European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 120 No 1
March, 2014

Applications on S/mα-Approximation Space Based on Simply a-Open Sets
7-14
M. El Sayed
Abstract:
In this paper we introduce new types of lower and upper approximations namely S/mα lower and S/mα-upper approximations for any set based on the concept of simply α open set, which generated from general relation. Also we study S/mα-rough approximations.Finally, we show the relation among of these types and another types of approximations and we study some of their basic properties.
Keywords: Rough sets and Topology.

The Knowledge of National Artist: Mr. Chiras Ardnarong
15-19
Manop Wisuttipat
Abstract:
This research is about the knowledge of national artist, Mr. Chiras Ardnarong. This knowledge is stored by the Office of National Culture. The knowledge and Thai classical music works of Mr. Chiras Ardnarong are invaluable and are stored to contribute to and propel education about Thai culture in the Thai classical music society and also to propagate Thai culture to the public and to disseminate it internationally. The objectives of this research are as follows. 1. To study the history and works of classical Thai musician Mr. Chiras Ardnarong.2. To synthesize the knowledge of classical Thai musician Mr. Chiras Ardnarong. 3. To disseminate the knowledge of classical Thai musician Mr. Chiras Ardnarong. From the research it was found that Mr. Chiras Ardnarong was born on 16th November 1931 at the home of his father in Bang Chang Sub-district, Sam Phran, Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand. Now, Mr. Chiras Ardnarong lives at 1056/6 Soi Sut Sakhon, Phran Nok Road, Ban Chang Lo, Bangkok Noi, Bangkok, Thailand. He was born into a Thai classical music family and spent time with their band, which is a reason for his musical talent. Mr. Chiras Ardnarong’s knowledge of music extends to the knowledge of songs, the knowledge of practice, the knowledge of adoption and the knowledge of integration (Theory of knowledge). The researchers have published research work as a book to send to the Office of the National Cultural Commission that can be studied and used as a reference. They also held a seminar about the academic knowledge of Mr. Chiras Ardnarong in December 2009, which is another way to disseminate the knowledge of Mr. Chiras Ardnarong. Mr. Chiras Ardnarong is a knowledgeable person in Thai classical music and the many inner workings of Thai classical music such as in practice, in administration, and in composition (Music). He also transmits and continues the knowledge of Thai classical music to young people and those who are interested in Thailand. As well as this, he creates great works of Thai classical music.
Keywords: Chiras Ardnarong, National Artist in Performing art (Thai music) 2002.

LMI Approach to Robust Iterative Learning Control for Linear Systems with Disturbances
20-30
Olfa Kouki, Chaouki Mnasri, Nizar Toujeni and Moncef Gasmi
Abstract:
This article focuses on the control of linear uncertain systems, subjected by disturbances, to cancel the effects of this latter and to follow the reference model. To achieve this goal, we proposed an approach based on robust control and iterative learning control at the same time. The H infinity norm is adopted to prove the monotonic convergence of the system based on the resolution techniques of linear matrix inequalities LMI. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated by the simulation results on a mechanical linear system.
Keywords: Iterative Learning Control ILC, Robust Monotonic Convergence, Robust Control, H Infinity Norm and Linear Matrix Inequality Technique LMI.

Pollution due Aux Eaux Residuaires De Teinture Artisanale De Textile: Caracterisation Physico-Chimique Et Impact Sur L’environnement
31-43
Paterne Alain Kacou Dalogo, David Léonce Kouadio Sory Karim Traore, Baba Donafologo Soro Ladji Meite, Serge Guy Ano Ehouman, Koné Mamadou and Ardjouma Dembele
Abstract:
The objective of this study is to show the environmental pollution by sewage dye assessing, on the one hand, their physical and chemical parameters and secondly those water wells surrounding the dye. The wastewater analysis shows that they are very alkaline (pH> 10) and highly loaded with organic material in high concentrations of COD (212.25 mg / L to Adjamé and 877.4 mg / L to Abobo) and BOD5 (139.2 mg / L to Adjamé and 599.12 mg / L to Abobo). It also appears that these waters are loaded with minerals (CND Avg = 3196.6 microseconds / cm to Adjamé and 2876.6 microseconds / cm to Abobo) and particulate matter (SPM mean = 114.13 mg / L and to Adjamé 684.4 mg / L to Abobo). The values of these parameters far exceed WHO guidelines in raw sewage. As for water wells show contamination of the environment, their analysis shows that they are less alkaline (7 < pH < 8) and loaded with organic and inorganic matter concentrations exceeding overall for conductivity, turbidity, COD, sulphate, ammonium and chromium, the WHO standards. These water wells have physicochemical properties that they are not recommended for human consumption.
Keywords: Pollution - physic-chemical parameters - Dye.

