European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 119 No 1
February, 2014

An Approach for Designing Alu by a New Reversible Logic Unit
7-17

Shefali Mamataj, Biswajit Das and Anurima Rahaman
Abstract:
Reversible logic is one of the most vital issues at present time and it has many different areas for its application. It has wide applications in advanced computing, low power CMOS design, Optical information processing, DNA computing, bio information, quantum computation and nanotechnology. Conventional digital circuits dissipate a significant amount of energy because bits of information are erased during the logic operations. Thus, if logic gates are designed such that the information bits are not destroyed, the power consumption can be reduced dramatically. The information bits are not lost in case of a reversible computation. This has led to the development of reversible gates. The reversible circuits do not lose information and can generate unique outputs from specified inputs and vice versa. Reversible logic is used to reduce the power dissipation that occurs in classical circuits by preventing the loss of information. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs.ALU is a fundamental building block of a central processing unit (CPU) in any computing system. A new reversible gate OLU is proposed in this paper. This paper also represents a new approach for designing ALU by the proposed reversible logic unit OLU and arithmetic circuit consists of reversible COG gate and DKFG gate. By using three control lines, the ALU provide many arithmetic and logical operations such as: addition, subtraction, exclusive-OR, bitwise AND, bitwise OR, complementing etc.
Keywords: Reversible Logic, Basic Reversible Gates, Full Adder, Arithmetic Operation Logic Operation, Control Unit, Garbage, Quantum cost.

Organization of Soil Fauna in Two Forest Habitats of El Kala Region: An Oak Forest and a Maquis
18-24
Sarra Kadi, Zahra Brahmia and Slim Benyacoub
Abstract:
The objective of this work is to study the soil fauna in two forest habitats: an oak forest and a maquis located in the El Kala region (Algeria). The composition and the vertical distribution of soil fauna were studied in three successive horizons: litter and two underlying horizons. The main variables measured are the thickness of the litter, the thickness of soil horizons, temperature and humidity of air. In addition, to study the resilience of this soil fauna and its ability to regenerate, we also carried out, in 2010, samples in an oak forest burned in 2000 and in an oak forest burned in 2008. The comparison of soil fauna between the four sites shows that there is a significant difference in density. The maximum density is observed in the climax formation, followed by the oak forest burned there are ten years and by the maquis. The lowest density was measured in the oak forest burned in 2008.
Keywords: Soil fauna, Oak forest, Maquis, Resilience, Fire, El-Kala, Algeria.

Heart of Desert: Bowles’s The Sheltering Sky as a Heart of Darkness
25-37
Asad Al-Ghalith and Mahmoud Zidan

Action Observation as a Cognitive Intervention for the Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients
38-46
Sangbum Park, Mihyun Kim and Wookwang Chun
Abstract:
This article explored the values of action observation as a cognitive intervention for facilitating the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Therapeutic approaches for the recovery of motor functions of stroke patients have been mainly applied to the affected side with the purpose of improving its functioning. However, those approaches face considerable difficulties in clinical practice, since stroke patients have limited capacity to use the affected limb. In order to increase the efficiency of rehabilitation programs for stroke patients, a cognitive intervention is required that can induce active participation of patients in the rehabilitative activities while facilitating the effect of physical therapy. Cognitive intervention for stroke patients has to provide clear and specific stimulus on the activities of affected limb, and previous studies on the activation patterns of brain areas during observational learning suggest that action observation can be a candidate for such a role. Action observation can contribute to the reorganization of neural networks through stimulation of damaged brain areas, facilitating functional recovery of the affected limb in stroke patients.
Keywords: Stroke Patients, Cognitive Intervention, Action Observation, Therapeutic Approach.

GLC Design of Controller for Non – Minimum Phase Interacting Systems
47-53
M. Subba and R. Ananda Natarajan
Abstract:
A novel multivariable laboratory process that consists of four interconnected water tanks is presented. In this work, a proposed controller for quadruple tank process is experimentally evaluated. A controller based on variable transformation for a non-linear process is used in simulation for non-linear quadruple tank level process. The results are compared with those obtained with the conventional PI controller.
Keywords: Non-linear control; Quadruple tank; Proposed Controller; Non–minimum phase, GLC.

Effect of Polymeric Binder in Iron Ore Pelletization
54-61
Hyonseung Dho and Se-Ho Oh
Abstract:
The experimental studies presented in this paper are aimed at providing an investigation of the kinetics of the graft copolymer, CMC-PAM, as substitute for bentonite and the effects of binders in the process of pelletization. Binders, in conjunction with finely ground ore particles, serve to improve the properties of iron pellets in wet, dried or the indurated conditions. The parameters studied were resistance to fracture by impact on wet balls as well as resistance to fracture by compression on wet, dry, and indurated pellets. The resistance to abrasion of the indurated pellets was ascertained in an attempt to gain some insight into dusting problems. The porosity and oxidation of pellets were also measured to find the correlation with the strengths and the abrasion resistances. The results showed that CMC-PAM had the best overall qualities providing acceptable strengths and resistances. The fly ash appeared to be competitive in the future, compared to bentonite. In the current investigation, the graft copolymer, CMC-PAM, merits further development as a possible alternative to bentonite in iron pelletization.
Keywords: Pelletization, Compressive Strength, Bentonite, CMC-PAM, Fly ash.

