European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 124 No 2
August, 2014

Elemental Profile of Embelia Ribes Fruits Extracts and Formulated Products by ICP-MS
121-132
Shanmugam Maheshwaran, Imad A. Abu-Yousef, Amin F. Majdalawieh, Chinaga Kumar, Ramasamy Mohankumar, Srinivasan Narasimhan
Abstract:
Seven different commercially-available formulated products (Kanthaka Rasayanam, Inji Legiyam, Mahaa Vallaathi Legiyam, Nilaavaarai Chooranam, Abana, and Gasex) containing Embelia ribes extracts as ingredients were analyzed by collision/reaction cell ICP-MS for their elemental composition (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, P, S, Al, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Hg, Cd, As, and Pb). Our study reveals that Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, P, and S are present in all Embelia ribes tested formulated products. The heavy metals Hg, Cd, As, and Pb were also detected in some tested samples. Our results also highlight the differential levels of minerals in the tested formulated samples. Overall, our findings suggest that the use of these formulated materials for the management of diseases will not cause heavy metal toxicity, and hence, such formulations may be beneficial to human health in cases of nutritional deficiency. Our findings indicate that Embelia ribes fruit extracts and formulated products used in this study are a good source of important elements (e.g. Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, P, and S), and therefore, possess invaluable therapeutic properties. Our study not only underscores the medicinal value of Embelia ribes, but it also provides validation and rationalization behind the use of Embelia ribes formulations in treating various diseases and medical conditions.
Keywords: Embelia ribes, ICP-MS, nutrition, elemental profile, validation method.

Petrographie et Sedimentologie des Roches Carbonatees (Calcaires et Marnes) du Campanien Terminal de la Zone de Youkkous et Gaaga (Region de Hammamet, Tebessa, Nord-est de L’algerie)
133-144
Omar Guefaifia and Layachi Gouaidia
Abstract:
Dans cette première description pétrographique et sedimentologique du crétacé supérieur des environs de Tébessa (NE Algérie) on a caractérisé des roches carbonatées (Marnes, micrites, biomicrites et microsparites) de la zone Youkous – Gaâga près de Hammamet.
On a établi la présence de quatre cycles sédimentaires.Le premier (Campanien) est représenté par le sommet de la séquence inverse (2e l’ordre) [10].Le deuxième cycle symétrique fait le passage continu entre les sédiments du Campanien et Maestrichtien inférieur (séquence simple et inverse de 2e-3e ordre).Le troisième cycle symétrique représente le milieu peu profond de la partie inférieure du Maestrichtien supérieur(cycle de 3e ordre).Le quatrième cycle assymétrique (megasequence simple de 4e ordre) fait le passage continu entre la sédimentation du Maestrichtien supérieur et Paléocène, liée avec l’approfondissement du bassin sédimentaire.
Il se caractérise par l’augmentation de la participation de micrite et diminution du pourcentage des allochemes (bioclastes, oolites) et de microsparite.
Keywords: Youkkous, Gaaga, pétrographie, roches carbonatées.

A System Proposed for Offline Handwritten Character Recognition with Self-Training and Noise Reduction
145-155
Magesh Kasthuri, V. Shanthi and Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham
Abstract:
Handwriting recognition is a widely implemented technology to electronically identify handwritten text. In online handwriting recognition, text written on a touch surface of an electronic touch device is dynamically recognized based on the movements of a writing device (digital pen, a finger, or a stylus) and presented to the user after each continuous stroke such as a character or word is entered. Therefore, the user is able to edit a character or a word in the event of incorrect recognition of text by the electronic device as soon as it is presented to the user. On the other hand, in offline handwriting recognition, recognition of characters occurs by identifying characters from an image of handwritten text instead of the user writing on a touch surface. Here, the recognized text is presented to a user only when the entire handwritten text represented in the image is recognized.
Keywords: Handwritten character recognition, noise reduction, pre-processing techniques in character recognition, pattern matching, strokes, fixed-language, training neural networks, Gabor filter.

