European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 126 No 1
November, 2014

A New Map of Morocco Bioclimates
6-10
Noureddine Mokhtari
Abstract:
This map shows the potential distribution of bioclimatic zones of Morocco according to Emberger classification, his calculation was done based on the major factors limiting growth and distribution of vegetation namely precipitation and temperature.
The results showed the existence of 5 major types of climates ranging from humid to peraride in Morocco. The per-humid stage is existing only as insignificant stage at the crests of the Rif mountains (<5km2). The thermal variations from "Temperate" to "very warm" are up over 70%.
Keywords: Bioclimates, Emberger, Morocco, aridity


Global Policy in Area of the Protection of Iprs and of the International Technology Transfer: Towards Fair Global Knowledge Economy
11-33
Mark Vladimirovich Shugurov and Irina Victorovna Shugurova
Abstract:
The present article deals with relation between protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and international technology transfer in a context of transition to global knowledge economy based on the principle of mutual advantage. Authors strive to address some major issues concerning essence and forms of global policy in the sphere of international transfer and protection of intellectual property rights. Analysis is provided by the exploration of stages of development of this policy. The authors point out that there are tensions between interests of right holders and users of technologies that arise from dual role of intellectual property in development of innovations. These tensions are laid down in foundation of conflict between developed and developing countries in respect of further evolution of intellectual property law. Author reviews comprehensively the discussion on impact of stronger protection of intellectual property right on process of technology transfer to developing countries. This article makes some suggestions for forming the strategies of different groups of countries for transition to balanced global system of intellectual property rights facilitating sustainable international transfer to developing countries.
Keywords: Global development, Economy of intellectual property, Technology transfer, Developing countries, Intellectual property law, Balance of interests, Technological gap


An Econometric Investigation of Suicide in Brazil
34-46
Paulo R. A. Loureiro, Mário Jorge Cardoso de Mendonça, Adolfo Sachsida and Tito Belchior Silva Moreira
Abstract:
This article verifies the effect of economic variables over the suicide rate between Brazilian states in the period 1981-2006. The econometric results points out the importance of economic variables to explain suicide rate: income and poverty have negative impact over suicide, while income inequality and unemployment have positive effects over it. Furthermore, the effect of both income and unemployment over suicide is stronger in the younger segment of the population. Among control variables, we note that both the incidence of mental diseases and AIDS are relevant to determine suicide.
Keywords: Suicide, Models with Panel Data, Public health, Socio-economic Factors.
JEL: C23, I12, J1, J17.

Distress in the Nigeria Banking Sector in a Decade of Economic Growth
47-54
Akingbade Peter Banjo
Abstract:
The problems peculiar to banking development and expansion arises and tend to become more difficult since the establishment of the banking industry in Nigeria. The frequency of occurrence of bank distress and failure has caught both domestic and global attention, and now it’s a phenomenon of serious concern to both the regulatory authority of the financial sector and the public. Incessant distress in Nigerian banks makes it imperative to ascertain the causes and effects on the public and the aggregate economy. This study examined the significant causes of distress within the Nigerian banking sector and appraise its overall effects on the aggregate economy. Econometric analysis was performed using secondary data obtained from money deposit banks in Nigeria within a decade of banking operational space of 2000-2009. Least squares regression estimates reveal that non-performing loans has an inverse relationship with liquidity ratios of banks. Incessant growth of non-performing loans plays a dominant role in the distress status of Nigerian banks. High non-performing loans and excess liquidity have negative effects on Gross Domestic Product. The paper recommends immediate adoption of long-term distress resolution strategies to control the situation and avoid future occurrence.
Keywords: Distress, Bank failure, Performing loans, Non-Performing loans, Liquidity, Economic growth
JEL Classifications: E44, G2, N2

Delving the Terms of Pathology and Sport Injuries: A Descriptive Study
55-60
Behzad Hosseini and Sasan Arjomandi Akram
Abstract:
The present study is for athletes at all ages and levels, for people who exercise, as well as for health care professionals, coaches, and others who want to find out more about sports injuries. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was to give a kind of explanation to two important terms, i.e. pathology and sport injuries, in the field of sport education. In the first step, in this study, the term of pathology and its different types were described. Then, various and common sorts of sport injuries were analyzed. After giving some suggestions for reducing the probability of injuries, this descriptive study was closed up by conclusion which shows the significant role of pathology in sport and physical education.
Keywords: Pathology, sport Injuries, sport education, general pathology

Radiologic Study of Ischiopubic Indices of Ibibios and Efiks of Cross Rivers State of Nigeria: Clinical and Forensic Implications
61-67
Oladipo G. S., Anugweje K. C and Emeng R.E.
Abstract:
This study was aimed at studying the ischiopubic index of Efiks and Ibibios in cross rivers state of Nigeria. The parameters were measured from radiographs obtained from the radiology department of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar and University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. This was done by measuring the pubic length and Ischial length in 90 X- ray films of which 43 were those of Ibibio (27 males and 16 females) and 47 Efiks (21 males and 26 females) of Cross Rivers State and AkwaIbomState respectively. The Ischiopubic index was calculated by dividing the pubic length by ischial length and multiplying the result by 100. The demarking points of these parameters were worked out to determine sex. The sex differences of the pubic length, ischiallength and ischiopubic index were found to be statistically significant when the male and female X- ray films were compared (p<0.05). The demarking point of the ischiopubic index was used in sex determination, assigning sex to 14.8% males and 18.8% females among Ibibios and 33.3% males and 3.8% among Efiks. The values obtained for the parameters in the present study amongst the Ibibios and Efiks areimportance to forensic investigation, clinical practice and population studies of the above ethnic groups. Thus the result is recommended to forensic experts, clinical practitioners and physical anthropologists.
Keywords: Radiographs, Efiks, Ibibios, Anthropologist, Ischial Length, Pubic Length, Ischiopubic Index

