European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 119 No 4
March, 2014

Impact of Socio-Cultural Beliefs on the Food Choices of Educated Females: An Exploratory Study
497-504

Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Anum Awan, Farah Saeed, Shazia Safdar Ali, Hadiba Kanwal and Zakia Batool
Abstract:
Socio-cultural context always has strong influence on the food choices and eating patterns of an individual in which he/she lives. Traditional beliefs and values associated with different kind of foods influence the preferences, diet and food choices of individuals. The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of different socio-cultural beliefs on the food choices for educated females living in the capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad. The sample for the present study comprised of educated females of urbanized society of capital city of Pakistan-Islamabad. Using quantitative research method, this study espoused the descriptive survey design and a structured (close-ended) questionnaire. 250 Self administrated questionnaire were filled through convenient sampling technique. The findings of the study revealed that there is strong impact of socio-cultural factors (beliefs about hot and cold properties of foods and cultural concept of beauty) on the food choices of young educated urbanized girls.
Keywords: Socio-cultural Factors- Food Choices, Hot and Cold Dichotomy of Foods, Cultural Concept of Beauty.

Work-Family Conflict and Women Journalists in Pakistan
505-515
Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob and Shazia Safdar Ali
Abstract:
Work-family conflict has become a serious issue for the contemporary professionals especially for the working women of our age. The implication of this phenomenon has attracted the attention of researchers; consistently, a fair amount of scholarship is available in this domain at international level. In contemporary Pakistan, work-life conflict has also become an important issue and quite a reasonable research is conducted. Academic inquiry on women journalists has remained modest in the context of Pakistan and specifically from work-family conflict perspective. Our paper is addressing this glitch between research and practice. The main goal of this paper is to explore work-family conflict that women journalists experienced while dealing with extrovert expectations of their profession besides managing familial expectations in a highly patriarchal society (where respect of the family is attached with the mobility and conduct of the women) and to disclose strategies women journalists used to manage balance in their work family life.
Keywords: Women journalists, Pakistan, work-family conflict, strategies, personal values, social support.

Factors Affecting Women’s Access to Political Empowerment: A Case Study of Azad Jammu and Kashmir
516-524
Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob and Shazia Safdar Ali
Abstract:
Barriers to women’s access to political empowerment exist throughout the world. Academic scholarship highlighted multiple socio-political factors as important obstructions that pose limitations for women’s access to political empowerment. However, the nature of obstacles for effective political participation of women in Azad Jammu and Kashmir is not yet explored by the researchers as there is no academic inquiry available on this important issue. Present study fills this research gap. This study primarily focuses on the nature of socio-political factors for women’s political participation in the context of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Consistently, this study measures the obstacles for women’s effective political participation from three different stand points i) structural ii) political and iii) ideological and psychological factors.The central idea of the research is that multiple factors are crucial to define the outline of political empowerment for women in a particular social context. Quantitative research methodology has been used to meet the objectives of the study. Data was collected from 150 women members from three different political parties in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study suggests that women’s participation and access to formal political processes is constrained due to the intertwined and inseparable structural, political and ideological factors.
Keywords: Structural factors, Political factors, Ideological factors, political participation

Conflicting Role Demands and Professional Women in Pakistan: Evidences of Struggle for Survival in Service Sector Firms
525-534
Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Shazia Safdar Ali and Zakia Batool
Abstract:
The contemporary politico-economic changes have brought more women in to male dominated Pakistani market where organizations are adopting Western management and Human Resource Management practices for achieving better results. The critical position of women workers due to embedded bigotry at the work place has attracted the attention of researchers; and significant researches have already been conducted. But scholarship examining conflicting role demands on Pakistani working women and survival strategies from an emic perspective are limited. This paper aims to bridge this gap between practice and research; and explores the issue at hand from an emic perspective. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 215 women working in different service sectors firms in three cities of Pakistan. Results revealed two main conclusions; first, working women experience role conflict due to differences in socio-cultural values and organizational demands; and second, working women develop different strategies to balance the pressure of conflicting role demands.
Keywords: Working Women, Conflicting Role Demands, Emic Perspective, Western Human Resource Management Practices, Survival Strategies.

