European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 120 No 3
March, 2014

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Thyme Essential Oil Wild-Growing in Algeria
293-302
Hicham Boughendjioua, Samah Djeddi and Ratiba Seridi
Abstract:
In the present work, the volatile compounds of Thymus numidicus Poiret.were detected and identified by GC–MS and FTIR analysis. GC–MS allowed us to identify 31 compounds and indicated that the main compounds constituting the volatile oil were mainly carvacrol (27.38%), thymol (22.47%) and p -cymene (9.41%),this compounds were also identified by FTIR analysis. The essential oil was also subjected to a biological screening for its possible antioxidant activities by means of DPPH radical scavenging test, the sample tested showed slight antioxidant activity in comparison with the positive control (Ascorbic acid). T. numidicus essential oil was examined also against a panel of 10 bacterial strains using the agar diffusion method. The obtained results have shown that the essential oil exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. This results suggested that the T. numidicus essential oil possesses a good antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and is a potential source of active ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: Thymus numidicus Poiret, Essential oil, Antimicrobial Activity, Antioxidant Activity.

Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Monodora Myristica, Xylopia Aethiopica and Xylopia Parviflora Essential Oils
303-314
Ide Flavie Kenfack Tsague, Pierre Michel Jazet Dongmo, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Modeste Lambert Sameza, Jean Baptiste Hzounda Fokou Issakou Bakargna-Via, Elisabeth Zeuko’o Menkem, Paul Henri Amvam Zollo and Chantal Menut
Abstract:
The search for alternatives to synthetic drugs, led to the investigation of the chemical composition, antiradical, anti-inflammatory and antifungal potentials of the essential oils from fruits of three Annonaceae spices namely Monodora myristica, Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopia parviflora. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were further subjected to DPPH.scavenging assay, 5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay on one hand and the Agar dilution test on the other hand to determine their effect on mycelia growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger isolates. The extraction yields were 0.74, 2.18 and 2.33% respectively for X. parviflora, X. aethiopicaand M. myristica. These essential oils were mainly constituted of monoterpenesasα-phellandrene (57.8%) and p-cymene (12.7%) for M. myristica, ß-pinene (46.9%) and a-pinene (16.8%) for X. parvifloraand lastly ß-pinene (25.8%) and a-pinene (11.5%) for X. aethiopica. The latter portrayed the highest antiradical power (PA= 2.28x10-5) and the most effective inhibitor of 5- lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 515ppm whereas M. myristica and X. parviflora displayed poor inhibition with IC50 values of 1829 ppm and 1164 ppm respectively. These essential oils were fungicidal on the three aspergilla with X. parviflora appearing to be the most active with MIC ranging from 4x103mg/L to 5.75x03mg/L. The results of this study indicate that these essential oils could be used as potent fungi growth inhibitors.
Keywords: Antiradical, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, Monodora myristica,Xylopia aethiopica, Xylopia parviflora.

Fuzzy Matrix Theory as A Soft Computing Technique in Health Care Management
315-322
H. Lookman Sithic and R. Umarani
Abstract:
This article explores data mining techniques as a soft computing technique in health care.In particular, it discusses data mining and its application in area such as people who affected severely in cancer using Fuzzy Matrix Theory model, it also identified the risk factors associated with the cancer impactions. Finally this article discusses some future directions.
Keywords: Data mining, cancer, Fuzzy Matrix, ATD Matrix, CETD Matrix, Row sum matrix.

A Novel Fuzzy Logic Approach to Optimal Unit Commitment Compared with PSO and GA Methods
323-331
Majid Pakdel and Saeid Jalilzadeh
Abstract:
An important criterion in power system operation is to satisfy the power demand at minimum fuel cost using an optimal deployment of different power plants. Several models by using different techniques have been used to solve the unit commitment problem. Several traditional approaches have been utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. Recently the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a number of successful and practical applications. In this paper a novel fuzzy logic based approach is used to solve the unit commitment problem and the results of the proposed method in a typical six unit system are compared with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) methods.
Keywords: Unit Commitment, Fuzzy Logic, PSO, GA.

Assessment of Long Term Chloride Diffusion in Real RC Structures in Marine Environment
332-347
Majid Safehian and AliAkbar Ramezanianpour
Abstract:
Reinforced concrete structures are widely constructed in severe marine environment for infrastructures of ports and oil exploration. But these structures are increasingly being deteriorated, mainly due to the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcement. Also, piles in marine structures are often subjected to the most severe corrosion due to permanent wet and dry cycles. The aim of this study is assessment of basic parameters of long term chloride penetration into RC piles in one of the most severe marine environments. Therefore, four reinforced concrete piers are monitored during 72 months of exposure in the tidal zone. Also, some accelerated durability tests were performed on standard samples with the same concrete mixture in the laboratory. Subsequently, two time-dependent equations are proposed for apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) and surface chloride content (Cs) and then they are used in basic refined models to predict the long term chloride penetration and the time of corrosion initiation. Finally, the obtained results are compared with chloride penetration in other old marine structures. The study found that both Dapp and Cs show substantial time dependence which has significant effects on the service life of RC structures. Also, achieved excellent durability properties for prestressed spun precast concrete (PSPC) piles in field investigations and accelerated durability tests, suggest that PSPC piles may extend the service life of coastal structures to greater than seventy years.
Keywords: Durability, service life, marine environment, coastal structures, time dependent models.