A Model of Residential Location Choice by Household Types
62-76
Young Ji Park and Kabsung Kim
Abstract:
This study aims to establish a model of residential location choice as influenced by household structure and neighborhood amenities. Another objective of this study is to examine—both theoretically and empirically—changes in residential location choice with respect to changes in household structure and amenity externalities. The results show that two-worker households have shorter commuting time than one-worker households, and women in two-worker households are likely to reduce their commuting times. Although the theoretical study shows that an increase in the number of children demands more space, resulting in residential location choice that is farther from the central business district (CBD), the empirical result shows that an increase in the number of children leads to a decrease in commuting time because of childcare. Drawing the same conclusion between theoretical and empirical studies in terms of amenity externalities, the result shows that superior amenity is reflected in high housing price, and the households that can afford to pay high housing prices are likely to have shorter commuting times due to of the greater proximity to the CBD. In addition, two-worker households, households with children, and low-income households are likely to choose their residential locations near the urban center where their workplaces are located. Therefore, there exists a necessity for policies that can resolve the problems of residential location choice, such as housing supply in the urban center, improvement of residential environment and welfare, for these types of households.
Keywords: Residential location choice, two-worker household, household structure, neighborhood amenity, commuting time.
JEL Code: R21

An Approach of Quantitative Analysis for Optimizing the Movements of Sales Items Using Markov Decision Model
77-84
A. Prema, A. Banumathi, D. Sheela Jeyarani and A. Pethalakshmi
Abstract:
Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) plays a foremost mission in Data repositories. Through the revision of ETL theory, an ETL Engine is designed for raising the competence of Data mart. This proposed Quick ETL Engine reduces the transformation time than an existing one. This augmentation broadens the aggregation routine, conveys information cleverly and is constructive for an efficient decision making. This paper attempts to integrate the Quick ETL engine and Markov analysis algorithm. It eliminates the mismanagement of metadata structure in data mart and improves the movement of sales item to the right place for increasing the sales rate. An operational data store is an updatable set of integrated data used for enterprise-wide strategic decision making. First reviewed in this paper are the concepts of the data warehouse and decision support system discipline. Then, based on data warehouse a general decision support system framework is established. Exclusively, the industrial issues linked with the content of strategic decisions are examined to make better decision making. To maintain the effective decision making, Quick ETL engine and Markov analysis algorithm are introduced.
Keywords: Quick ETL Engine, Markov analysis, data Mart, Strategic decision, decision support system.

Microcalcification Enhancement and Detection using Texture Features and Support Vector Machine
85-97
Ayman AbuBaker, Faiz AlShrouf, Aiman Torani, Maryam Akho-Zahia and Samer Issa
Abstract:
Microcalcifications in mammogram have been mainly targeted as a reliable earliest sign of breast cancer and their early detection is vital to improve its prognosis. Since their size is very small and may be easily overlooked by the examining radiologist, computer-based detection output can assist the radiologist to improve the diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, a new enhancement and detection approaches to accurately detect the microcalcification (MC) clusters in digital mammograms are proposed. The proposed microcalcification detection approach is divided to four main stages. In the first stage, the MCs clusters are enhanced using laplacian and modified average filters. In the second stage, the Potential MCs Clusters (PMC) in the mammogram images is detected using multi-statistical filters. Then five texture features are generated from each detected PMC as a third stage. Finally, these features are processed using the support vector machine (SVM) in order to classify the detected PMC to true positive (TP) and false positive (FP) regions. The proposed method is tested on 140 mammogram cases from University of South Florida (USF) and 50 mammogram cases from MIAS databases. This novel method was found to be sensitive in detecting MCs in mammogram images by achieving a high true positive percentage of 97.6% and a low false positive rate 0.6 cluster/image for both databases.
Keywords: Mammogram, microcalcifications, Statistical Filter, Texture Feature analysis, Support Vector Machine.

Energy Storage System Benefit in the Electric Power Utilities of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries
98-112
Jouda Bouattour and Lambert Pierrat
Abstract:
The main objective of this work is to underline the potential benefits offered by energy storage system in GCC countries. This study presents the energy and electricity context and trends in GCC countries, based on extensive literature references, and the global energy policies, trends and orientation worldwide. The finding about energy storage system and their development, experienced, benefits, and probable expected role that they will have is also demonstrated based on large international reported writing. The existing similarities in the GCC countries allow going ahead in United Arab Emirates (UAE) case study. Electric demand profile, developments, forecasts and features are used to highlight electric demand trends and tendencies under subsidized electricity costs. References cost and prices during off and on peaks electric specifically on natural gas base generation and oil back up fuel generation is also highlighted. An economic analysis about battery storage system as distributed generation system is made, to approach the benefits that can be obtained for electric utility systems in UAE and GCC countries, based on obtainable data about battery energy storage technologies and last updates on gas turbine power plant.
Keywords: Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries, peak demand, energy storage system, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Energy policies, Electric utility.