Survival Strategies of Women Managers in Cross-Cultural Environment of Modern Organizations:A Case Study of Pakistan
535-541
Noreen Saher, Tasmia Matloob, Shazia Safdar Ali and Zakia Batool
Abstract:
During the last two decades, the scholarship on management and human resource management has been rightly focussed on the changing trends of workforce, work force diversity and women’s active participation at all the rungs of organizational hierarchy. Interestingly, the scholarship on women in management has highlighted the challenges women managers experienced but over look the survival strategies they use to level these challenges and sustain their career. This study addresses this gap between the research and practice and a context specific understanding has been developed for this issue from an emic perspective. Using qualitative research approach, this study has espoused thematic analysis to get deep insight about the existing phenomenon. Using purposive sampling technique, in-depth interviews were conducted from 20 women managers in different service sectors firms of Islamabad. The findings of the study unleashed that women managers use the mechanism of Vartan Bhanji (transposing kin role to non kin) as a strategy to maintain a good working relationship with their male colleagues socialised on gender specific values. This study gives a deep analysis of the challenges that arises from cross-cultural setup and strategies used by women managers to make their position/relationship culturally normative besides coping with the pressures of the male dominated corporate culture.
Keywords: Socio-cultural context - Western HRM practices – Conflicting Role Demands – Vartan Bhanji - Kinship relations.

Conflicting Role Demands of HR Managers in the Transitory Economy of Pakistan
542-557
Noreen Saher
Abstract:
Policies and practices of human resource management are relevant to contemporary Pakistan. This paper explores the role of HR managers in the transitory economy of Pakistan during the process of introducing US-American HRM practices into organizations tied to local norms. Based on an intensive case study of a local enterprise actively striving to participate in the global economy, we analyze how HR managers handle the tension between the demands of modern HRM systems and local moralities. This study draws three main conclusions: first, HR managers face extreme pressure to accommodate particular employees in HRM practices of selection, job appraisal, and promotion; second, HR managers use various tactics to diffuse the external pressure; and third, locally trained HR managers are more successful in handling human resource issues than foreign trained manager. This paper contributes to the debate of national culture impact on management practices. Our results help academics and practitioners to understand the critical role of human resource manager for making organizations successful.
Keywords: HR manager, Pakistan; Conflicting role, Case study, IHRM; comparative HRM.

The Organizational Commitment of Employees in Public Universities of Thailand
558-566
Nichanan Chanchoengrob, Thuchapon Yodthong, Veera Ladnongkun, Panupong Jitdon and Nitcharat Sangthong
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were: (a) to investigate the level of organizational commitment of employees in public universities in job dedication, acceptance and practice in the rules and regulations of organization, maintenance of organizational reputation, and the need for being member of organization; (b) to study the factors influencing organizational commitment of employees; (c) to determine a difference in organizational commitment of employees when they are grouped according to demographic profile; and (d) to study the most important factors influencing organizational commitment of employees in public universities. Quantitative method was used in this research. The results of the study showed that the overall organizational commitment of employees was at high level. Employees had the highest organizational commitment in acceptance and practice in the rules and regulations of university, followed by the need for being member of organization, maintenance of organizational commitment, and job dedication respectively. The results from hypothesis testing showed that there is a statistically significant difference in organizational commitment of employees when they are grouped according to age, marital status, work experience and monthly income except only gender. The five factors which are income, job stability, work characteristic, career advancement, and happiness at workplace are the important factors influencing organizational commitment of employees.
Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Employee, Public University, Thailand.

Public Participation for Thailand Development: A Case Study of Public Hearing in Urban and Local Society
567-575
Panupong Jitdon, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong, Prapas Siripap and Veera Ladnongkun
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were to study (1) the factors about the participation of the population section to develop Thailand, (2) to compare the differences of the relationship between the factors about the public hearing of the population both in urban and local society, (3) to compare the relationship between the factors of the participation in public hearing of the population section both in urban and local society, influencing the development of Thailand, and (4) the relationship between the factors of the compositions of the participation to the public hearing of the population section and the participation of the population in developing Thailand. Quantitative research was used in this study. The results of the study showed that, the composition of the public hearing about the understanding of the population about the process of the public hearing, the verification, the consideration, the investigation, and the opinion sharing respectively. The compositions of the country development about the public hearing influence the harmony of the population, the politics and the administration, the life quality and society, and the economic growth respectively. The results of hypotheses testing showed that the populations in urban and local society have an opinion about the composition of the public hearing in the significantly different way, but the result of the process of the consideration and the investigation is not different. The result showed that the composition of the participation to the public hearing of the population influencing the participation of the population section to the development of Thailand, can be described in the form of equation as, with regard to the understanding of the populations about the process of the public hearing = 2.156+.355, with regard to the process of the consideration +.239, with regard to the process of the verification -2.99, with regard to the process of the investigation -.261, and with regard to the process of the opinion sharing +.546.
Keywords: Public Participation, Thailand Development, Public-Hearing, Urban and Local Society.

