European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 126 No 3
November, 2014

Effect of Salinity on Grain Yield, Root and Shoot Dry Weight, Leaves and Stems Content of Macro and Microelements of Sesame (Sesamumindicum L.), Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum-graecum L.) and Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.)
240-254
Benzaidi H., Ibriz M., Maataoui A., El Midaoui M. and Benbella M.
Abstract:
Salinity is one of the most limiting factors ofcrop production worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three levels of salt stress(control, 100 and 200 m MNaCl) on grain yield, on shoot and root dry biomass and on distribution of some macro (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na),some micro elements(Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Band Cl),and Na in the leaves and stems of three medicinal plants Sesamumindicum(S), Trigonellafoenum-graecum(F) and Nigella sativa(N). The results showed that salt caused significant differences among species for almost all morphological and agronomical parameters (grain yieldper plant and dry biomass of shoot and root). Salinity decreased grain yieldper plant. Differences among salinity treatments were significant (Control> 100> 200m MNaCl).The highest decline of the total dry biomass perplant compared to the control, were recorded in the presence of 200m MNaCl in soil. The decrease was very high for N. sativa(93.2%) and S. indicum(78.6%) and high for T. foeplants Sesamumindicumnum-graecum(57.1%).Concerning grain yield,T.foenum-graecum and N. sativashowed the highest and the lowest regardless of treatment. Thus,N. sativa was the most sensitive among the three medicinal plants to salinity.The partitioning of macro and micro elements in shoots and leaves of the three species(S,FandN) varied depending on soil salinity and on the plant part(leaf orstem) of each species.
Keywords: Salinity, Sesamumindicum, Trigonellafoenum-graenum, Nigella sativa, macronutrients, micronutrients,grain yield, drybiomass.


A New Type of Implicative Ideals of a BH-Algebra
255-268
Husein Hadi Abbass and Suad Abdulaali Neamah
Abstract:
In this paper, a new type of implicative ideal of a BH-algebra, namely implicative ideal with respect to an element of a BH-algebra is introduced and some related properties are investigated. The relationships among this notion and other types of ideals of a BH-algebra, are given.


Response of Partially Prestressed Concrete Bubble Deck Slabs under Static Loads
269-283
Nazar K. Oukaili and Hasan H. Yaseen
Abstract:
This study presents an experimental investigation of behavior of one-way prestressed concrete slabs with plastic sphere voids, known as bubbled deck slab system. A bubbled slab has two-dimensional arrangement of voids included to reduce the self-weight. Nine full-scale one-way structural concrete slabs of (3000mm) length with rectangular cross-sectional area of (460mm) width and (150mm) depth were tested as simply supported under four points load. Six bubbled slabs, in which each specimen contain (80) plastic sphere voids of (100mm) diameter with a reduction in self-weight of (26.4%), have been compared to three solid slabs (without plastic spheres). Test specimens designed to consider the effect of the level of prestressing force on the behavior of the bubbled slabs. The test parameters were the type of slab specimen (solid or bubbled) and the partial prestressing ratio (PPR) which varied between (0.0 and 1.0). Due to the presence of prestressing steel in bubbled slabs, the specimens showed an increase in failure load capacity ranged between (79.3% and 97.7%) compared with slabs reinforced with ordinary reinforcement. It is found that, the bubbled slabs with different PPR values had about (82% to 85%) of the failure loads capacity of a similar reference solid slabs.
Keywords: One way slabs, bubbledeck slabs, Spherical voids, Partial prestressing ratio, Shear failure, Environment-friendly buildings.


Mechanical Stability Analysis of Boreholes in both Drilling and Production wells; using Tri-Axial Failure Criteria
284-295
A.A. Babaei and KH. Shahbazi
Abstract:
Wellbore instability is one of geo-mechanical problems that created enormous expenses to petroleum industry in both drilling and production wells. Bore-hole instability during overbalanced drilling (OBD), underbalanced drilling condition (UBD) and even sand production are the most important problems. In the mechanical stability analysis the key point is comparing the borehole’s stresses with an appropriate failure criterion to see whether rock failure happen around the wellbore or not. Considering this theory usually a safe pressure window is determined to avoid shear failure. Various failure criteria have been used in the previous studies in which Mohr-Coulomb is the most common one. But recent research indicated that three dimensional criteria are less conservative and more close to real condition than two-dimensional criteria. In this research a computer program is developed to analyze the mechanical stability of deviated wellbores. It has used three dimensional and two dimensional failure criteria to obtain critical bottom hole pressure. The main goal of this study is determining and comparing optimum well trajectory in OBD, UBD and production wells. The results of this study indicate that in situ stresses regimes play a key role in wellbore stability. In addition, it shows that optimum well trajectory is the same for both OBD and UBD wells or a well which is sand producible in different stress regimes.
Keywords: Over Balanced Drilling, Under Balanced Drilling, Sand Production, Optimum Well Trajectory, Failure Criteria, In Situ Stress Regimes


MHD Peristaltic Motion under the Influence of Heat / Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction through a Porous Medium in an Asymmetric Channel
296-312
E.P.Siva and A.Govindarajan
Abstract:
This paper describes the effect of Heat and Mass transfer with chemical reaction on peristaltic transport of a Newtonian fluid through a porous medium in a vertical asymmetric channel in the presence of Heat source/ Heat sink. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of uniform magnetic field. The analytical solution is obtained under long wave length and low Reynolds number approximation. The expressions for velocity distribution, heat transfer coefficient, temperature distribution and concentration field have been found. Numerical calculations were carried for the velocity distribution, pressure gradient, temperature distribution and heat transfer coefficient were analyzed by plotting graphs and discussed in detail.
Keywords: Heat Transfer, Mass transfer, Peristaltic motion, Phase shift, Porous medium, chemical reaction, Heat source/ sink.


