European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 124 No 4
September, 2014

On Generalized Convergence of Nets and Filters
377-395
Sattar Hameed Hamzah Al-Janabi and Saied A. Johnny
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce and study another types of convergence in a topological spaces namely, generalized convergence (g-convergence) of nets and filters by using the concept of g-open sets. Also we investigate some properties of these concept.
Keywords: g-open, g-closed, g-convergent, g-limit, g-cluster and gEf set.
2000 Mathematics Subject Classifications: 54 A 20, 54 C08, 54 C10

Regionalization of Surface Water Quality Status in Edo State
396-403
Ezemonye Mary. Nkiru and Ezemonye, M.N
Abstract:
This study focuses on the regionalization classification of the quality status of rivers in Edo State. The water quality index (WQI) generated scores that describes the water quality status and evaluates water quality trends in the study area while graphical method of classification and clustering analysis were used for achieving our regionalization classification. It was found that on the average the WQI values of rivers in the state range between 50 and 70 on the average. These WQI indicate that on the whole, the water quality Rivers in the state fluctuates between average and bad health levels. Most of the WQI values obtained for individual rivers showed that these rivers are at the marginal level where any additional physical, chemical, and biological pollutants to will greatly reduce the quality of the rivers and therefore their health condition. A gradual increase in WQI from north to south was observed with a coefficient linear 0.86. The fact that some of the rivers had WQI that are within the ranges of 50 and 59 particularly rivers in the northern part of the state shows that the health conditions of the rivers have high potential to deteriorate and suggest a dare need to commence and maintain river water monitoring as a major water management tool.. The need for improved sanitation conditions in this area to check open defecation system near and along river courses was also recommended.
Keywords: pollution, water quality index, rivers, regionalization

Mobile-Element Path Planning for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks
404-416
Khaled Almi'ani, Laiali Almazaydeh and Muder Almi'ani
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on the problem of reducing the latency of the mobile elements tours. Accordingly, we investigate two variations of this problem. In the first problem, we assume that we are given one mobile element, and the objective is to plan the tour for the mobile element, such that the length of this tour is minimized and each node is at most one-hop away from the tour. In the second problem, we assume that we are given more than one mobile element, and the objective is to design the minimum number of required tours to cover the entire network, such that the length of each tour is below a pre-determined value. To address the presented problems, we present an algorithmic solutions that consider the distribution of the nodes during the process of building the tours. The results of our experiments indicate that our schemes significantly outperforms the best comparable scheme in the literature.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, Data gathering, Mobile elements

Rational Factors for Approximating the Loss through Pipe Fittings in Building Water Distribution Systems
417-430
John I. Sodiki and Emmanuel M. Adigio
Abstract:
The determination of the required pressure in water distribution systems entails calculating the head loss components (i.e. the frictional loss and the loss through pipe fittings) in the first index run. To facilitate these calculations, several approximations for the fraction due to pipe fittings had been suggested. It has, however, been observed that those approximations have no clear mathematical or statistical basis. This paper, therefore, reviews these approximations and outlines statistical and graphical methods developed in a recent study. In the recent study, the fractions of the total head loss which constitute the loss through pipe fittings in first index runs were computed, using commonly utilized equations, for varying complexities of water distribution systems. Regression model equations and graphs were thereby obtained. These were found useful in estimating the fractions of head loss due to the pipe fittings in first index pipe runs, as shown by results of case studies utilizing different distribution configurations.
Keywords: Loss through Fittings, Approximations, Case Studies

Study on Phenotypic and Genotypic of Slim Layer Genes Expressed in Staphylococci
431-436
Abbas Sh. Al- Muhanna, Al-Hilu S.A. and Maytham Abbas Alzuhairi
Abstract:
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a group of micro-organisms that are increasingly implicated as a cause of significant infection especially in patients undergoing catheter and other medical devices related infections. They are often multiresistant to antibiotics, and the ability to form biofilm is considered their main virulence determinant. In the present study, Three hundred specimens were isolated; only one hundred isolates were analyzed: 53% S. haemolyticus, 26% S. epidermidis and 21% S. hominis. The results showed that only 93% were phenotypically biofilm formation in Christensen tube and TS-Congo red agar methods. Then these isolates subjected to molecular studies using PCR we found 98% of CoNS isolates carried aap gene while 93% of isolates were expressed icaA and icaD genes.
Keywords: coagulase-negative staphylococci, catheter-related infections, icaA gene, icaD gene, aap gene.