Propriété Physico-Chimique et Dynamique D’abondance des Formes de Dissémination des Helminthes Intestinaux dans Les Eaux Usées et de Surface À Yaoundé (Cameroun)
44-63
Ajeagah Gideon Aghaindum, Foto Menbohan Samuel Talom Serge Narcisse, Ntwong Mohong Marien Tombi Jeannette, Nola Moise and Njine Thomas
Abstract:
Une étude a été conduite de novembre 2012 à mai 2013 dans le but de déterminer la qualité physico-chimique et la dynamique d’abondance des formes de contamination des helminthes intestinaux dans les eaux à Yaoundé. Des échantillonnages mensuels ont été effectués sur trois points du cours d’eau Ntem et sur trois effluents: un effluent domestique du quartier Ngousso, l’effluent de l’hôpital gynéco-obstétrique et pédiatrique de Yaoundé et l’effluent de l’hôpital général de Yaoundé. Les analyses physico-chimiques montrent que le bassin versant du Ntem est très anthropisé et ses eaux très minéralisées (688,26±449,23 µS/cm), riches en matières organiques biodégradables (55,55±19,58 mg/L d’O2). L’observation des éléments parasitaires s’est faite au microscope inversé de marque Olympus CK2 suivant les techniques formol-éther et Kato-Katz. Les résultats révélent la présence des agents pathogènes des genres Ascaris (15 ± 2 œufs/L), Trychostrongylus (21 ± 22 œufs/L),Strongyloides (14 ± 16 larves/L), Taenia (22 ± 16 œufs/L), et des espèces Hymenolepis nana (20 ± 18 œufs/L) et Hymenolepis diminuta (7 ± 5 œufs/L).Les analyses statistiques montrent des corrélations significatives (P<0,05) entre la densité de ces éléments parasitaires et les paramètres physico-chimiques comme la température, l’oxygène dissous, le CO2 dissous, les MES, la turbidité et les orthophosphates.
Mots clés: Caractérisation, œufs, larves, helminthes, effluents hospitaliers, Ntem.

Cooperative Medium Access Control Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
64-73
Tazeem Ahmad Khan and M. T Beg
Abstract:
In this paper, Aim of the study is to enhance the performance of the wireless network in noisy atmospheric conditions (fading channel environment) with the help of intermediate nodes. When source to destination transmission fails due to fading channel environment or random change in range of transmission, intermediate nodes help to transmit a packet. Wireless network are of two different types: centralized control and ad-hoc network. In this work, it is proposed to implement cooperative scheme on MAC layer level to enhance the performance of the mobile ad-hoc network. Cooperative scheme is to help the packet transmission with five handshakes instead of four. Performance analysis depends upon packet delivery ratio, received packets, loss packets, data rate and end to end delay. Our simulation supports 802.11 MAC layer mobile networks with cooperative scheme in CSMA/CA protocol. We analyze the performance using ns-2, a discrete time simulator.
Keywords: 802.11, CSMA/CA, NS-2, MAC layer, MANET.

The Occurrence of Business Relationships: Choosing a Business Partner of the South Central Agricultural Cooperatives
74-79
Chinasak Suwan-Achariya and Piyapong Chanpaso
Abstract:
The retail network is a new phenomenon in the world today, the actual occurrence of this population leads to a fundamental change of the economic organization, especially in the market of suppliers and consumers. This article focuses on the commercial network in practice between the relationship between retailers and suppliers. The results were found that agricultural cooperatives focused on selecting suppliers on the basis of a relationship, and the economic relationship in economic behaviour determined the business partners to respond the conditions of the cooperatives.It indicated that the duration with a period of collaboration is the time period that business partners have determined a personal and business relationship together.The expectation of mutual benefits, which resulted in a successful implementation of trading activities among trading alliance, consumption markets in the three provinces of the South Central Area.It formed a network model in a stable relationship, which corresponds to an indicator of party discipline, and working experiences of trading partners which were consistent with the most reliable information about the company received from the past interaction.
Keywords: Relational Contract, Social Bond, Retail Network.