Modeling of Scheduling Concept Based on the Integration of Design Algebra with UML Modeling Techniques
313-320
P.Rajarajeswari, A.Ramamohanreddy, D. Vasumathi and V. Ramachandraprasad
Abstract:
Modeling of the system is performed with the help of constraints and tools. Scheduling analysis provide design decisions and timing behavior of this system. Scheduling algorithms, deadlines, execution time s are necessary for the analysis and design view of the system. It also provides timing behavior of the system using validation and verification techniques.. Design algebra techniques and UML modeling techniques are used for modeling scheduling analysis view of the system is presented in this paper. This paper provides information for describing timing behavior for the scheduler view of the system with the help of Heuristic rules and simulation environment.
Keywords: Design algebra, Scheduling analysis, UmL modelingTechniques, Timing behavior


Socio-Cultural Globalization and the Death of African Socio-Cultural Values and Identity
321-330
Iwuagwu, Emmanuel Kelechi
Abstract:
This paper, though recognizing the undeniable benefits of globalization, decries its negative effects on African socio-cultural values and identity. It shows how the African customs, traditions, values, ideologies, worldviews and identity are being daily subjected to violence and destruction by the domineering influence of Western values and lifestyle through globalization. The paper did acknowledge the inevitability of the globalization process as well as its many benefits but argues that in this globalization process the African culture and identity are being erased. It goes on to prove this in various areas where, owing to socio-cultural globalization, African values and identity are speedily being eroded. These areas where the Western culture, values and lifestyle have imposed themselves on Africans include the areas of language and educational system; customs, traditions and morals; social values and cultural festivals; news media and entertainment and many other areas where Western or American lifestyles have become in vogue among Africans to the detriment of their own lifestyles and identity. The paper then concludes that socio-cultural globalization at the rate it is going has a predictable consequence, the extinction of African socio-cultural values and identity in the nearest future.
Keywords: Globalization, Socio-cultural Globalization, African Socio-cultural Values, African Identity


Strategies and Difficulties in Translating Joseph Williams Article (2014) "My Life as a Retail Worker: Nasty, Brutish, and Poor" into Arabic Language
331-344
Khetam W. Shraideh
Abstract:
This storytalks about a personal life of the veteran reporter,Joseph Williams, wholost his job and found a work in a sporting-goods store. In his story, he recalls his struggles with challenges that millions of Americans face day after day.He started his story by considering his work in a retail worldafter six months of unemployment in a down economy and a news industry in upheaval up to mopingthe floors in the bathroom, replacing the toilet paper and scrubbing the toilets if necessary, and so on.
In this paper, Itried to translate this interesting and important story into Arabic language by keeping the sole ofmeaning of the vocabularies, wording, and the writing styleof the original version.Some translating strategies such as omission, deletion, literal translation, and explication, etc. are considered. Also, I tried to figure out the difficulties of "Style" as a writer vision of the work as it is expressed through his language and I took account of style in the sense of representing his world view. Finally, some important and amaising events and advantures in his life are also discussed.
Keywords: Joseph Williams story, Translation strategies, Difficulties of Style


In Silico Study of Drought Tolerant Candidate Genes in Durum Wheat
345-355
Adenike Oluwatoyin Fujah-Yusuf, Mustapha Labhilili, Nachit Miloudi and Souad Cherkaoui
Abstract:
Durum wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. It is cultivated in semi-arid regions of the world such as North Africa, Mediterranean, Europe, the North American Great Plains etc. It often faces water deficit. Water deficit means the absence of sufficient water content necessary for normal plant growth and its life cycle. Understanding the genetics and genome organization of durum wheat using molecular markers is of great value for its breeding purposes. Drought-tolerant candidate gene families are DRG/DRP, DHN, DRF, DREB, etc. These genes were searched, identified and collated from the NCBI database. In silico functional study which entails search for candidate genes’ functions and protein domains, and sequence analyses such as multiple sequence alignments and phylogeny, as well as primer design were carried out using bioinformatics tools, applications and databases. The PCR primers associated with the candidate genes for the studied trait were designed as molecular markers to assist the program for improvement in cereals precisely in durum wheat via marker-assisted selection.
Keywords: Durum Wheat, In silico study, Drought stress, Drought-tolerant Candidate Genes, Bioinformatics tools, Primers design


Asic Implementation of Low Power Neural Network Architecture for Image Compression
356-367
Sridhar S, Rajesh Kumar P and Ramanaiah K V
Abstract:
Transmission of compressed images in the presence of noise (noisy channel) pose challenges while reconstruction process since the image quality gets affected by the noise in the channel. Feed forward neural networks for image compression offer good quality images in the presence of noise. Feed forward neural networks (FFNN) having an input layer, output layer and a single hidden layer is trained to obtain appropriate values of weights. Compression is performed in the hidden layer while decompression is performed in the output layer.Computational complexity of the multiplier array design is based on reusable logic. The input register and the weight memory register are designed with sequential logic. Pipelining stages are incorporated in the design of multiplier array and adder array. The intermediate (or parallel) memory introduced reduces the power dissipation. Throughputs for compression and decompression units are designed to be optimum. Proposed design is modeled in Verilog HDL and synthesized on 90nm CMOS technology and Synopsys design ware library. Multi layered neural network architecture (MLNN) on FPGA operates at maximum speed of 138 MHz and consumes 0.55285W of power occupying 3% of the resources. The design is synthesized on ASIC targeting 65nm technology and occupied 112773 um area consuming maximum power of 30.17mW operating at 243.9 MHz. Proposed design is suitable for low power applications.
Keywords: Neural Network, Image Compression, Low Power Design, Parallel Processing, Pipelined processing.