European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 121 No 1
April, 2014

Sustainable living in a Smart Development in Dubai (Case Study: Green Community)
7-16
Armita Nabakhteh, Seyed Ahmad Reza Yekani Fard and Leila Shojaei
Abstract:
Rapid urban development in recent decades of different aspects of social, economic, cultural, political, environmental, and Human life is affected.Introduction of sustainable development as the main theme of the third millennium of urban effects on the biosphere range of different aspects of human life. No doubt the issue of sustainability and sustainable development of cities and urban life would be meaningless without. Based on what you have and the complexity inherent in urban dimensions of their effectiveness, key factors in achieving sustainability, it seems to be necessary. The purpose of this paper is related to the Green Community in Dubai in May with respect to the criteria of sustainable development and the theory of compact cities and new urban planning and design. Objectives in this area as there is a nearby residence and office facilities and necessities of life and crosses all the necessary facilities for the people living in this area are provided. The purpose of this article reviews the effects of the successful development of sustainable neighborhoods and areas within the region.
Keywords: Sustainable development, smart growth, urban development, mixed use.

Investigating the Correlation between the Relationship Marketing and Customer Loyalty (Case Study Refah Chain Stores)
17-26
Zohre Hosseini
Abstract:
This study is applied in terms of objective and among the descriptive and correlative studies in terms of data collection method. Data collection methods, applied in this research include: The library studies in the field of research background and the applied subject variables in addition to the field operation (questionnaire) in target population. The statistical population of this study covers all Refah chain stores' customers in Tehran. The judgmental sampling method, which is one of the non-probable sampling methods, is applied in this study. The validity of questionnaire was according to the viewpoints of several experts in this field and the final questionnaire was prepared and distributed among the statistical population according to their viewpoints and after the necessary adjustments and final approval. The reliability of questionnaire in this research was measured through Cronbach's alpha by applying SPSS software. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for all variables of questionnaire was obtained more than 0.70. Thus the reliability of this questionnaire was confirmed. The results of calculations indicate that the value of Sig for all hypotheses is lower than 0.05 and the absolute value of Student's t for all research hypotheses is higher than 1.96, thus all research hypotheses are confirmed. In other words, the relationship marketing leads to the customer loyalty and thus the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty lead to the customer loyalty. Moreover, the calculations indicate that the variables such as the customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty, functional value, and symbolic value have the negative coefficients of -0.004, -0.042, -0.060, -0.039 and -0.031, respectively, with the relationship marketing. Only the empirical value variable has the positive coefficient equal to 0.082 with the relationship marketing according to the customers' viewpoints. Durbin-Watson test indicates that the calculated statistics (2.021) is between 1.75 and 2.25. Therefore, the autocorrelation hypothesis between the components of model is rejected.
Keywords: Relationship marketing, customer loyalty, attitudinal loyalty, behavioral loyalty.

Molecular Characterization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Rat Skeletal Muscle
27-47
M. Haddad
Abstract:
Background: GPCRs are the largest family of proteins in the human genome and a target for huge numbers of therapeutic drugs, although the role of skeletal muscle in the action of these drugs is unclear. The purpose of this research was to identify genes encoding GPCRs highly expressed in skeletal muscle and in cultured preparations thereof. Methods: Skeletal muscle cells were cultured from vastus lateralis obtained from male Wistar (180-200 g) rats as Blau and Webster method with slight modification 1. mRNA expression, cAMP and calcium measurement and ERK phosphorylation were examined by conventional methods 2-4. Data were reported as means of triplicate or quadruplicate wells generated from two animals. Statistical analysis was conducted using one or two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test. Results: mRNA encoding Gs- (adora2a, adora2b and adrb2), Gi- (adora1, adra2a), and Gq-coupled (p2ry1, p2ry2 and p2ry6) receptors were detected using gene microarray (Agilent, all ranked <24000 out of 41090). QRT-PCR (Taqman) identified a2A receptor mRNA expression with Ct values of 28-31 in myoblasts, myotubes and skeletal muscle tissue. Treatment of myotubes with NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) (10-7 and 10-5 M) for 10 minutes elicited a significant increase in cAMP (18 ± 0.33 compared to basal levels of 4.3 ± 0.15 pmol/well), which were significantly inhibited in the presence of the A2B antagonist PSB603 5 (10-5 M, 5.3 ± 0.33 pmol/well). Treatment of myotubes with the A2A-selective agonist CGS21680 (10-7 M) failed to evoke a significant cAMP elevation. Neither basal nor forskolin (1 µM)–evoked elevation of cAMP was altered in the presence of the A1-selective agonist S-ENBA (10-7 M). In myotubes, forskolin (1 µM) –evoked elevation of cAMP (17 ± 1) was significantly inhibited in the presence of UK14304 (10-7 M) (12 ± 0). However, rauwolscine (10-7 M) did not prevent this effect. Treatment with UK14304 increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (25 ± 1.6 compared to basal ERK phosphorylation of 13 ± 3.5 P-ERK/ERK); these responses were significantly inhibited by rauwolscine (11 ± 1). Interestingly, rauwolscine showed also a significant inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK (3.6 ± 0.24). Isoprenaline (10-5 M) failed to increase cAMP levels in myotube cells, as did the ß2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist ICI118551 (10-7 M). All 748 myoblast cells (imaged from four animals; 150-250 cells/animal) showed an elevation in intracellular calcium levels in response to 1 mM ATP, with an increase in fluorescence ratio (the max of response (peak) obtained from drug minus the baseline (?FR); Fura-2 340/380 nm excitation) of 0.33 ± 0.06. 575 cells responded to 10-5 M UTP (0.18 ± 0.08 ?FR). Responses to ATP were insensitive to the P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179 (10-7 M). Conclusions: In summary, we observe expression and functional responses to example members of the three major GPCR families in rat skeletal muscle preparations.
Keywords: GPCRs, cAMP, ERK, calcium and myotubes.

