut être adoptée comme recommandation pour la production de la pomme de terre biologique dans des conditions similaires.
Keywords: pomme de terre, agriculture biologique, minéralisation de l’azote, fertilisants biologiques.


Characterisation of Fall-Out Dust from a Charcoal Processing Plant
39-45
Ndinomholo Hamatui, Nnenesi Kgabi, Rajen Naidoo and Christo Izaaks
Abstract:
There is lack of documented scientific studies on ambient charcoal dust, its elemental characteristics and health effects. The purpose of this study was to determine dust levels within the vicinity of a charcoal processing plant, and to characterize the fallout dust for particle size, morphology and elemental composition. The gravimetric analysis of the fallout dust revealed higher ambient dust levels in the vicinity of the processing plant. A similar elemental composition between charcoal and some types of coal was observed. This implies that exposure to charcoal dust could yield similar respiratory illness such as pneumoconiosis. Fallout charcoal dust samples collected from the factory consisted high concentrations of crustal and toxic elements. The crustal elements Ca, Si, Fe, and K measured the highest concentrations and Al, P, S, Ti were lowest. The toxic elements were measured in order of decreasing abundance as Cr, V, As, Ni, Mn, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Zr. The morphological analysis indicated irregularly shaped particles surrounded by fly ash. Fifty nine percent (59%) of the charcoal dust particles were found to be in the range of 0.001 to 0.065 mm (fine and mostly inhalable), which poses serious health threats.
Keywords: Charcoal dust, elemental composition, size of particulate matter, morphological analysis


Sustainable Domestic and Industrial Water Utilisation in Namibia
46-57
Nnenesi Kgabi and Damas Mashauri
Abstract:
The impending scarcity of water due to drought and unsustainable domestic and industrial practices in Namibia cannot be overemphasised. A secondary research study aimed at assessing the sustainable water consumption patterns/practices (water re-use, recycling, desalination and reduced consumption) of the community and industrial sector in Namibia was conducted. An annual decrease in available freshwaters with an increase in utilisation of borehole water, and a decrease in re-use of water was observed more in the agricultural and mining sectors, followed by the municipal/domestic sectors. Water consumption patterns for the residents seem to be confounded by factors such as employment/income and educational opportunities; as well as increase in the commercialisation opportunities. Though clearly documented, the introduction of alternative sustainable consumption methods and subsequent reduction in consumption of fresh water observed for the mining sector still needs to be intensified. Although sustainable water consumption initiatives by industry, government and residents were identified in order of decreasing profusion as reduction of water consumption, desalination of water and direct potable re-use; a long list of modern-day sustainable utilisation alternatives still needs to be exploited in Namibia.
Keywords: sustainable water consumption, desalination, water recycling, water re-use, reduced water consumption, freshwater resources


Interrogation of Bubble Characteristics in Two Phase Gas-Liquid Bubble Column
58-64
Sarbast A Hamid, Lokman A Abdulkareem and Ramadhan H S Zaidky
Abstract:
Bubble column reactors are used as multiphase flow reactors in chemical, bio reaction and petrochemical industries such as absorption and stripping. In this study, bubble behavior in two viscous fluids under uniform gas has been simulated by using a set in two-phase bubbly flow. The two-phase bubbly flow considered to be homogenous and heterogeneous. Deformation of the bubble was considered due to gas flow pressure induced from the external applied air compressor. Studies are in a cylindrical glass column with 0.095m inner diameter and 2m height. The column is equipped with one sparger in bottom, a perforated plate and various viscous liquid heights. In this study, liquid phase and gas phase were silicon oil, water and air. A high speed camera bubble behavior was visualized. Using these images enables us to calculate the Void fraction, usg and bubble size and effect of gas pressure through the column in different gas velocity, then analyzed using some analysis techniques such as Probability Density Functions (PDF), auto correlation, Power Spectrum Density (PSD). The results showed that with increasing the superficial gas velocity, the frequency of bubbles and void fraction increases. It is also found that the superficial gas velocity observed is due to the different bubble rising regimes. Bubble shape with increasing the air flow varied from a laminar flow (bubble cap) to a turbulent flow. To measuring the void fraction swelling level method is used.
Keywords: Main subjects: Bubble column, void fraction, bubble characteristics


