European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 120 No 2
March, 2014

Integration of a Compact Circularly Polarized Antenna Array with a Reconfigurable Symmetric Stub Phase Shifter using Liquid Crystals Substrates
152-160
Sayed. Missaoui, Sihem. Missaoui and Mohsen. Kaddour
Abstract:
In this article, the integration of a compact Circularly Polarized (CP) antenna with a reconfigurable symmetric stub phase shifter using Liquid Crystal (LC) substrates for microwave applications is presented. LC is used as the substrate, which enables the fabrication of a flexible, low cost technologies, and light weight antenna. With these LCs, a simulation slope average 3°/GHz/cm, and 80% of the agility has been achieved with comparatively low control volt-ages less than 6 V. The reflection return loss has been greatly improved by about 15 dB, along with the variation of the simulation resonance frequency of 310 MHz, both before and after applying a continuous voltage with a bandwidth of 373 MHz.
Keywords: Liquid Crystals, Circularly Polarized Antenna, Symmetric Stub Phase Shifter, Agile Structure, Microwave Application.

An Enhanced Multi Density Based Clustering Technique Using Density Level Partition (EDBSCAN-DLP)
161-176
Alam Zeb Khan, Saif Ur Rehman, Huma Israr and Kamran Aziz
Abstract:
Density based Spatial clustering of application with noise DBSCAN is a well-known clustering algorithm that can find clusters with arbitrary shape and handle noisy points effectively. However, DBSCAN is unable to find clusters with varying densities. DBSCAN requires user to input the parameter Eps and Minpts to execute the algorithm, which are hard to determine and directly influence the clustering result. DBSCAN-DLP improved DBSCAN by providing the mechanism of calculating suitable value of Eps automatically for each density level. DBSCAN-DLP also recognizes clusters of different densities. However, DBSCAN-DLP still requires user to input Minpts. In this research, we have proposed an enhanced E-DBSCAN-DLP algorithm by extending DBSCAN-DLP so that it can automatically determine the most suitable value of Minpts by using the statistical characteristics of dataset. Experimental results show that EDBSCAN-DLP estimates the value of Minpts accurately when providing different datasets.
Keywords: DBSCAN, Eps, Minpts, Clustering, Density.

Foreign Body Inhalation of Plastic Headed Pins of Headscarf in Al- Fallujah, Iraq
177-183
Mohammed Tafash Dagash
Abstract:
Background: Inhalation of foreign bodies is rare in adults. Inhalation of scarf pin is a phenomenon more frequent in the female population in Fallujah. Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight upon the dangerous habit of holding a scarf pin in the mouth during wearing headscarf and to evaluate the role of rigid bronchoscopy in the extraction. Patients and Methods: This was retrospective, descriptive and two years hospital based study of thirty-six patients admitted to the Thoracic and Vascular unite in Al-Fallujah Teaching Hospital during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. There was history of scarf pin inhalation when they put the pin between their lips while fixing their scarves. Inhalation was accidental in all cases. History, clinical examination and radiological findings had been recorded. Rigid bronchoscopy had been performed under general anesthesia for extracting the inhaled pin, in some patients second trial indicated for removal, while in others thoracotomy was performed. Follow up continued for three month. Results: Thirty one patients (86.1%) were female and five patients (13.9 %) were male. The mean age was 14.5 years with standard deviation was ±2.1. The time between inhalation of the pin and presentation was mainly after 12hours.The foreign bodies were seen mainly in the right bronchial system in 18 patients (50%) and in 31 patients (86.1%) the foreign body was removed in the first bronchoscopic trial. Thoracotomy was performed in two patients (5.6%). Conclusion: Scarf pin inhalation is a potential cultural hazard mainly in women who wear the Islamic headscarf. Rigid bronchoscopy is efficient in extraction of such types of inhaled foreign bodies.
Keywords: Foreign body inhalation, Scarf pin, Bronchoscopy, Iraq, Fallujah.

