European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 123 No 2
June, 2014

Coverage Metrics for Integrated Performance of Avionics Systems of an Air Vehicle Including Scenario-Based Evaluation in an Integration Facility
117-128
Sudha Rani. S. V and B. Ramadoss
Abstract:
The Avionics of Air Vehicles comprises of a number of Safety-Critical and Mission-Critical systems with complex real-time performance capabilities. Verification of Integrated dynamic performance of all such systems is carried out in an Avionics Integration Facility before installation of the systems in the Air Vehicle. As the complexity of the systems increases, generating effective test cases to improve test adequacy and an optimistic way of classification of test case combinations becomes a necessity. The validation of such a complex system of systems necessitates metrics acting as indicators of various performance categories to ensure satisfactory functioning of the Avionics systems. This paper proposes a set of Categorized Validation Metrics for Integrated Evaluation of Avionics Systems in a Facility using the GQM Approach, to assess the factors required with respect to its System Level Specifications and Functional Performance. In addition to sub-system requirements, as part of Integration Evaluation, more emphasis on Scenario-based testing which meet top-level Aircraft related requirements and mission plans are covered in this paper.
Keywords: Coverage Metrics, Avionics Systems, Avionics Integration and Validation Facility, Safety-Critical Systems, Mission-Critical Systems, Goal Question Metric, Coverage Metrics, Mutant Operators, Scenario-Based Requirements.

Hygiene Risk and the Virtual Handshake: A Case of the Biometric Identification Machine
129-140
Chaurura Pearson
Abstract:
This study was carried out to assess hand hygiene practices in the context of an institution that uses biometric identity machines to monitor employee attendance. The study involved 103 employees. The study revealed that 67.3% of the respondents felt the institution had adequate hand hygiene facilities but only 51.4 % said they always disinfect their hands after using the toilet. 33.6% said they never disinfected their hands when using the biometric machine due to unavailability of hand hygiene facilities and or consumables. It also emerged that 24.3% of respondents did not know the correct hand washing procedure. To aggravate the situation, 85% of respondents said there were no informative hand hygiene signs illustrating the correct hand washing procedure. This indicates that a potential health risk existed as at the institution at the time of study. Unavailability was due either to the equipment being absent or the disinfectant not being filled into the dispensers. Disinfection both before and after using the biometric machine is strongly recommended as this would maximize health benefits both to the individual and to the wider employee population. A number of other actions will also need to be implemented to ensure safer use of hand hygiene facilities at the institution.
Keywords: Disinfection, disinfectant, biometric identification machine, hand hygiene facilities, hand hygiene practices, hand hygiene consumables.

Fall-Risk Assessment for the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study in Urban Khon Kaen Thailand
141-150
Prasert Prasomruk and Piyathida Kuhirunyaratn
Abstract:
Falls are a primary cause of injury among the elderly and a leading cause for increased risk of early death. Screening for fall-risk is important in order to identify those at risk and to implement preventative measures. We aimed to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive study including a fall-risk assessment among the elderly in the municipality of Khon Kaen, Thailand. The study population included 652 elderly 60 years of age and over. Well-trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews at the home where the elderly lived. The questionnaire comprised two sections: (1) socio-demographics and (2) a fall-risk assessment. The tool included (a) the Thai Fall-risk Assessment Tool (Thai FRAT) (b) the Time Up and Go Test (TUG) (c) the Fear of Falling (FOF) assessment and (d) an Environment Safety Checklist (ESC). The overall response rate was 93.1%. Most of sample were females 63.1%. The mean age of respondents was 69.1 (SD 7.1). A high percentage were at risk of falls; according to the ESC Tool and the FRAT. Most (71.1%) had a poor Time Up and Go Test (TUG) and 5.8% had a fear of falling. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (60-69/70+) was related to fall-risk by FRAT (AOR 0.023, 95%CI 0.003, 0.17) and TUG (AOR 0.54, 95%CI0.37,0.79) and having no a caregiver was related to fall-risk by TUG (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.27,3.15). Our results indicate that a fall prevention program is needed among the aged in Khon Kaen; specifically, for improving gait and balance, and the safety of the housing environment. Both the elderly and their family/caregivers would benefit from joining the fall prevention program.
Keywords: Fall-risk assessment, Elderly, Aged, Urban, Thailand

A Relative Investigation of Combined Association Rules with Fuzzy Combined Rules
151-156
S. Maheswari and S. S. Dhenakaran
Abstract:
Association rule mining is the one of the most important technique of the data mining. Its aim is to extract interesting correlations, frequent patterns and association among set of items in the transaction database. Combined mining is one of the common methods for analyzing complex data for identifying complex knowledge. The deliverables of combined mining are combined patterns. This paper presents a comparison between different association mining algorithms with fuzzy combined rules. All these algorithms are compared according to various factors like type of data set, support counting, rule generation. The compared algorithms are presented together with some experimental data that lead to the final conclusions.
Keywords: Domain driven data mining, Association Rule Mining, Combined pattern, Fuzzy Assocoation Rule Mining, Fuzzy Combined Pattern Mining (FCPM).