Toward Social Justice in Administrative Law with Emphasis on the Doctrine of Legitimate Expectation
156-161
Mohammad Moghadamfard and Roohollah Rahimi
Abstract:
Considering traditional concept of social justice as challenging injustice in society would not seem to fit the new sophisticated political and social communities. The modern concept has gone beyond the mere meaning of equality and has been strongly connected with elements of human right and democracy such as public hearings by independent and impartial tribunals, individual`s free access to competent court and etc. With this notion, one may say that there is an unbreakable link between social justice and administrative justice in which one of the most important principles is to enable individuals to challenge a public decision and seek for redress in one hand and monitoring administrative authorities to apply minimum standards of fair procedures in making decision on the other hand. Ensuring legitimate interest of individual in making decision refers to the concept of administrative justice which in turn protects the doctrine of legitimate expectation. Lack of fairness as a ground of judicial review in Iran deprives individuals to bring an action in cases which legitimate expectation is ignored by authorities. This paper focuses on a critical analysis of the doctrine of legitimate expectation in Iran legal system.
Keywords: Social Justice, Administrative Justice, Legitimate expectation, Iran legal system

An Efficient Character Recognition System Based on a Novel Block Matching Algorithm
162-179
Balaji R. Bombade and D. D. Doye
Abstract:
Text Recognition refers to the mechanical or electronic translation of different scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. Now, the rapid growth in the computational power enables users to implement the present Text Recognition methodologies and also to create an increasing demand on many emerging application domains, which require more advanced methodologies. Hence, we have proposed an algorithm for the recognition of the printed character by using Block Matching Algorithm (BMA) technique in its computation of the sum squared difference (SSD) metric. The task of segmenting of text into different characters is one of the necessary preprocessing steps involved in the development of most character recognition systems because characters segmented incorrectly are likely to be incorrectly recognized. Thus, in this method of character recognition, Gabor filter technique is used to remove the noise from the printed characters, and parallel and vertical histogram technique is used for the segmentation of different characters. From the implementation result, it is evident that this system is more efficient to convert handwritten documents into structural text form and recognizing handwritten names.
Keywords: Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Text Recognition, Gabor Filter, Block Matching Algorithm (BMA), Segmentation, Dilation & Erosion, Neural Network.

Etude Phytochimique des Écorces de Tige de Mallotus oppositifolius (Euphorbiaceae)
180-189
Faustin A. Kabran, Timothée A. Okpekon, Pierre Champy, François Roblot, Karine Leblanc, Blandine Séon-Méniel, Stéphanie Nicolaÿ, Audrey Solgadi, Christian Bories, Léon Atoutou Djakouré, Bruno Figadère and Alexandre Maciuk
Abstract:
Les investigations phytochimiques menées sur les écorces de tiges de Mallotus oppositifolius (Euphorbiaceae) ont permis d’isoler et de caractériser huit molécules: un ester d’acide gras (7), un alcool gras (6), un triterpène (5), un stérol (8), un dérivé de l’acide benzoïque (3), une coumarine (4) et deux isocoumarines (1 et 2), toutes isolées pour la première fois de cette espèce. Parmi ces composés, les molécules 1, 3, 6 et 7 sont isolées pour la première fois du genre Mallotus. L’élucidation de la structure de ces composés a été réalisée par combinaisons de techniques spectrales que sont l’infrarouge, l’ultraviolet, la masse et la RMN 1H et 13C mono et bidimensionnelles (HSQC, HMBC, COSY et NOESY). L’évaluation des activités antitrypanosomiale, anti-leishmanienne, anthelminthique et antifongique respectivement sur Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Leishmania donovani, Caenorhabditis elegans, Candida albicans et Aspergillus fumigatus montre des activités relativement modestes.
Keywords: Mallotus oppositifolius, coumarine, isocoumarine, activité antitrypanosomiale, activité anti-leishmanienne, activité anthelminthique, activité antifongique.

Improved Functionality of Local Planning Layer for Enhancing QoS of Cellular Network
190-202
Ms. Megha Kamble and Roopam Gupta
Abstract:
A Multi-Agent framework to implement hybrid channel allocation for cellular network is proposed in the paper. The framework is consisting of agents ported at base stations in cells in cellular network. These agents are negotiating for the resources from common pool in two phases. In first phase, it is seen that static resource should be utilized to maximum extent instead of borrowing dynamic resource and keeping static resource free. In second phase, dynamic resource already allocated to moderate traffic cell, is retained for hot cell. The objective of the second phase is to allocate the resource from available common scarce resources to needy hot cell so as to reduce failure rate as well as maintain QoS of overall network. The evaluation is conducted on benchmark data sets from literature for uniform as well as nonuniform traffic scenario. The results demonstrated enhancement in performance index and stability of degree of coldness of hot as well as cold cell.
Keywords: Cellular Network, Hybrid channel allocation, Multi agent system, Agent utility