Multi-Agent System Improvement for Robotic Systems
184-188
Ahmad Dalalah
Abstract:
Creation of systems that have complex processes has increased rapidly these days, so the need to use models that will simplify system creation has risen. Multi-agent systems can be used to handle these problems; by decomposing the main problem into smaller sub-problems, and solve them individually, then trying to collaborate the work in the final stage. In spite of the real need for these models only few models and tools are there to be used. In this paper we present some of the most important models and methodologies which are used in applying the multi-agent systems in different type of applications and we evaluate each one, then we propose a new methodology to help in constructing a robotic application by using multi-agent systems along with UML.
Keywords: Multi-Agent system, UML, Development, SPEM, Meta Model, ASPECS, Robotic system.

Combustion Quality Estimation in Power Station Boilers using SVM based Feature Reduction with Bayesian Classifier
189-198
K. Sujatha, U. Siddharth Nambi and C. R. Raja Dinakaran
Abstract:
This research work deals with monitoring of combustion quality so as to minimize the flue gas emissions at the exit. The cost effective technique to develop an intelligent combustion monitoring system is discussed in this paper. A combination of image processing algorithm with Bayesian Classifier is used. The feature extraction was done using Image J and feature reduction was done using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The classification of the flame images based on the features was done using the Bayesian approach whose results are also validated. The combination of the two techniques proved to be beneficial so as to monitor the combustion quality at the furnace level is made possible. Moreover the flue gas emissions are minimized which reduces air pollution.
Keywords: Combustion quality, Support Vector Machine, Bayes net classifier, Naives Bayes classifier, Image Processing, Euclidean distance.

A Review on the Effect of Customer Relation Management on Value Chain on Selected Branches of Bank of Eghtesad Novin, Tehran, Iran
199-208
Seyed Naser Rafii
Abstract:
Customer relation management is a business strategy to create value both for customers and for company which, identifies all aspects of customers’ characteristics, and creates knowledge about customers and their reception about organizations’ products and services.The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between utilizing customer relation management, as an independent variable, and four components of customer service: customer service, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and marketing, as dependant variables for this research, and to propose some suggestions to improve organizations’ value chain, using customer relation management. Statistic community, for this research, includes customers of different branches of Bank of Eghtesad Novin, in Tehran, Iran, which they have been questioned for the period of Mehr to Aban, 1391. The size of sample in this research, using Cochran formula, has been determined 204 people / customer. In current research we have used descriptive and inductive tests such as means and Pearson correlation. Results of this research indicate positive and meaningful relationship between customer relation management and four components of services, such as customer satisfaction, customer services, customer loyalty, and marketing.
Keywords: Customer relation management, Value chain, Customer satisfaction.

A Hybrid Modified PSO Algorithm for Minimizing Total Weighted Resource Tardiness Penalty Costs in the RCPSP with Fuzzy Parameters
209-220
Mohammad Khalilzadeh
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a project scheduling problem with finish-to-start precedence relations among project activities under the objective of minimizing total weighted resource tardiness penalty costs. In this problem, we assume renewable resources which are restricted to very expensive equipment and machines, are rented and used in other projects and are not available in all project periods. In other words, there is a fuzzy predefined ready date as well as a fuzzy due date for each renewable resource, so that no resource is used before its ready date. However, resources are permitted to be used after their due date by paying penalty costs. The goal of this project scheduling problem is to find a feasible schedule with minimal total weighted resource tardiness penalty costs. For this problem, we present a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm introduced by Tchomte and Gourgand which uses a modified rule for the displacement of particles. The prominent permutation and two-point crossover are applied to solve the problem. Experimental analyses show the efficiency and effectiveness of new hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for this type of project scheduling problem. In order to validate the performance of our approach, the results are compared with ‘‘optimal solutions” for some instance problems whose optimum objective function values are known.
Keywords: Resource constrained project scheduling; weighted resource tardiness; scatter search.