Fuzzy Based Optimized Circuit Construction for Privacy Enhanced Onion Routing
157-168
Gopinath Ganapathy and S. Shakila
Abstract:
Security provided by an Onion Routing network is determined by the strength of the circuit that has been created for bouncing the packet. A strong circuit, even though it can provide a high level of security, apparently increases latency. Though most of the protocols aim to provide enhanced security, providing the security in required levels is also an important factor, which has been ignored. This paper provides a mechanism that initially determines the type of the application traffic being generated, and provides circuit levels accordingly. Further, to improve the security level, we use the Ant Colony Optimization Technique to determine the circuit path dynamically. This method has been found to be efficient and secure in the process of data transmission.
Keywords: Onion Routing, Ant Colony Optimization, Circuit construction

Fingerprint Security Approach for Information Exchange on Networks
169-181
Wesam Bhaya and Wael Mahdi
Abstract:
Biometrics is one of the important tendencies in human identification and security. Fingerprint is a very vital index in the field of security because it's unique for any individual and it is not change with time. Information security means protecting information from access illegal. This paper suggests a new approach for information secrecy and authentication on networks. This method used matching the features of fingerprints to ensure the authentication for sender and generate the symmetry key depending on the ridges shape of fingerprint. Bezier curve is used to visualizing those ridges by its equation and store the result control points in a matrix. The algorithm select these control points for each segment by index number from the matrix to generate the symmetry key that used for encryption and authentication process.

Atmospheric Aerosol Loading (PM10) During a Twelve Month Period at Phokeng in Rustenburg, South Africa
182-192
Brighton Kaonga and Eno E. Ebenso
Abstract:
Daily PM10 samples were collected at a site in South Africa from July, 2010 to June, 2011. The atmospheric loading of the PM10 was studied. The site was in a platinum mining area of Rustenburg, a town in the North-West Province of South Africa. Sampling the aerosols was done with a Germany Grimm #180 Ambient Dust Monitor mainly for the reason of continuous sampling advantage offered by the automated equipment. Sampling was done daily through all the South African seasons. The atmospheric aerosol concentration loading of PM10 in this site ranged from 0 µgm-3 to 200 µgm-3 and the aerosols could be linked to both natural emissions as well as anthropogenic origins. It was observed that highest atmospheric aerosol concentration occurred during the winter season, June – August, most times extending into September. Measured PM10 values were compared to the South Africa Air Quality Guidelines (SAAQG) and the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHOAQG). The daily measured PM10 values exceeded the allowable 24 hourly guidelines for both SAAQG and WHOAQG.
Keywords: Atmospheric aerosols, health, environment, regulations.

Testing the Relationship between Spiritual Leadership and Job Satisfaction in the Iranian Healthcare Industry
203-218
Mandana Abdizadeh , Mohsen Malekalketab Khiabani and Mas Bambang Baroto
Abstract:
The purpose of the present research is to test the relationship between spiritual leadership and job satisfaction in the Iranian healthcare industry. The research takes a quantitative approach involving the distribution of 143 questionnaires to different professionals in healthcare centers in Tehran, Iran. Spiritual leadership creates an intrinsic motivation to achieve organizational outcomes. It is a function of seven dimensions: vision, hope/faith, altruistic love, meaning/calling, membership, commitment, and productivity. The authors conduct simple bivariate correlation tests, as well as linear standard and stepwise regression analyses. The findings support the notion that there is a positive relationship between spiritual leadership and job satisfaction (beta coefficient = .337). They also show that each dimension of spiritual leadership has a positive relationship with spiritual leadership. Among the dimensions, membership (beta coefficient = .890) is the most remarkable. This paper is useful for managers and academics. It can be used by managers of Iranian healthcare centers to motivate their employees and increase employees’ job satisfaction, as well as to achieve organizational outcomes through spiritual leadership and its various components. Furthermore, the model of this study can be implemented in the Iranian healthcare industry and hopefully in other industries.
Keywords: Spiritual Leadership, Employees’ Job Satisfaction, Healthcare Industry, Iran

Biological Activity of Lemon Essential Oil Used for Skin Care
219-226
Hicham Boughendjioua and Samah Djeddi
Abstract:
In the present study, the volatile compounds of Citrus limon L. were detected and identified by GC–MS and FTIR analysis. GC–MS allowed us to identify 53 volatile compounds and indicated that the main compounds constituting the volatile oil were mainly Limonene (61.64%), ß-Pinene (13.85%) and γ terpinene (9.95%), This compounds were also identified by FTIR analysis. The essential oil was also subjected to a biological screening for its possible antioxidant effect by means of DPPH radical scavenging test, the sample tested showed slight antioxidant activity in comparison with the positive control (Ascorbic acid). C. limon essential oil was examined also against a panel of 10 bacterial strains using the agar diffusion method. The obtained results showed that the essential oil exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. This results suggested that the C. limon essential oil possesses a good antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Citrus limon, Essential oil, Antimicrobial Activity, Antioxidant Activity.