Enhancement of Parallel Plate Sensor for Electromagnetic Characterization of Material
348-359
Hashem Al-Mattarneh
Abstract:
This paper presents the newly developed parallel plate sensor (PPS) for electromagnetic characterization of material. Prior to material testing, measurements were conducted to determine the validity of such a system by testing specimens possessing known dielectric properties such as Teflon. A reliable calibration and validation methods have been developed for the PPS. Finally a prototype device of the PPS and a sample of the measured dielectric properties of water, diesel, soil and concrete are provided. This device proves to be a nondestructive testing method for electromagnetic characterization of composite and particulate material in the frequency range of 1kHz to 30 MHz. The setup of sensor is simple, low cost, fast, and accurate compared with the existing methods. The model circuit developed for this sensor shows high capability in determining unwanted impedances and measuring the electromagnetic properties of material more accurately. The model circuit used in this study also proves that, the stray impedance and fringing impedance are not constant and it varies with frequency and depends on sensor configuration. It also proves to be novel technique to measure electromagnetic properties of material and enhance sensing and characterization of material.
Keywords: Electromagnetic, Sensor, Dielectric properties, Parallel plate, Impedance.

Surface Electromagnetic Sensor for Evaluation of Construction Material
360-369
Hashem Al-Mattarneh
Abstract:
This paper presents the newly developed surface electromagnetic sensor (SES) and the theoretical equations regarding its usage. SES was designed and fabricated to determine the in situ dielectric properties of construction materials over a low radio wave frequency range of 1kHz to 30 MHz. The SES, in design, resembles a parallel-plate electrode system in the sense that it consists of two conducting plates with a known separation.The conducting plates are flat, which allows them to conform to a flat surface of construction material under testing. Prior to testing the construction material, measurements were conducted to determine the validity of the system by testing specimens possessing known dielectric properties such as Teflon. A reliable calibration and validation methods has been developed for the SES. Finally, a prototype device called SES was designed and manufactured as a surface sensor. SES is lightweight, portable, low cost and simple to use. The SES can slide on the surface of the material and provide information from different point. The SES fixed to a circular plate that allowed it to rotate and provide data at different angle by polarizing the electromagnetic signal on different directions.
Keywords: Electromagnetic, Surface sensor, Dielectric properties, Construction material, Impedance.

Determination of the Human Communication Indexes between Employees Welfare Organization of Iran
370-379
Abdolreza Shahmohammadi, Afsaneh Sattari and Nastaran Khajeh Noori
Abstract:
Objective: The purpose of this study was Determination of the human communication indexes between employees Welfare Organization of Iran Method: The method used in this study, the survey method is most common in quantitative research The sample size was calculated based on Morgan 271 patients were randomly selected based on these numbers. This study was conducted to collect data and information from the questionnaire were used. Questionnaire consisted of 32 questions of human relations which 5 first question demographic questionnaire and subjects such as sex, education , work experience , marital status and age were included in the study , as well as other questions samples to determine the basis of human relations based on the five -choice Likert scale (always , often , sometimes , rarely , never ) was designed. In this project, SPSS software was used to analysis the data. Findings: The results showed that the level of communication skills of staff welfare from the employees' point of view is evaluated desirable (p<0.05). The study results showed that the central staff welfare perspective on human communication of employees in these organizations varies according to gender and gender workers on the significant relationship of the staff human relations index. 40% of male participants and 27% of female participants evaluated communication skills, desirable. So men, more than women have a positive opinion about the staff of Iran’s Welfare human communication index. Central staff's view about the welfare of the employees in the organization of human relationships education are different (p<0.05) in terms of their scores significantly negatively correlated Affairs staff to staff communication skills. A negative correlation means that higher level, the weaker the staff of Human Relations have evaluated. Central staff welfare perspective on human communication parameters of the staff in terms of work experience is different (p>0.05). Thus, no significant correlation between duration of working on their score is an index of human communications staff. Central staff's view about the welfare employees in the organization about human relationships in terms of a significant relationship between marital statuses (p>0.05) of employees and their score to human communications index of staff. However, 35% of married people and 19% of single people evaluated communication skills of personnel, appropriate. Thus, there is no significant correlation between duration of working and their score to staff index of human communications (p>0.05). Positive correlation means that with increasing age, a higher score on the index of human communications staff are employees and age, people are more important than communication skills. Positive correlation means that with increasing age, employees have higher scores on the index of human communications and aging causes people to care more about communication skills.
Keywords: Communication skills, Human communications, Staff.