Brief Description of Aspects of Biology, Ecology, Agronomy, and Prospects for Development of Sago Palm
221-229
Barahima Abbas, Abdul Wahid Rauf, Florentina Heningtyas Listyorini and Munarti
Abstract:
Indonesia is rich of sago palm germplasm, and has the most extensive of sago palm forest and sago palm semi cultivated in the world. Potential resources owned of sago palm need to be explored and fully utilized for the welfare of the community.Resource utilization of sago palm need to be done wisely and sustainably, so that its benefits can be felt on an ongoing basis. Collection of genetic resources of sago palm needs to be done before expriencing degradation. Data base aspects of agrotechnology, eco-physiology, harvest processing, utilization, and starch processing need to be raised through an intensive research, so that the investor will be inspired to invest their finance in the commodity of sago palm.
Keywords: Sago palm, distribution, taxonomy, utilization, cultication.

Effectiveness of English Language in Higher Education of Pakistan: A Case Study among the Students of Higher Education from Six Universities of Pakistan (Part 1)
230-238
Mamuna Ghani, Nazia Suleman, Abdul Razzaq Azad, Hafiz Sajjad Hussain and Nasir Masood
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of English language in higher education of Pakistan. A case study was conducted from six universities of Pakistan, and 516 students and 84 students are also the part of the research. This study also evaluated the effectiveness of communication skills especially, development of reading, writing, speaking and listening skills, and to find out about the effectiveness of English language in terms of the goals and objectives, methods and materials and evaluation procedures. For this purpose, a questionnaire was designed, and given to six hundreds participants to the different departments of the top 6 universities of Pakistan. The results of the study revealed that the participants were generally satisfied with the statements since most of the answers given in the questionnaires were around “moderately”, which meant that maximum participants favorers the statements. Perceptions about the effectiveness of the English language, regarding the achievement of the objectives, effectiveness of the methods and materials are fully support our ideas. Some participants are not be able to understand the statements due to their cultural, social and religious differences.

Intralingual Errors among ESL Learners at Different Levels A Comparitive Study at Different Levels
239-246
Abdul Razzaq Azad, Hafiz Sajjad Hussain, Shazia Siddique, Abdul Momin, Maryam Majeed Maria Mustafa, Uzma Nazar Joiya, Saima Batool, Qurrat ul Ain, Samur Zafa, Arooj Arshad Kiran Manzoor, Bushra Javed, Summia Anood, Muhammad Amir Khan, Asad Naeem Sadia Saeed, Iram Gul and Hafiz Asif Azam
Abstract:
The English language enjoys great popularity in Pakistan. The people of Pakistan are very excited in learning this language. They spend a large amount of their income in this constituency. But mistakes are the significant part for the second language learner. Mistakes are considered good for learning process but these mistakes become fatal when learners are at final stage of learning a second language. It is true that a learner learns from his own mistakes but it is important to highlight those mistakes as the second language learner is mostly unaware of such systematic mistakes which are literally known as errors. These errors are categorized into interlingual and intralingual errors. Interlingual errors are resulted due to interference of mother tongue whereas intralingual errors that occur within the target language itself occur due to false analogy and insufficient knowledge of second language. Hypothesis of the study is English as second language learners make errors in syntax due to lack of interaction with English speakers. This study investigates about intralingual errors among ESL Learners at different level middle, secondary, higher secondary, undergraduate and at graduate level. This study based on writing activities was completed after getting written arguments on statements provided by the researcher. Two hundred students are participating in this research and given different statement to write on it freely according to their own wish. After analyzing such statements, the researcher categorized Intralingual errors (prime concern of the researcher), into omission, addition, fragment, selection, simplification, structure of sentence and overgeneralization or false analogy.