Analyse Moléculaire et Phylogénétique Chez Différentes Accessions de Medicago Truncatula par Rapport à Deux Génotypes Contrastés à la Salinité en Utilisant des Marqueurs de Gènes Exprimés
65-74
A. A. Amouri, F. Z Fyad Lamèche, S. M. Udupa, D. Iraqi, F. Henkrar and S. El Hanafi
Abstract:
Quatre marqueurs de gènes exprimés appelés (EST-SSR) ont été utilisés pour montrer la diversité génétique chez 9 accessions de M. truncatula en comparant avec deux génotypes contrastés au stress salin. L’amplification d’ADN isolé à partir d’individus (jeunes plants) pour chaque écotype avec les quatre amorces (MTIC 044, MTIC 124, MTIC 077 et MTIC 335) a produit un total de 24 allèles dont la taille varie de 100 à 300 pb. Ces marqueurs EST SSR sont très polymorphiques comme le marqueur (MTIC 124) à l’exception du marqueur (MTIC 044) qui est moins polymorphe et une moyenne de 6 allèles par amorce donnant un (PIC) modérée allant de 0,12 à 0,49 et une diversité génétique (Hi) qui varie de 0,13 à 0,48. L’analyse des dendrogrammes obtenus a montré qu’en général les écotypes d’origine algériennes (Tru 1, Tru 2, Tru 3, Tru 4) sont plus associées aux écotypes (Tru 5 et Tru 9) d’origine syrienne et jordanienne respectivement dont certains génotypes sont associés à l’écotype (T131) jugé tolérant au stress salin.
Keywords: Medicago truncatula, Diversité génétique, marqueurs moléculaire, phylogénétique


Reliability and Accuracy Analysis of BPSK and QAM Modulation Scheme for Assessing Structural Health Data
75-86
Md.Ershadul Haque and Md. Sanwar Hossain
Abstract:
Sensor technology offers new opportunities to advance health and maintenance monitoring for civil infrastructure such as large buildings infrastructure by providing relevant information regarding the condition of high-rise building structure strength at a lower price and greater range than traditional monitoring tactics. Numerous domestic buildings, especially long-span and multistory buildings have a low-profile frequency response that is challenging to accurately measure with the application of sensors suitable for integration with lower-cost, lower-power-profile wireless sensor networks. The present SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) system experiences a lack of accuracy and reliability of the wireless sensor network modulator to cover the large building structure health monitoring area. In this article, we have proposed two well known modulation scheme BPSK and QAM modulator and compute modulator Bit Error Rate (BER), Symbol Error Rate (SER) that define the modulator reliability and the accuracy based on ZigBee by computing Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) to quantify the sensor transmitter quality and define the bandwidth efficient or power efficient of the proposed sensor system.
Keywords: Building SHM; wireless sensor network; SER; BER; EVM


Meningioma Neoplasm Voxel Dissection of WM Lesion by PVA Technique
87-100
J.Vignesh, E.Gajendran and K.P.Yadav
Abstract:
The white matter atrophy or by white matter lesions; each of which related to changes in distinct brain regions. These results indicate that loss of white matter integrity in aging is primarily explained by atrophy and lesion formation and not by the aging process itself.paper discusses a white matter lesion (WML) segmentation scheme for fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI. The method computes the volume of lesions with subvoxel precision by accounting for the partial volume averaging (PVA) artifact. As WMLs are related to stroke and carotid disease, accurate volume measurements are most important. Manual volume computation is laborious, subjective, time consuming, and error prone. Automated methods are a nice alternative since they quantifyWML volumes in an objective, efficient, and reliable manner. PVA is initially modeled with a localized edge strength measure since PVA resides in the boundaries between tissues. This map is computed in 3-D and is transformed to a global representation to increase robustness to noise. Significant edges correspond to PVA voxels, which are used to find the PVA fraction α (amount of each tissue present in mixture voxels). Results on simulated and real FLAIR images show high WML segmentation performance compared to ground truth (98.9% and 83% overlap, respectively), which outperforms othermethods. Lesion load studies are included that automatically analyze WML volumes for each brain hemisphere separately. This technique does not require any distributional assumptions/parameters or training samples and is applied on a singleMR modality, which is a major advantage compared to the traditional methods.
Keywords: Fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), lesion load (LL),MRI brain segmentation, partial volume averaging (PVA), white matter lesion (WML).


Information and Communication Technology: A Comparison of Pakistan and India
101-107
Javed Iqbal
Abstract:
The paper examines the ICT sector of Pakistan and India; analysis is based upon the data compiled by International Telecommunication Union, the World Bank, world Economic Forum, world Internet Statistics and Pakistan Telecommunication Authority etc. Analysis has been divided into three components: infrastructure, usage and socio-economic impacts. It is found that infrastructure and usage parameters are similar in both countries despite of geographical and economic size of the countries. India is almost six times bigger than Pakistan in geographical area and population. However, the economic impacts are (in quantitative terms) more visible in India than in Pakistan. The key reasons are the export of IT services; Pakistan is however, earning more revenue 2.7% against 2% out of ICT. Overall the ICT industry is stronger in Pakistan than India as the analysis suggests.
Keywords: ICT, short case studies, Pakistan, India, comparison


Planar Antenna Design with Low Power for Wireless Technology Applications
108-116
J. Salai Thillai Thilagam and P.K.Jawahar
Abstract:
Wireless Communication Antenna proposed with low power requirement is presented in this paper by furnishing the design, simulation, and its radiation characteristics. This low powered antenna is put under the numerical analysis of IE3D electromagnetic simulator. It shows -25dB return loss, gain of 5.42dB and maximum efficiency of 80.6% at 0.989 GHz. This antenna works in the satellite communication upconverter frequencies and L-band of microwave frequencies.
Keywords: Circular patch, Microstrip antenna, Low Power, Radiation, Wireless