A Reliable Fuzzy Websites' Classification System using Webpage Source Code's Phishing Characteristics
68-83
Rania M.Elmassry, Essam M. Hamed and H.E.A.Ibrahim
Abstract:
Phishing problem is a semantic attack which targets the user rather than the computer. Since phishing is joining technical and social engineering problems, there is no single solution for the entire problem. To evaluate the phishing website accurately is a complex task. Till now, various solutions have been proposed and developed to address this problem. Most of these approaches giving rise to a large number of false positives. Some advance, scrutinized approaches are strongly needed for phishing problem specially, in the sensitive sites like national security agencies, military, and finical sites. The proposed system is a reliable effective phishing classification system combined the capabilities of fuzzy reasoning in measuring imprecise features of any site, with the capability to classify the phishing fuzzy rules. The system was developed, tested by various sites types (phishing, legitimate, and suspicious). The results obtained are promising and showed that the proposed fuzzy classification system can provide an effective help for websites online classification. Also, the proposed system can be used effectively to monitor the site legitimately percentage.
Keywords: Phishing, webpage source code, classification, fuzzy logic, fuzzification, rule-based system, defuzzification, social engineering.


A Hybrid Simulated Annealing with Tabu List and Allowable Solutions Memory to Solve University Course Timetabling Problem
84-94
Aysh Alhroob, Hassan Tarawneh and Masri Ayob
Abstract:
Simulated annealing is a meta-heuristic algorithm that has strategy to avoid local optimum, by allowing the bad quality solution to be accepted (as a diversification strategy). In order to converge, the probability of accepting worse quality solution decreases during the search (as an intensification strategy).Thus, the probability to get trapped in local optimum will increase when the search progress. Therefore, this work proposed a hybrid simulated annealing (SA-TL-AM) with two types of short term memoires to escape from local optima and to balance between diversification and intensification strategies. The two memories are a tabu list(TL) that used to avoid recycling(revisiting the same solution) and allowable memory to save several promising non-accepted neighbour solutions during the search process, and reuse them when the search get trapped in local optimum(diversification strategy). The computational results tested on ITC2007 course timetabling benchmark datasets showed that SA-TL-AM outperformed other variants of simulated annealing approaches, and can competes very well with other algorithms tested on ITC2007-track3 dataset. This indicates that the use of tabu memory and reuse the recently visited non-accepted neighbour solutions can enhance the performance of SA. Indirectly, this may indicate these memories can help SA to balance between diversification and intensification strategies.
Keywords: simulated annealing, course timetabling problem, meta-heuristic, optimization, scheduling, and educational timetabling.


Botanical and Pharmacological Studies of Terminalia Catappa and Terminalia Mantaly (Combretaceae) Two Medicinal Plants used Against Skin Infections in West Tropical Africa
95-108
Coulibaly Kiyinlma, KONÉ Keassemon Hervé Cedessia, Fofie N’guessan Bra Yvette and Zirihi Guédé Noël
Abstract:
Many surveys performed around the world have mentioned that among the plant species belonging to Combretaceae family, Terminalia catappa is the most requested medicinal plant. In recent decades, traditional healers in southern region of Côte d’Ivoire prefer to use the bark of Terminalia mantaly instead of those of T. catappa. The purpose of this study is to compare the pharmacological activities of these plants. The results of the anti-fungal activities of water, residual and organics extracts on the growth of Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen, show that T. mantaly water extract is 2 times more active than T. catappa water extract; 70% ethanolic extract of T. mantaly is 4 times more active than 70% ethanolic extract of T. catappa; residual extract of T. mantaly is 256.4 times more active than residual extract of T. catappa and butanolic extract of T. mantaly is 4 times more active than butanolic extract of T. catappa. Analysis of these results shows clearly that T. mantaly extracts are more active than extracts of T. catappa. The choice of T. mantaly by traditional healers in making medicines against skin infections is due to abundance of this plant in all areas and settlements and its excellent activities on many pathogens.
Keywords: Côte d’Ivoire, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia mantaly, antifungal activity.

Sign and Size Snare for Irrational Investor: Evidence from Three Geographies of Pakistan
109-132
MarriaHassan and Taqadus Bashir
Abstract:
Standard Finance assumes that investors are rational decision makers selecting the best alternatives / solution among all the possible ones. On the contrary and realistically due to bounded rationality the individuals behave normally and satisfice by settling down to the first available solution that comes to their mind. This bounded rationality leads to irrational decision making resulting into the market anomalies. One of the reasons of irrational decision making is biased behavior. While trading irrational investors make biased decision due to multiple cognitive and emotional biases. Current study explores a sequential series of three-step process to Decompose gains/losses of recent past trades for an individual investor into Sign of outcome and the Residual construct/variable of interest (size). Empirical investigation has been performed to reveal the fact that in context of Pakistani stock market Sign is significantly more powerful to influence investor’s mind and hence on the current trading decisions of individual investors, effected variables include volume/frequency of trading which is also sometimes taken as investor’s experience. Individual investor in stock market is termed as Overconfident investor, who relies on his own perception and he/she reduces return continuously by relying so much on perception of repetitive behavior of stocks return, assuming that recent past trade sign will shape his return account more with success, such phenomenon may also lead to a rise in market noise and hence effect economy drastically. Hence, such behavior of investor in Pakistan needs to be alleviated by proper advising and channeling information using easy mode of understanding for even illiterate investor. Theory supports the finding of current study. Study is of high significance to academicians as well as practitioners to know issues biases create in stabilizing returns in the stock market of Pakistan.