Impact of Marketing Communication and Price Deals on Brand Equity Dimensions
576-590
Muhammad Ehsan Malik, Zeeshan Akbar Buttar and M. Azeem
Abstract:
The brand equity adds to the value assigned to a product or service by an organization. It provides mean to the financial value of the brand asset, generates the consumer loyalty or price premium, offers permission and flexibility to the brand for extension and customization into the new product and the service categories. Consequently, the managers, today, are highly eager to manage the brands. All the factors that contribute to the brand equity in the market are the focal point for the academics and the investors alike. The study investigates two basic marketing tools, namely the advertisement and the price deals as the antecedents of the brand equity. It aims at determining the extent of effect of advertisement and price promotion on the brand equity. On the other hand all well accepted dimensions of the brand equity, like the brand awareness, the brand attitude, the brand loyalty, the perceived brand quality and the brand image, their interrelation and the impact of these tools also is investigated in the broad scenario of the FMCG sector here. The results indicated the positive relationship between the customers perceived advertisement spending and the brand equity. Moreover, the perceived advertisement spending also correlated positively with all brand equity dimensions included in this relational model. The study also provided an empirical evidence of the negative association of the price promotions on the customers based brand equity. The price promotion was found to be associated positively with the brand image in this context. The interrelationship of the brand equity dimension also proved to be correlated significantly. This study provides the guideline to help the managers understand better as to how to build and manage the strong customer-based brand equity. In addition, it also helps the marketing personnel understand the best selection of the marketing tools in the brand management endeavors.
Keywords: Brand Equity, Advertisement, Price Deals, Brand Awareness, Brand Loyalty, Brand image.

The Impact of Family Upgrading Patterns on the Behavior of Children in Foster Care in Jordan from the Perspective of Their Supervisors
591-599
Fatima Mohammad Rashed Al Talahin
Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of family upbringing patterns on the behavior of children in foster care from the perspectives of supervisors, and to investigate the effect of gender, experience, academic level and age on their perspectives. To achieve the aim of the study a questionnaire was distributed among 30 supervisors (18 males and 12 females) from two foster care homes. The questionnaires were collected and data was analyzed statistically using suitable statistics. Results showed that there are statistically significant differences in the supervisors' attitudes towards the impact of family upbringing patterns on the behavior of children in foster care, it also showed that there are statistically significant differences at (a= 0.05) in the supervisors' attitudes towards the effect of family upbringing patterns on the behavior of children in foster care in Al Karak , Jordan due to the gender variable, and there are statistically significant differences at (a= 0.05) in the supervisors' attitudes towards the effect of family upbringing patterns on the behavior of children in foster care due to experience variable and academic qualification variable.

Source Rate Distortion Performance Comparison for Different Constraints in Image Coding Using Learned Global Dictionary
600-607
Jerin Jose, J. N. Patel, Suprava Patnaik and J. N. Sarvaiya
Abstract:
Image compression or coding is a familiar term in the field of image processing. Existing image compression algorithms such as JPEG and JPEG2000 uses transform coding for finding a compact representation of the image by projecting them onto fixed transform based dictionaries. Recently compression methods involving sparse coding of the image data based on learned dictionaries were introduced, which further improves the compactness of the resulting representation by adapting the dictionaries to the class of images to be operated. These methods, using such learned dictionaries, prove to be more efficient in compressing the image. Though content specific dictionaries as well as dictionaries exclusive for images have been used in the literature for this framework, they lack a generality and simplicity in learning. In this paper we propose the use of a global dictionary trained from different classes of images for sparse coding. Sparse coding had been performed using two different stopping constraints with their comparison to standard compression schemes. It is implicit that the use of a global dictionary would bring down the time requirement for learning and provide generality. Our results show that the proposed method outclasses the existing JPEG standard while fails in doing so with JPEG2000.
Keywords: Image Compression, Sparse representation, K-SVD dictionary learning.