The Protective Role of Coworker Support in Nurses Emotional Dissonance Decreasing (Case Study; Tehran West Region Hospital's)
203-213
Akbar Talebpour, Hosein Vaziri and Jafar Mikaeli
Abstract:
This study has investigated the role of coworker support in emotional dissonance reduction in Tehran West region hospitals, The sample consisted of 315 nurses working at the hospitals,Babak, Erfan, Ibne- Sina, Imam Khomeini, Jam, payambar, Sarem and sherkate naft. 67 percent of the respondents were women and the rest of them were men. Emotional dissonance was measured by using the Maslakh and Jackson Emotional Dissonance Scale(1981) in 9 items, Coworker Support was measured by supervisors support and collegues support. Factor analysis of questionnaire items indicates a good construct validity of the measurement instrument and reliability of questionnaire items which extracted by Cronbach's alpha was suitable. The effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable was measured by using regression model. All independent variables were accounted for about 48 percent of the variability, but the remaining 52 percent were not explained by the regression model. The results showed the emotional dissonance of the nurses is above the average level and nurses feel their jobs are associated with fatigue. The results of the study also shows, colleges support has the most negative impact on emotional dissonance.
Keywords: Emotional Dissonance, Coworker Support, Construct Validity, Cronbach's Alpha

Epidemiology of Parasitic Infections and Anemia in Rural Villages in the SouthWest Region, Cameroon
214-227
Nkengazong Lucia, Tombi Jeannette, Ngako Youmbi Estelle, Essomba Abomo Jean Stève, Makoge Dione Valerie, dzi Edward and Moyou-Somo Roger
Abstract:
The present study asses the prevalence of parasites species, anemia, co-infection with anemia, and anemia in infected and uninfected children. School children from eight villages (Kuke Mbomo, Barombi Kotto, New Town, Bai Panya, Bai Manya, Marumba I, Marumba II and Pete Bakundu) in Mbonge subdivision were involved in the study.Schistosoma haematobium eggs were identified using the filtration technique. Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts were identified using the kato Katz and the formol ether techniques. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smears were analysed for malaria parasites.
A total of 409/811 (50.4%) harbored at least one parasitic infection, 296 (36.5%) and 113 (13.9%) had single and multiple infections respectively. Parasites prevalence were 10.5%, 14.5%, 16.8%, 2.6%, 23.3%, 5.1%, and 9.1% respectively for S. haematobium, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, N. americanus, P. falciparum. E. histolytica and E. coli. A significant difference of parasites transmission was observed between villages, for S. haematobium in Barombi Kotto and Marumba II, and for A. lumbricoides in Pete Bakundu (P< 0.05). Of the 113 (13.9%) participants with multiple infections, double infections of S. haematobium and P. falciparum, and triple infections of A. lumbricoides, occurred regularly with other parasites species. Anemia prevalence was 68.8%, with 67.2% infected by any parasite species. Prevalence of double and triple infections with anemia ranged from 40% to 100%. The prevalence was significantly higher in infected than uninfected children, same as in children aged 1-5 years (P < 0.05).
These results show parasitic infections endemicity, with anemia being a severe problem in the villages studied. A continuous monitoring of disease transmission is indispensable to develop better evaluation indicators for parasitic diseases control strategies. Keywords: Epidemiology, parasitic infections, co-infection, anemia, prevalence, Cameroon

Etude de l’Activité Antioxydante de l’Huile Essentielle et de Quelques Extraits de Teucrium polium L. des Monts de Tessala (Algérie Occidentale)
228-237
Nadjia Fertout-Mouri, Ali Latreche, Zoheir Mehdadi, Djilali Bassou and Fawzia Toumi-Bénali
Abstract:
Dans le cadre de la valorisation des plantes médicinales appartenant à la flore méditerranéenne et spécifiquement algérienne, un intérêt particulier est porté pour Teucrium polium L. dont les caractéristiques thérapeutiques sont très importantes et fortement connues par les populations riveraines. Cependant, ce taxon reste méconnu localement sur le plan phytochimique. Ainsi, dans cette étude, nous essayerons de mette le point sur l’activité antioxydante de l’huile essentielle et de quelques extraits et sa relation avec le contenu en polyphénols.
Keywords: Plantes médicinales, Teucrium polium L., huile essentielle, polyphénols, lyophilisation, activité antioxydante