Nodes Splitting Algorithm for Data Gathering with Multiple Mobile Elements in Wireless Sensor Networks
437-445
Khitam M. Alatoun, Abdullah I. Alhasanat, Khaled D. Matrouk, Mahmood Al-Khassaweneh and Ahmad A. Alhasanat
Abstract:
Recent advancements in mobile robotics allowed the use of mobile sinks into various data gathering applications in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This has greatly reduced energy consumption with lower network latency, and in turn extended the lifetime of the sensor nodes. However, in this case the main challenge is to design an algorithm with the minimum number of mobile elements and lowest latency. In this paper, an algorithm called Node Splitting Algorithm (NoSA) is presented. A considerable reduction of the network latency and numbers of mobile elements is achieved using NoSA compared to other related techniques.


Microfinance: Analysis of Impact on Poverty and Reaching the Poorest of the Poor
446-459
Tasnim Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali Khan and Shahina Aslam
Abstract:
The focus of this study is to measure the impact of microfinance on household poverty. It also investigates the target group of microfinance providers. The analysis is based on primary data collected from division Bahawalpur (Pakistan). The study employed the tool developed by Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS) and Small Enterprise, Education and Promotion (SEEP). The tool has been modified in the local context. The sample consists of 1524 respondents, out of which 773 are established clients (treatment group) and 751 are incoming clients (control group) of different microfinance providers. Logit regression has been employed for analysis. The main findings of the study are that microfinance alleviates household poverty as the 23 percent difference in household income of both groups (established clients and incoming clients) in non-poor band can be attributed to participation in microfinance programs. However it does not reach the poorest of the poor, as microfinance providers mostly target the moderate poor. The poverty status of respondents, membership to microfinance program, number of employed persons in the household, household assets and education of the borrower have been found to decrease household poverty. The household size affects the household poverty positively. It is recommended that microfinance providers should widen their target group including the poorest of the poor.
Keywords: Poverty, Household economics, Small enterprises, Household welfare, Small loans.
JEL Classification: I38, G21, L31,

An Ontology for Comprehensive Tutoring of Euphonic Conjunctions of Sanskrit Grammar
460-467
Rajitha V., Kasmir Raja S. V. and Meenakshi Lakshmanan
Abstract:
Euphonic conjunctions (sandhis) form a very important aspect of Sanskrit morphology and phonology. The traditional and modern methods of studying about euphonic conjunctions in Sanskrit follow different methodologies. The former involves a rigorous study of the Paninian system embodied in Panini's Astadhyayi, while the latter usually involves the study of a few important sandhi rules with the use of examples. The former is not suitable for beginners, and the latter, not sufficient to gain a comprehensive understanding of the operation of sandhi rules. This is so since there are not only numerous sandhi rules and exceptions, but also complex precedence rules involved. The need for a new ontology for sandhi-tutoring was hence felt. This work presents a comprehensive ontology designed to enable a student-user to learn in stages all about euphonic conjunctions and the relevant aphorisms of Sanskrit grammar and to test and evaluate the progress of the student-user. The ontology forms the basis of a multimedia sandhitutor that was given to different categories of users including Sanskrit scholars for extensive and rigorous testing.
Keywords: Sanskrit, euphonic conjunction, sandhi, Panini, sandhi tutor, ontology