The Influence of Waste Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) on the Flow Properties of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA)
48-56
Rean Maharaj, Dimple Singh-Ackbarali, Lebert H. Grierson and Nazim Mohamed
Abstract:
This paper investigates the influence of waste Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) on the rheological properties of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) as part of a wider study of evaluating waste plastics, e.g. PVC, as a filler additive in asphaltic materials. Rheology of modified TLA blends containing 1, 2, 5 and 8 wt % waste PVC were investigated using oscillating rheometry. Rheological properties, complex modulus (G*) and Phase Angle (d), of the various blends were measured over the frequency range 0-16Hz and temperature range 80, 100, 120 and 140oC. The addition of waste PVC to TLA resulted in changes in the rheological properties, demonstrated by changes in the phase angle, d (elasticity) and the complex modulus, G* (stiffness) of the blends. TLA-PVC blends containing between 2-5% PVC produced superior, optimum performance (enhanced rutting) compared to unmodified TLA; i.e. higher G* and lower d values. This study demonstrated the capability of customized TLA-PVC blends as suitable for special modified applications and furthermore offers an environmental friendly alternative for waste PVC.
Keywords: TLA, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), rheological properties, complex shear modulus, phase angle.

Investigation of Resonance Characteristics and Effective Parameters of a Metamaterial Structure with Split Rings
57-63
Ranjeeta Singh, Nitin Kumar and S C Gupta
Abstract:
This paper presents a new metamaterial, based on SRR structure and systematically investigate the various properties of the metamaterial structure. The resonant frequency of the proposed metamaterial structure is first estimated using its equivalent circuit model and the estimated value thus obtained is then compared with the values obtained by HFSS simulations. The negative refraction in the unit cell is demonstrated by estimating the negative e and negative µ on placing the unit cell in a waveguide with well defined PEC/PMC boundary conditions. Finally the unit cells are combined to form linear 2D array topology.
Keywords: Metamaterial, split ring resonators (SRR), equivalent circuit model, HFSS .

Modeling of Electromagnetic Waves and the Interaction with Human Bodies
64-69
Saleem Azara Hussain, Hisham Rahman and Nagham Abid Al- Mageed
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the dependence of the power density of Electromagnetic field EMF. At point which is located at certain the distance from source (antenna), Also we calculate the relation between the absorbing of power density and penetration depth. The relation between the Temperature of medium and penetration depth has been calculated where carried by using computer program with Fortran Language.
Keywords: Electromagnetic field, power density ,frequency ,Maxwell's equations ,penetration depth.

Connecting Strategic Goals to Operation using Compound Model of Developing Quality Performance and Hoshin Kanri in Pars Khodrow Company
70-79
Habibolah Javanmard and Nima Zahedi Taheri
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is integrating the tool of balanced scorecard, hoshin kanri, and quality development function and using complementary capabilities. Pars Khodrow Company using balanced scorecard translated its strategies to strategic goals. Respecting purpose this research is an applied study and respecting data collection method this is a descriptive study. The population of this research is senior managers related to strategic orientation purposes related to operational processes of Pars Khodrow Company and a part of middle managers, bosses, and supervisors of assistant production part that were census. The tool of data collection is questionnaire for grading first level strategies and also Matrix of quality house for grading purposes and application activities and finally analyzing the rate of correlation between applied activities that used content reliability to measure validity of research tools that achieved by exploiting experts panels and stability of research tools by Alfa Cronbach coefficient was evaluated and the rate of coefficient for questionnaire was 0.84 that represents appropriate stability of the questionnaire. Result showed that in the view of directing manager and related assistants to strategic orientation “daily excellency of operational processes”, among strategic purposes the purposes of decreasing the rate of added value, increasing the customer’s satisfaction toward quality, on time delivery of product, improving the chain of supplying, developing organizational capitals, developing information capitals, and developing human capitals the purpose of on time delivery of product had highest priority and customer’s satisfaction toward quality, improving the chain of supplying, decreasing the rate of added value, developing organizational capitals, developing human capitals and finally developing information capitals respectively are in the next priorities. In the view of production assistant and related managers among purposes of this level, the purposes of increasing workers exploitability, increasing the quality of production quality, achieving monthly production plan, improving immunity of the environment of job, appointing management system of factory and offering expertized educations, strategy of promoting quality of production and improving the conditions of immunity in the working place, purpose of offering expertized educations were of highest priority.
Keywords: Strategic purposes, QFD, BSC and Hoshin Kanri.

