European Journal of Scientific Research
Volume 120 No 4
Multi-Learning-Paradigm Ensemble for Detection of Denial of Service Attacks
Siddhant V. Kulkarni and Vijay D. Katkar
Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are used by attackers to paralyze the network and deny legitimate users access to network resources. Various techniques are being studied for designing Intrusion Detection Systems to detect such type of attacks. Use of Data Mining to achieve this goal is one of the popular choices among researchers. This paper uses Ensemble of Classifiers approach with a voting mechanism to achieve maximum classification accuracy. The classifiers used for experimentation are Naive Bayesian(NB), Bayesian Network(BN), Sequential Minimal Optimization(SMO), J48(C4.5), Support Vector Machines(SVM), Simple CART(SC) and Reduced Error Pruning Tree(REPTree). Multiple combinations of three classifiers have been used to identify the ensemble which provides significant improvement in detection accuracy for Denial of Service attacks.
Keywords: Ensemble of Classifiers, Data Mining, Feature selection, Data pre-processing, Intrusion Detection System, Denial of Service Attack.
Bayesian Estimations for the Gompertz Distribution using Symmetric and Asymmetric Loss Functions
D. Sheeba Singh and M. Immaculate Mary
The Bayesian estimation approach is a non-classical device in the estimation part of statistical inference which is very useful in real world situation.In this paper, we acquaint some selections of bivariate priors for Gompertz’ parameters model. Simulation study of Gompertz Distribution for five pairs of priors based on the parameters’ characteristics and existing literatures were carried out to compare and investigate the theoretical results. The usage of Loss functions is implemented. The best pair priors were successfully employed to model the TB incidence in the 30 districts of Tamilnadu in the year 2011-2012.
Keywords: Bayesian estimation, Gompertz distribution, symmetric loss functions, asymmetric loss functions.
JEL Classification Code: C11
Sathish Kasilingam, Kishore R and Gowtham S
The alternator is widely used to produce electricity from steam turbines, hydraulic turbines and wind turbines. Our suggestion to reconfigure the functioning of the alternator will result in greater amount of electrical energy being produced by employing the gyroscope principle. The gyroscopic couple supplements the driving couple leading to higher power being transmitted to the armature resulting in higher production of electric voltage.
Keywords: Alternator, gyroscopic couple, radial positioning, electro motive force.
Bacterial Quality of Coastal Waters of Annaba (East Algeria)
Sabrina Hidouci, Abdallah Borhane Djebar, Rachid Amara and Et Houssem Sahraoui
With a length of nearly 50 km, Annaba coast at the east of Algeria, offers an exceptional maritime front attracting 2 to 3 million tourists each year. It is also a major base of heavy industry in Algeria, including ArcelorMettal, ASMIDAL, Orelait, ENCG which use sea water in their manufacturing process as a direct or indirect receptacle of their discharges, causing its contamination.
The wastewater treatment is intended to discharge into the natural environment water of acceptable quality affecting the environment the least possible.
In order to further understand the implications, we proceed to a comparative study of the bacteriological quality of coastal waters around the city of Annaba, before and after the commissioning of the first sewage plant located at Lallelick, distant of approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of Annaba, which has been operating since 2010 with a capacity of 683,000 population equivalent.
The results show a decrease in bacterial contamination including that of Total Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Intestinal Enterococci in the summer of 2011, after the commissioning of the sewage plant with respective average rates of 87, 37 and 83 bact/100 ml, against rates up to 1100, 460 and 2400 bact/100 ml of seawater recorded in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010.
The construction of the sewage plant in 2010 was part of the 2002 national action plan to reduce marine pollution from land-based activities with the enacting of a series of laws, including the coastal Law, the waste Act and the environment Act in the context of sustainable development.
Keywords: WWTP, contamination, bacteria, coastline, Annaba.
Climatic Effect in the Formation of Sustainable Architecture in Mazandaran Vernacular Architecture
Shabnam Azadi and Mehdi Haghighatbin
This article analyzes the Climatic Effect in the Formation of Sustainable Architecture in Mazandaran Vernacular Architecture-Iran. The aim purpose of this research is explaining the Vernacular architecture in Mild-Humid climate of Mazandaran as a sample of sustainable architecture. One of the main contributions of Sustainability in architecture is conserving constructions for the future, according to conserving on energy resources. Based on this study, sustainability is effective in the introduction productive models. Traditional architecture of Mazandaran is perceived sustainable for having sustainable features. It is capable to answer to environmental difficulties from a long period. The main characteristic of this paper are including local construction materials and climatic factors of Temperate and humid regions and also wants to identify sustainable architecture and its principles. The data collected of this study were utilizing Internet sites, library documents and analyzing building plans. Ultimately, this article indicated that a Temperate and humid climate is considered as a sustainable version and also as a good model for designing in Contemporary vernacular architecture in Mazandaran.
Keywords: Vernacular architecture, architecture, Temperate and humid, Mazandaran, sustainable architecture, Mazandaran.