The Role of Social Media in Language Learning
247-253
Abdul Razzaq Azad and Hafiz Sajjad Hussain
Abstract:
Social media is the easy way of access to information and learning the language. Allowing low cost access to community members across class, linguistic and geographical boundaries, the social media like face book, Google Plus and specially mobile phones are effective tools to communicate with people in Pakistan, as well as to learn language from them, and even to interact with them. This study reveals that due to the use of social media, there are two types of learning, in the form of language and ethics. Some problems have been discovered during the study on behalf of language learners, using chunks and non standard abbreviations which have awful impacts on the language learning. Some learners have positive impacts and some have negative impacts due to the use of non Standard English language in the form of texting and chatting. This study has deeply investigated the relevant use of social media and its impacts on learners. This research is intended to provide an understanding of both the technical options available for SMS-based communication, and for the ways in which campaigns should be conceived and executed in light of the scope and character of both SMS and social media usage in Pakistan.

The Environmental Impact Study for Automobile Industry Utilising LPG as an Energy Source
254-263
M. Senthil Kumar, Angeline Prabhavathy, M. Mariappan and R. K. Elangovan
Abstract:
The automobile industry uses LPG as an energy source due to easy availability, ease of storage and clean fuel compared to conventional fuels such as Diesel, Furnace Oil, Coal, Coke, Firewood etc. In this paper, we identify, characterize and measure the magnitude of the Environmental Impact due to LPG bulk storage automobile Industry in Tamilnadu, India. This paper describes about the Environmental impact study through the research tool, which is developed based on the prevailing conditions laid by the enforcement department of Tamilnadu pollution control board, Government of Tamilnadu and Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. The research tool covers the statutory requirement for hazardous storage installation, Safety management system, Emergency preparedness, Risk Assessment and consequence modeling (DNV Phast Software), Environmental Impact Assessment and damage zone effects both inside and outside the facility. The result reveals that most of the automobile industry need to develop an efficient system for managing Environmental Impacts and emphasis on the requirements for improvement.
Keywords: Environmental Impact, Research Tool, Consequence Modeling, Emergency Preparedness and Damage Zones.

Modelling of Solar System by Newton Raphson Method, MPPT Algorithm
264-276
Mohammed EL Alami, Mohamed Habibi and Seddik Bri
Abstract:
In this work, we present a modelling study and a simulation system adapted by the photovoltaic MPPT command (Maximum Power Point Traking) numerical method based on "Perturb and Observe" P & O, and the influence of temperature and irradiance on the optimum parameters of a solar system. This system comprises a photovoltaic generator, converter "boost" and a charge. The control of the power, modelling and simulation were performed under MATLAB-Simulink software; the simulation results obtained show the performance of the control in the dynamic behavior of photovoltaic systems, which is meant to implement a full robust system for increasing the yield and extract the maximum amount of solar energy.
Keywords: Photovoltaic Panels, MPPT command, modelling Energy Converters DC-DC power, Perturb and Observe.

Bi-Shadowing of Contractive Set-Valued Mappings the Convex Case
277-281
Anwar A. Al-Badarneh
Abstract:
In this paper we prove that systems generated by uniformly locally contractive set-valued mappings are bi-shadowing with respect to comparison continuous set-valued mappings with convex values. An example to illustrate the result is given.
Keywords: Bi-shadowing, Set-valued Mapping, Contractive Mapping.
2010 AMS Subject Classification: 37C50, 47H04, 54C60

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Phytoplankton Classes in the Gulf of Annaba (NE of Algeria, SW Mediterranean Sea)
282-292
Mohamed Sabri Khelfaoui and Zidane Branes
Abstract:
Monthly abundance and dynamics of phytoplankton has been followed during an annual cycle according to Margalef’s theory. Three stations were chosen (1, 2 and 3) in the gulf of the Annaba city situated in the North-east Algeria. The study contained measurement of physical parameter “in situ” with analysis of chemical parameters. Besides, phytoplankton enumeration and classification has been performed by inverted microscopy. Results showed that the three stations (according to a North-South gradient) differed in their phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns that are in direct relation with the supply of pollutants discharged in the gulf of Annaba. Phytoplankton abundance and dynamics are discussed in relation to data availability on the Western Mediterranean Sea.
Keywords: Phytoplankton; Physico-chemical; Annaba; Algeria; Mediterranean Sea.