Prevalence of Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Atopic Eczema among School Children aged 614 Years in South Jordan
468-477
Eman M. Albataineh, Nedal A. Alnawaiseh, ani M. Al-Shagahin, Areej H. Tarwnah and Jameel K. Hijazeen
Abstract:
This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema among school children aged 614 years in Alkarak governorate in South Jordan. Our questionnaire incorporated an Arabic version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Completely filled questionnaires were returned by 1010 children, giving an overall response rate of 84% (86% for males and 82% for females). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, history of wheezing during the previous 12 months, current allergic rhinitis, and current eczema were 2.7%, 6.8%, 23.8%, and 6.6% respectively. Family history of allergy was the strongest risk factor for current asthma (OR = 3.2, P-value < 0.05), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2, p-value < 0.05) and eczema (OR = 1.9, p-value > 0.05). Other risk factors for current asthma were breastfeeding (OR = 2.2 , p-value < 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, p-value < 0.05). Compared with other regions in Jordan and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, this study shows that asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema are moderately common in Alkarak governorate. Different indoor and host-related factors were found to trigger allergy.
Keywords: Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, Eczema, Jordan, Prevalence, Wheezing

Electric Properties of Polyvinyl Acetate-Toluene Diisocyanate (PVA-TDI) Sulfonated Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin (SPF) Composites
478-485
Thamir Salman Bachari
Abstract:
Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were blended in a percent 3:1by weight and the prepared sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin (SPF) were added and mixed by different percentages to the blend, on clean class substrates as bulk samples at different thicknesses (0.014-0.026) mm. SPF resin was diagnosis by FTIR spectrophotometer. The electrical properties were measured at applied electric field 13 volt D.C. I-V characteristic and the electrical conductivity was investigated. The calculated electrical conductivity is 10-8-10-5 to 31-142.1 Sm-1.
Keywords: PVA; TDI; SPF; Composite; FTIR spectroscopy; Current; voltage; Electrical Conductivity.

Influence of Personality Types and Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Students on Examination Malpractice: Case of Secondary Schools in Ibadan
486-499
Omolola Abidemi, Rotimi, Dare Ojo, Omonijoand Onyekwere OliverChizaram, Uche
Abstract:
This study investigated: (i) if a significant relationship exists between personality Type A and examination malpractice (ii) if there is a significant relationship between personality Type B and examination malpractice, (iii ) if socio-demographic factors (gender, age and birth order) influence examination malpractice. The study employed correlational survey design and questionnaire to collect information.The t-test and Pearson moment correlation statistical tools were used to test its hypotheses, while multiple regressionsanalysis were used to investigate which of the independent variables (personality types and socio-demographic factors) significantly predicted the dependent variable (i.e. attitude towards examination malpractice). The resultreveals that personality Type A has a significant relationship with examination malpractice (r=0.28; p< 0.05). It also indicates that the personality Type B has a significant relationship with examination malpractice (r=0.43; p< 0.05). In respect of socio-demographic factors, the result shows that there is no significant relationship between the age and examination malpractice, (r =-0.102 and it is not significant at p> 0.05). The result also reveals correlation between gender and examination malpractice (r = 0.14 at p< 0.05).In another development, the finding show that there is no significant relationship between birth order and examination malpractice, (r = -0.029 and it is not significant at p>.005). Implications of these findings are indications that personality types A, personality Type B and gender influence examination malpractice among students while factors such as age and birth order are not crucial in determining examination malpractice.
Keywords: Personality types, socio-demographic factors, correlate, examination misconduct, secondary schools.

FPGA Implementation of Software Defined Radio Model based Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration on SOC
500-509
Amir Chekini , Seyed Ali Reza Hosseini, Bahman Abolhassani
Abstract:
This paper presents the design procedure and implementation results of a proposed Software Defined Radio (SDR) using FPGA Xilinx board. This implementation uses the Matlab/Simulink-TM, Embedded Matlab-TM blocks. Then VHDL code is written and synthesized by ISE software from Xilinx Company. The results show that it is easy and useful to design, develop and implement the SDR using new techniques of programmable logic tools. In this paper both receiver and transmitter use the partial reconfiguration technique, defined by the user, and appropriate bit streams are produced. Therefore, we have two bit streams which can be configured at any moment of time according to the user request. Hardware Proposed architecture of SDR has some advantage rather than previous architectures like high-speed and real-time processing, high flexibility, low cost, high security and low power consumption. This idea can uses in modern commercial SDR due To using partial reconfiguration technique.
Keywords: Software Defined Radio, Partial Reconfiguration, Implementation, SOC, FPGA Hardware.