Sustainable Tourism Development in the Mazandaran Region-Iran
Shabnam Azadi and Mehdi Haghighatbin
Many developing countries consider tourism to be important for economic progress and poverty reduction. However, it is also clear that the link between tourism and economic growth and poverty reduction is not automatic. This article indicates Sustainable Tourism Development in the Mazandaran Region-Iran. The sustainable tourism development will necessitate the linking of stakeholders within and at the level of the region, along with an adequate support at the national level in order to take advantage of numerous opportunities offered by increasingly intense cross-border cooperation. Taking into account the greater number of protected areas and those planned to be protected in the Mazandaran region, as well as specificities of tourism development in these areas, special attention in the paper has been given to sustainable tourism development of protected areas. This paper is about sustainable tourism development in Mazandaran in answer to the question of “How tourism can contribute to development in developing countries”. As such, it seeks to provide an account of debates on the concept of development and the nature of tourism, both as phenomena of modernity, followed by the idea of sustainability as an alternative paradigm. In this way, ‘sustainable tourism development’ is a matter of consideration. Moreover, Mazandaran will be seen as an interesting case in two respects:
1) Sustainable Tourism 2) Carrying Capacity
Keywords: Sustainable tourism development, Mazandaran region, Carrying Capacity, Sustainable Tourism.
The Disclosure of Synergy Value in M&As: Practices Informativeness and Explanatory Factors
Stefano Garzella and Raffaele Fiorentino
Synergy is one of the most important motives of mergers and acquisitions (M&A). However, studies generally overlooked the investigation of the disclosure of synergy value. The purpose of this study is to analyze the disclosure practices of synergy value in M&As by the assessing the informativeness of M&A corporate reports and the explanatory factors of disclosure. First of all, we defined the information needed to effectively assess the synergy value. Then we performed an empirical research by the analysis of: the data obtained through content analysis of M&A reports; factors that influence the disclosure of synergy using a dependency model based on variables related to the features of companies and deals. Our findings show that firms usually report information regarding valuation models and synergy types. Instead, information about synergy flows, timing and likelihood of achievement is seldom reported. Furthermore we found a significant relationship between the listing status, the involvement of strategic advisors and the disclosure of synergy value. These results suggest that the extent of disclosure is influenced by the “will” of disclosing but also by the “capability” of measuring the synergy value. However, not all the companies are able to effectively measure the synergy value. As a consequence, current M&A corporate reports have poor relevance as helpful instruments for stakeholders and shareholders decision-making.
Keywords: Synergy value, mergers and acquisitions, disclosure, content analysis.
The Relationship between Obtained Efficient Estimates from The Covering Analysis of Data and Financial Ratios of
Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange
Darush Javid, S. Ali Malihi and Sudabeh Tootzari
Financial statement shows summary of the operational activities ,financial support and the investment of the company during the fiscal period indicated . Financial statement analysis and decision – makers can make a holistic view of the health status of the company and its competitive business. In this study two methods of financial analysis in a case involving 31 chemical institutes were compared with the company .The procedure of the first hypothesis are such as; the traditional process analysis. In the procedure, we consider profitability ratios as independent variables and turnover as dependent variable. Initially, according to the industry average , firms with good investment returns were introduced .Via enter, the regression between the dependent and independent variables were measured to examine the second hypothesis by DEA efficient firms MAGS software .
Then Via Pearson correlation coefficient , their relationship have been checked regarding stock trading as investors who decided to checked references. Regarding the third hypothesis the companies introduced both methods yielded the following year using T-test were compared .As a result it was found that traditional analysis approach is more efficient and has higher returns on investment
Keywords: Financial statement, financial ratio, regression, Pearson correlation coefficient ,independent sample T-test, data envelopment analysis , chemical industries.
Incidence De L’érosion Sur L’évolution Des Paramètres Des Canaux De Drainage Des Eaux Sous Bananeraies
Industrielles Dans La Zone De Dabou (Côte D’ivoire)
Prosper Yao Kouadio, Marie-Solange Tiébré, Roland Hervé Kouassi, Djakalia Ouattara and Edouard Kouakou N’Guessan
L’étude des drains a été conduite sur 20 parcelles de bananiers et a porté sur 794 échantillons. Elle a permis principalement de caractériser les parcelles et les drains, à définir les formes d’érosions existantes et à connaître les causes et les conséquences sur le milieu de culture. Ainsi, le type de sol, la densité des bananiers, la durée des périodes de traitement herbicides, la position des parcelles dans la toposéquence et l’orientation des lignes de planting sont les principaux déterminants de l’érosion hydrique des bananeraies.Aussi l’analyse des données a-t-elle permis d’établir des valeurs idéales des différents paramètres des canaux de drainage.
Mots clés: Bananiers, Côte d’Ivoire, Dabou, Drain, Environnement, Erosion.
Respiratory Symptoms from Particulate Air Pollution Related to Vehicle Traffic in Amman, Jordan
Nedal A. Alnawaiseh, Jamal H. Hashim, Zaleha M. Isa and Samar J. Salahat
The most air-polluted area in Jordan is Amman city. Total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate matter 10μm (PM10) in the city mainly originate from motor vehicle sources. The study respondents were 598 residents (cross-sectional comparative study); they were selected using a two-stage simple random sampling method from two study locations with different magnitude of air pollution as high and low air pollution area. Data on respiratory symptoms were collected through (ATS-DLD-78-A). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for meteorological parameters (p < 0.001). The most prevalent respiratory symptoms were frequent cough (26.9%), followed by frequent phlegm and shortness of breath (SOB) (23.7%), and wheezing (19.2%). The adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for frequent cough, frequent sputum, wheezing, and SOB of residents in high pollution area (HPA) were (2.63, p < 0.001); (1.57, p = 0.020); (1.47, p = 0.030); and (2.31, p < 0.001), respectively, compared to the residents of the low-pollution area (LPA). TSP and PM10 were significantly associated with vehicle traffic count. Respiratory symptoms were more prevalent among residents of HPA, and those residing close to the main roads.
Amman, Air Pollution, Vehicle Traffic, Respiratory Symptoms.