Utilisation de la Géostatistique Dans L’établissement de La Carte de Vulnérabilité d’une Nappe Superficielle vis-à-vis Un Herbicide Nappe Superficielle d’El Hadjar Annaba. Algérie
380-387
Noureddine Zenati, Zine Labidine Chini, Nabiha Belahcene and Djelloul Messadi
Abstract:
L’Algérie est classée parmi les pays qui utilisent les plus grandes quantités de pesticides. Ainsi environ 400 produits phytosanitaires sont homologués dont une quarantaine de variétés sont largement utilisées par les agriculteurs (Bouziani, 2007). Cependant, la plus part de ces pesticides sont hautement toxiques et difficilement biodégradables. C’est donc, dans ce contexte que nous avons mené notre étude, qui consiste à évaluer la sensibilité des sols au transfert d’un herbicide sous le nom de Chevalier, introduit à notre pays ressèment, utilisé à grande échelle pour les cultures céréalières, vers les eaux souterraines. Cette étude est basée sur une expression analytique (modèle MetaPEARL) qui décrit la concentration de pesticides lixiviés au bas du profil pédologique en fonction du climat, caractéristiques des sols et les propriétés de l’herbicide (Tiktak et al. 2006). L’utilisation de la géostatistique (logiciel ISATIS [release 6.0 ; June 2006]) a permis d’analyser la structure et la variabilité spatiale de la concentration de l’herbicide lixivié. Une application à la nappe superficielle de la plaine Ouest d’El Hadjar : plaine à vocation agricole (7980 ha), donne une carte caractérisée par des fortes concentrations de l’herbicide prés des oueds, dans la région d’El Ghantra et au centre de la plaine ; c'est-à-dire une sensibilité remarquant dans ces régions.
Mots clés: Herbicide. Sol. Vulnérabilité. Eau Souterraine. MetaPEARL

An Effective Tea Leaf Recognition Algorithm for Plant Classification using Improved ANFIS Algorithm
388-400
Arunpriya C and Antony Selvadoss Thanamani
Abstract:
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as identified in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Naturally a leaf is a thin, flattened organ bear above the ground and it is mainly used for photosynthesis. Recognition of plants has become an active area of research as most of the plant species are at the risk of extinction. Most of the leaves cannot be recognized easily since some are not flat (e.g. succulent leaves and conifers), some does not grow above ground (e.g. bulb scales), and some does not undergo photosynthetic function (e.g. cataphylls, spines, and cotyledons). In this paper we have attempted to identify tea plant cultivars using classification techniques. Tea leaf images are loaded from digital cameras or scanners in the system. This proposed approach consists of three phases such as preprocessing, feature extraction and classification to process the loaded image. The tea leaf images can be identified accurately in the preprocessing phase by fuzzy denoising using Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform (DT-DWT) in order to remove the noisy features and boundary enhancement to obtain the shape of leaf accurately. In the feature extraction phase, Digital Morphological Features (DMFs) are derived to improve the classification accuracy. Improved Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used for efficient classification. The ANFIS is trained by 60 tea leaves to classify them into 6 types. Experimental results proved that the proposed method classifies the tea leaves with more accuracy in less time. Thus, the proposed method achieves more accuracy in identifying the leaf type.
Keywords: Leaf Recognition, Dual Tree Discrete Wavelet Transform (DT-DWT), Digital Morphological Features (DMFs), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).

Adsorption of NO Molecule on Oxygen Vacancy-Defected MgO Nanotubes: DFT Study
401-415
H.Y. Ammar and El¬-Sayed R. H. El-Gharkawy
Abstract:
The density functional theory (DFT) have been used to study the interactions of gaseous nitric oxide molecule (NO) on MgO nanotubes (MgONTs) at both anionic (O2-) and defect (F and F+-centers) sites.A geometric optimization were performed for MgONTs and NO/MgONTs. The adsorption energies (Eads) of NO molecule (N-down as well as O-down) on O2-, F and F+-sites at different layers of MgONTs were considered.The adsorption properties of NO were analyzed in terms of the adsorption energy, the electron donation (basicity), and the atomic charges on the adsorbed materials. The densities of states (DOS) have been calculated and used for examining the adsorption properties. NO molecule is strongly adsorbed on the MgONTs containing F and F+-centers. The band gaps of the defective MgONTs is sensitive to NO gaseous molecule.
Keywords: Adsorption of NO; MgONTs; Density functional theory; F-center