MRI Dose Response of Ferrous Benzoic Xylenol Orange Gel
80-88
Alia Nazir, Muhammad Afzal Khan, Fazal-E-Aleem, Shazia Bano and Saeed Ahmad Buzdar
Abstract:
A quality control phantom may help in assuring the accuracy of a measurement sequence and in detecting sources of error in the dose maps. In this study we have developed a dosimeter gel system by using Xylenol orange dye with Fricke-Benzoic solution. The gel system was irradiated with different radiation doses while using 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinic Linear Accelerator. The gel system was scanned by Magnetic Resonance Imaging using Spin Echo and Inversion recovery sequences. Conventional Spin Echo (CSE) and Fluid Attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were used to calculate relaxation times (R1 & R2). A dose profile was also extracted by using both sequences. FBX gel provides a linearity of sensitivity with absorbed dose up to a range of 20Gy. The extraction of dose profiles with maximum percentage difference of 4% has been found which establishes reliability of this gel system and technique for obtaining the information about spatial absorbed dose distribution.
Keywords: Gel dosimetry, FBX gel dosimetry, MRI gel dosimetry, R1 and R2 measurement, Dose profile of FBX gel.

Lifestyle Program Improving Quality of Life and Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand
89-100
Phitsanuruk Kanthawee and Sathirakorn Pongpanich
Abstract:
Thailand has been rapidly increasing in elderly population, and most of them are suffering from chronic diseases. Aim of the study is to investigate quality of life (QOL) and knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) by using lifestyle program. This study selected Mae Chan district for intervention group, Muang district for control group with sixty four elderly per group. The results indicated that three fourth of participants were females, age average of 67.21 years. After intervention program, the knowledge of DM among intervention group had increased four times more than control group (P< 0.05). As well as Quality of life had increased in intervention group (P< 0.05).The four domains of quality of life: three fourth among elderly participants indicated that their physical health were shifted from poor to moderate and good, more than half of them were shifted from poor to moderate on psychological, social relationship and environmental domains. The lifestyle program was effective on dietary, exercises activities and fitting on daily life among participants. Self-care behavior changed their daily activities focusing on dietary control, physical activities, drug control, complication care on feet in the intervention group. In conclusion, participants needed support lifestyle program such as peer group support and group activities that suitable for their lifestyle. Local organization should recommend these activities such as home care, group and occupational therapy which are suitable for the elderly groups, in order to support the psychological and social issue among elderly people. For recommendation, the participation and involvement of community should be taken into account for programs among elderly people.
Keywords: Elderly people, Quality of life, Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus, type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Local organization, Participation and Involvement.

Adjustment to Balance Economic, Household Rice Farmers in Changwat Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand
101-109
Supawadee Khunthongjan
Abstract:
Thailand is a land of agriculture and rice is the country’s most important crop.Farmers have an important role in growing rice for living bothdomestic use export. Globalization is an undeniablechoice asthe people regarded it as an advancement of the nation that Influence their lives. This research aims to 1) study income source of each rice farmer family in Ubon Ratchathani; 2) study the behavior of family allowance as for living and for production process, and 3) study the effective factors of self-adjustment of rice farmer families in order to balance their livelihood. It took a year of study and looked at-a population 384 of rice farmers. The research tools were questionnaires and an interview. The collected data was analyzed frequency, percentage, and standard deviation. The findings were that annually, each family has an income of approximately 85,531 Baht per year from growing rice and additional side work; the largest expense of rice farmers in the production process is the payment of 21,258 Baht per year per family (approx.) for planting and the largest living expense is the payment of 27,772 Baht for food and drink. Overall, these families still have an annual net income of 28,094 Baht; what they have done to balance their livelihood is to first, do more diverse planning in order to reduce risk, grow commercial crops, and produce value added products to raise the household income. They have also worked to decrease expenditures using household members more and paid labor less looking for natural food, and cultivating home vegetable gardens.
Keywords: Adjustment to balance economic, Rice farmer, Globalization impact.