Evaluation De la Performance Diagnostique D’un Test Immunologique De Détection De Sang Occulte Dans Les Selles à Abidjan
608-632
Constant Assi, Antonin Wilson Ndam Ndijoyap, Siaka Koné, Germaine Talla, Amadou Ouattara and Alain Koffi Attia
Abstract:
Le but de ce travail était d’évaluer les performances diagnostiques d’un test immuno-chromatographique qualitatif dans la mise en évidence d’adénome et de cancer colorectal en coloscopie à partir de la recherche de sang occulte dans les selles. Il s’agissait d’une étude pilote multicentrique (4 centres d’endoscopie digestive) prospective (4 mois) portant sur les 32 premiers patients (sex ratio 1,1 ; l’âge moyen de 45 ans ± 14 ans (20 à 71 ans) non hospitalisés, de plus de 18 ans recrutés de façon consécutive parmi tous ceux adressés pour une coloscopie totale.Les rectorragies étaient exclues des indications retenues. Un seul échantillon de selle avant la préparation laxative colique était prélevé par le patient et analysé exclusivement par l’enquêteur à l’aide du test qualitatif bioNexia® FOBplus (Mérieux*, France) (seuil de détection 40 ng/ml d’hémoglobine). Ni l’anatomopathologiste, ni l’endoscopiste n’était informé du résultat du test fécal immunologique. L’indication principale des coloscopies était la douleur abdominale (87,3% des cas) sans aucun cas de coloscopie de dépistage. Le taux de détection de lésion colique significative était de 6,25% (un adénome de bas grade et un cancer colorectal respectivement). Comparée à la coloscopie totale, les Sensibilité, Spécificité, Valeur Prédictive Positive, Valeur Prédictive Négative, Ratio Vraisemblance Positive, Ratio Vraisemblance Négatif, Nombre de Coloscopie Nécessaire étaient respectivement de 50%, 96,7%, 50%, 96,7%, 16, 0,52 et 2. Le test bioNexia® FOBplus avait de bonnes performances pour la détection de lésion colique significative dans cet échantillon de patients symptomatiques.Ces résultats doivent être confirmés sur de plus grands effectifs de patients asymptomatiques à risque moyen de Cancer Colorectal.
Mots-clés: Dépistage - cancer colorectal – sang occulte selles - test immunologique fécal – Abidjan

Impact of Corporate Scandals and Terrorism News on Stock Market Index
633-643
Mian Ahmad Hanan and NoshinaSaleem
Abstract:
This study evaluates the impact of news related to corporate scandals; both financial and Non-financial institutions and terrorism incidents including; local and international, on Karachi Stock Exchange-KSE-100 Index. It is based on Event Study Methodology. It examines the impact of 13 different news stories reported from 2001 to 2010 including 7 terrorism and 6 corporate scandals on the KSE -100 index by analyzing 11 days including 5 pre and 5 post and one event occurrence day stock market trend. This study concludes that the news related to corporate scandals have profound influence on KSE-100 index compare to terrorism incidents. This study asserts that corporate scandals related to financial institutions have more impact on KSE-100 index instead of non-financial institutions. It also validates that bigger news in terms of its consequence has greater impact on Stock markets. Finally, it also claims that bad news has a negative effect on the KSE-100 index. In the end, this study also supports the Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) and maintains that KSE is nearly efficient market.
Keywords: Corporate Scandals, Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), News, Stock Market, Terrorism, 9/11 Attacks.
2014 Mathematics Subject Classification: G 14, G32, G33, K41, H 80, H 84.

Factors Associated with Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) Toward Oral Health and Diabetes Mellitus among Aging DM Patients
644-656
Saruta Saengtipbovorn and Surasak Taneepanichskul
Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to explore factors associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice toward oral health and diabetes mellitus among the aging with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 aging patients with diabetes mellitus in Health Center 54 and 59, Bangkok, Thailand, from 25th November to 11th December 2013. The data was collected through oral examination by calibrated dentists. Face-to-face interview was used by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples for glycated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein were tested by nurse practitioners. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic, t-test, chi-square, and Fisher Exact. The average score of clinical attachment loss and severity of periodontitis were the factors associated with knowledge toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Plaque index and gingival index score were the factors associated with attitude toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. Socio-demographic, biological parameters, and periodontal variables were the factors associated with practice toward oral health and diabetes mellitus. The present study indicated the need to combine diabetes and periodontal health to prevent and manage diabetes and oral complications in aging diabetes patients.
Keywords: KAP, Oral health, Diabetes mellitus, Aging, DM patient.

Dielectric and Magnetic Properties of Composites CoFeNiBSiMo, CoFeBSiCr and CoMnSiB in [1-12] GHz
657-668
M. Chrif Elboubakraoui, Seddik Bri and Jaouad Foshi
Abstract:
In this work, our study is based on composites with ferromagnetic wire with a frequency region in the microwave regime with scattering spectra strongly dependent on an external magnetic field and the micowire periodicity. Three types of composites made of grids of continuous and short-cut wires CoFeNiBSiMo, CoFeBSiCr and CoMnSiB are considered to employ different types of spectra of the permittivity and permeability in the frequency band [1-12] GHz. The complex permittivity increases remarkably with the increase of microwire periodicity, with negative real permittivity is observed over frequency range for wires. With this increase in the microwire periodicity, first we note decreased minimum reflection loss and maximum absorption.
Keywords: Composites, Glass-coated Amorphous Micowires, Permittivity, Permeability, Reflection Loss, Absorption.