The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Therapy, Based on Mind –Consciousness on Incompatible Schemas and Relapse to Drug use in Drug-Dependent Persons
416-423
Mohamd Mahdi Jamali Paghaleh and Mansoreh Nasirian
Abstract:
This study is a quasi- experimental method using pre-test and post-test with control group and experimental group. In this project, the subjects were randomly selected and with the same method were assigned in two groups. Before the implementation of the independent variable, the selected subjects, in both groups, completed a questionnaire long-term schema by young, and after8 meetings per a week, a 90 minutes meeting was held for experimental group with group cognitive therapy based-on mind-consciousness. The findings of the research showed that this model has been effective in prevention of the relapse to drug use in addicts. In other words, the rate of relapse in people who received the training in comparison with the control group significantly declined. At the end of the treatment, there was a difference between the scores before and after treatment in incompatible schemas in control and experimental group.
Keywords: Group Cognitive Therapy Based on the Mind –Consciousness Incompatible Schemas, Decline of Drug use, Drug -Dependence.

Compaction Characteristic of Initially Dried and Wetted Sands
424-431
Anuchit Uchaipichat
Abstract:
In civil engineering practice, compaction works are always encountered. Examples of compaction works are constructions of highways, dams and other types of embankment works. Since soils may experience air-drying process before performing field compaction, the compaction characteristic of initially dried and wetted samples was investigated in this study. The standard compaction test procedure was used to characterize the compaction behavior. The test results show differences between the test data for the initially dried and initially wetted samples. From the test on the initially wetted samples, the general trend of compaction curves was obtained and the maximum dry density increased with increasing clay content. However, the data from the tests on the initial dried samples were randomly scattered and the general shape of compaction curves cannot be obtained. This is because the clay particles cannot absorb the free water in the voids immediately. Therefore, the initially dried samples with clay content need a curing period for moisture equilibrium.
Keywords: Compaction; Sands; Drying-wetting process; Dry density, Clay content.

Impact de la Qualité Des Eaux Des Plages de Kribi et Limbé (Cameroun) Sur La Santé Des Populations Riveraines Essai De Classification Par Rapport Aux Normes Internationales Des Eaux De Baignade
432-443
LemeBanock Lucie, NtsamaEssomba Claudine, Alloue-Boraud Wazé Aimée Mireille, Abologo AzemeLarissa and Bilong Bilong Charles Félix
Abstract:
Kribi et Limbé sont les deux villes balnéaires du Cameroun les plus fréquentées par les touristes. Leurs plages, sont généralement alimentées par des cours d’eaux et abritent de nombreuses activités anthropiques. Dans le but d’évaluer leur impact sur la santé des populations riveraines et d’établir une classification suivant les normes internationales des eaux de baignage, la qualité des eaux des plages sus-citées a été évaluée, et l’influence de divers facteurs examinée. D’une manière générale, les eaux des plages se sont avérées bien oxygénées, de température et pH normaux. En revanche, les valeurs de la conductivité électrique et de la salinité étaient élevées. Aeromonassp, Bacillussp., Pseudomonassp.,Staphylococcussp.,Vibriosp. et les bactéries indicatrices de la qualité de l’eau (coliformes totaux, coliformes fécaux et entérocoques) ont été isolées. Certaines plages de Kribi ont été classées de mauvaise qualité pour la baignade.Par ailleurs seules deux plages de Limbé étaient de haute qualité ou de qualité acceptable pour la baignade à toutes les saisons. 53% et 34% des personnes respectivement interrogées à Kribi et Limbé ont signalé des désagréments pouvant être liés aux eaux des plages. La dégradation de la qualité des eaux des plages causée par, les activités liées à la pêche, la baignade, les matières fécales et les déchetsdomestiquespourrait être à l’origine de diverses maladies.
Motsclés: Bactéries,physicochimie, santé, classification, eaux des plages, Cameroun.

Identification of Three Diseases in Rice Plants using Pattern Recognition Method
444-452
V. Surendrababu, C. P. Sumathi and E. Umapathy
Abstract:
Rice is the cultured crop all over the world. Good quality of rice plants frequently gets strictly affected by a number of plant diseases. Mostly three diseases are worst diseases that badly affects the rice production in the world, they are Brown spot, blast diseases and bacterial leaf streak. These diseases are characterized by different shaped lesions on the plant leaves. By applying chemicals such as fungicides, pesticides and other mixed chemicals we can manage this disease. However, till date no such image processing based technique has yet been attempted to determine such diseases in the plant. My research, we investigated the colour texture of around 500 rice leaf images by using a pattern recognition method. The results will help to study for early and accurate detection if leaf spots are presented.If the suggested technology is set into camera phones, a farmer can easily detect the diseases much before these diseases show their hares symptoms without any help from a plant pathologist.
Keywords: Image processing, pattern recognition, colour-texture analysis, computer imaging, automated image analysis.