Adaptive Block Pinning: A Novel Shared Cache Patitioning Technique for CMP
80-93
Nitin Chaturvedi and S. Gurunarayanan
Abstract:
Most of today’s multi-core processors feature Last level shared L2 caches. A major problem faced by such multi-core architectures is cache contention, where multiple cores compete for usage of the single shared L2 cache. Previous research shows that uncontrolled sharing leads to scenarios where one core evicts useful L2 cache content belonging to another core. To address this problem, the paper first presents a cache miss classification – CII: Compulsory, Inter-processor and Intra-processor misses – for CMPs with shared caches and its comparision to 3C miss classification for traditional uniprocessor, to provide a better understanding of the interactions between memory references of different processors at the level of shared cache in a CMP. We then propose a novel approach, called block pinning, for eliminating inter-processor misses and reducing intra-processor misses in a shared cache. Furthermore, we show that an adaptive block pinning scheme improves over the benefits obtained by the block pining and set pinning scheme by significantly reducing the number of off–chip accesses. This work also proposes two different schemes of relinquishing the ownership of a block to avoid domination of ownership of few active cores in multicore system which results in performance degradation. Extensive analysis of these approaches with SPEC and Parsec benchmarks are performed using a full system simulator.
Keywords: Private Owned Processor (POP), Chip Multiprocessors (CMP), Compulsory, Conflict, Capacity (3C).

Efficacy of Open Challenges in Security Issues with Elastic Cloud Data
94-100
Ananthi Sheshasaayee and K. Geetha
Abstract:
Cloud computing is a future scrutiny to the world wide large data of storing and retrieving. User requires new technology for the purpose to store the on-demand data via Cloud technology. At the present time Cloud Computing is the best way to store user’s valuable data through “pay-as-they-need” method. Various cloud providers are trying to provide high end Security and Privacy configurations for the users Cloud Services. Though a lot of best practices are being implemented for the purpose of security there is no concrete ways of accessing security services in an elastic cloud model. A model that scales, as client requirement has Security as an open challenge for the most part cloud adoption including Cloud data search over encrypted data. Solitary possible approach to impose Cloud data access is to encrypt data in a differentiate manner and disclose the corresponding decryption keys only to authorized users. Encryption and key management are important technologies that can help to protect the Cloud data. Data owner and data consumers are moving to a cloud based environment where encryption if for regulating the performance as well as storing and retrieving data with a cloud service providers. In this paper, focus more on Security of Tree Structure Attribute Based Encryption and also analyze their performance.
Index Terms: Access Control, Cloud Services, Cloud Security, Network issues, Encryption, Decryption.

Estimation of Size and Position of Metallic Particle Adhering to Insulating Spacer in GIS using |Probabilistic Neural Network
101-111
Y. Khan, A. A. Khan, F. N. Budiman, A. Beroual, N. H. Malik and A. A. Al-Arainy
Abstract:
Gas Insulated Substation (GIS) are widely used in power industry due to their wide ranged benefits. SF6 is used as an insulation medium due its high dielectric strength capability. However, the presence of spacer defects or intrusion of foreign conducting particles renders threat to the reliability of GIS.. Presence of defects initiates Partial Discharge (PD) inside GIS that badely affects the dielectric strength of SF6 gas and thus reduces the reliability of the whole system. Therefore, the detection and identification of particle present in the insulating medium inside GIS is imperative in order to have a safe and reliable source of power transmission through GIS. This paper deals with the application of Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) for the size and position identification of metal particle when it is adhered along the surface of spacer. It was observed that the particles of different sizes located at different locations along the length of spacer between the two electrodes generate PDs having different patterns that can be differentiated by making use of statistical operators of maximum discharge, average discharge, repetition rate etc. A set of 29 statistical operators were used to identify a PD source due to a particle of specific size located at a specific location. For this purpose, particles different in length having the same diameter were adhered one at a time at 5 different locations along the length of the spacer. Experiments were repeated for each case in order to build a database for neural network training and testing. PNN was successfully used to identify the particle size and location with an success rate of 82%.
Keywords: GIS, artificial neural network (ANN), partial discharge, particle size and position estimation.