Contract Farming Thai-Laos Cabbage: Problems and Guidelines for Marketing Development
110-118
Supawadee Khunthongjan
Abstract:
This study is three fold: (1) to learn the reasons to participate in the Thai-Lao contract farming project, (2) to study the appropriate form of contract cabbage farming: cabbage and (3) to study the development of the marketing of cabbage from source to terminal market or Thai entrepreneurs. The sample was randomized by purposive sampling of the agriculturists participating in the contract farming project who were able to provide true data. 10 months were spent on the study. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were employed as research tools. Percentage and frequency were used to analyze the information. The research revealed that (1) Lao agriculturists participation in the contract farming project was because cabbage has become a popular alternative vegetable in the area (50.00%), secondly there is a guaranteed market in which to distribute the product (44.64%) and lastly there is a guaranteed price (30.36%), (2) the appropriate form for contract farming between Thai-Laos was when the entrepreneurs of both country drew the legal agreement because the neighboring counterparts were unable to do the contract directly with the Thais because of limiting laws in the Laos PDR. Therefore, the existing form of legal agreement is contract marketing and (3) a good relationship between cross-border entrepreneurs comes from the development of the marketing of cabbage which is based on a relationship as dependent stakeholders not just as traders and a buyers. Additionally, the government agents need to solve the problem of bribery that occurred with theThai entrepreneurs.
Keywords: Contract Farming, Lao agriculturists, Thai Entrepreneurs, Cabbage,Marketing development

An Efficient Multicast Wormhole Algorithm for Balancing Traffic in 2D Torus Multicomputers
119-128
Kadry Hamed and Mohamed A. El-Sayed
Abstract:
A multicast communication is a significant operation in multicomputers and can be used to support several other collective communication operations. 2D torus network has become increasingly important to multicomputer system design because of its many features. This paper presents an efficient multicast wormhole deadlock-free algorithm that Balance Traffic Load on 2D torus network; hence the name BTL algorithm. BTL algorithm handles multicast operation with a fixed number of message-passing steps irrespective of the network size. Also, it is designed such that can send messages to any number of destinations within two communication phases. Results from extensive comparative analysis reveal that BTL algorithm exhibit superior performance advantages over the well-known T2W algorithm.
Keywords: Multicomputer; 2D torus topology; Multicast communication; Wormhole routing; Deadlock-Free.

Financial Data Mining by Multiple Kern`el Machines and Dimensionality Reductions
129-137
Shian-Chang Huang, Chi-Yun Chiang, Ming-Hsiang Huang and Chih-Wei Lee
Abstract:
Financial statement analysis provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the results of business operations and delivering how well a business is doing. This paper proposes a novel approach to detect financial bankruptcies by analysing high-dimensional financial statement data. In this study, a composite kernel machine (CKM) on a kernel local fisher discriminant space (KLFDS) was constructed for analysing financial data, which solved three problems in high-dimensional data mining: the curse of dimensionality, data complexity and nonlinearity. In risk assessments, the detector, CKM, exploits multiple data sources with strong capability to identify the relevant ones and their apposite kernel (or data) representation. KLFDS is an optimal projection of original data to a low-dimensional space which maximizes the margin between data points from different classes at each local area of a data manifold. This new system robustly overcomes the weaknesses of CKMs, and outperforms many traditional classification systems in bankruptcy detections.
Keywords: Financial Data Mining, Multiple Kernel Learning, Subspace Learning, Support Vector Machine.

The Chromatic Number and Graph Folding
138-144
E. EL-Kholy and N. El-Sharkawey
Abstract:
In this paper we examined the relation between folding a graph and its chromatic number. We proved that any simple connected graph with number of edges greater than or equal to two and chromatic number two can be folded to an edge and hence do the cycle graph Cn, n is even. But Cn, n is odd can be folded to C3. We also proved that the wheel graph Wn, n even can not be folded while Wn, n is odd can be folded to C3. Finally we proved that if the clique number equal to the chromatic number equal to two, the graph can be folded to an edge, but if 2 < clique number = chromatic number = k < n, n is the number of V(G) then the graph can be colded to a clique of order k.
Keywords: Graph folding, chromatic number, wheel graphs, cycle graphs, clique of a graph, bipartite graph.

An Evaluation of Economic Values of the Alcoholic Drinking Quitting Projects
145-151
Nalinee Thongprasert
Abstract:
The Alcohol Quitting Projects are accepted as activities that might create noticeable tangible and or intangible benefits. One of a project measurable indicators of change is Social Return On Investment (SROI). The economic valuation by using SROI as a measure of change created by the project that affect its stakeholders, in the form of monetary value is one of the valid methods to assist a decision maker in conducting the most beneficial resource distribution between multiple projects: by prioritizing the project that create the most value among others.
Keywords: Economic valuation, Social Return on Investment, Alcohol quitting project, Project measure.