Problématique Des Effluents De Production D’huile De Palme En Côte D’ivoire: Quels Traitements Proposés?
113-127
Wazé Aimée Mireille Alloue-Boraud, Albarin Grodji Gbogouri, Mahamadou Kamagaté, Fulgence Yao Koffi, Marcellin Koffi Djè and Lacina Coulibaly
Abstract:
Les industries de production d’huile de palme en Côte d’Ivoire et dans le monde entier, génèrent des quantités énormes d’effluents gras appelés effluents de production d’huile de palme (EPHP). Ces déchets liquides constituent de véritables problèmes pour les industriels et les gouvernants tant les moyens alloués pour le traitement que leur impact sur l’environnement, l’eau, le sol et l’agriculture. En effet, du faite de sa richesse en triglycérides et acide gras ainsi que sa composition en éléments minéraux possédant des concentrations très élevées, les traitements physico-chimiques s’avèrent insuffisants. Par contre, la valorisation du traitement microbiologique aérobie par l’utilisation de souches de microorganismes levures ou bactéries non pathogènes, capables de dégrader la matière grasse et de l’assimiler, en synergie avec les traitements physico-chimiques faciliterait, leur dégradation. Le traitement biologique ne nécessiterait pas de gros investissement tant pour le coût d’évaluation que par sa mise en œuvre. Cette synthèse bibliographique passe en revue la composition d’EPHP, quelques traitements, leurs avantages et leurs inconvénients.
Motsclés: EPHP; Huile de palme; Traitements physico-chimiques ; traitements microbiologiques.

Recent Advances Towards Ameliorating Performance of In-Line All-Fiber Optic Current Sensor(s)
128-144
Abel Kamagara and Min Chang
Abstract:
The conception and development of optical fiber current transducers (or sensors) dates way back as the mid-20th century precisely around 1950s when a current carrying wire near bulk Faraday materials was discovered and realised to induce and inflict extra light propagation properties other than the inherent properties of the light in the material itself through a phenomenon known as the “Faraday Effect”. Since then, various researchers and educational institutions plus private enterprises have embraced the idea. As a result, various types and configurations of all-optical fiber current sensors sprung up on the market albeit the substandard and strained performance/ or sensitivity traits. Hopefully more types are yet to come in the near future. This paper briefly reviews and qualitatively analyses the major factors that have strained and/or retarded the development and practical realization of in-line all-fiber optic current sensor type especially in terms of sensor performance and/or sensitivity. Recent research and efforts aimed at improving the performance and/or sensitivity and suppressing sensor defects are exhaustively discussed. Recommendations for better performance are mentioned in respective sections and subsections. A brief overview of the basic operation principle(s) of the sensor is included too.
Keywords: All-fiber optic, Faraday Effect, In-line, Qualitative.

Removing the Crater from Magnetic Materials Surface
145-150
Sasitharan A/L Sreedaran, MD. Mujibur Rahman and Lai Tian Fat
Abstract:
This research paper presents a crater removal for ferromagnetic material only. The removal of the crater is by means of magnetic force. The paper shows the simulation result on the distribution of magnetic field around the crater area. From the simulation results, one can determine the intensity of the magnetic force distributed around the crater region and find out the maximum force created toward the crater. The theory of crater removal is developed from the idea of force of attraction between a permanent magnet and a ferromagnetic material. In physic, it is know that when a strong magnetic fields place closed to the ferromagnetic material, the material will be attracted. This shows that an attractive force is created. The creation of magnetic force has a limit and depends on the distances between the two magnetic materials. When the two magnetic materials are placed closed to each other, the force of magnetic field will be large. On the other hand, if the two magnetic materials are separated apart at far distance, the force of magnetic field will be decreased. Thus, the magnetic force is directly proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and inversely proportional to the square of the distance [1]. In this presented paper, a magnetic field is generated by a current carrying conductor. When the current is high, more magnetic fields are generated. The fields can be enhanced as the conductor is makes into a coil with high number of turns. The magnetic fields are then placed closed to the ferromagnetic material where crater is found. Because the fields will generate the force, the entire ferromagnetic material will be attracted. To prevent the material to be attracted, the two edges of the material will be hold firmly. As the field point to the crater region, the concave part of the area will be sucked by the magnetic force. Thus, the surface of the ferromagnetic material will become flat and crater is removed. Another method to remove the crater using magnetic field is by placing a bar of heavy ferromagnetic material under the concave area of the crater. When the magnetic field is strong and place closed to the crater, the heavy ferromagnetic material under the crater will be attracted and knock on the convex part of the crater. The surface at the convex part will then push up due to impact from the heavy bar of the ferromagnetic material. By continue ON and OFF the magnetic fields, the heavy bar of the ferromagnetic material will constantly knock on the convex part of the crater. This way, the action of heavy bar of the ferromagnetic material will act like a hammer knocking on a surface. No matter which methods are applied to remove the crater, the magnetic fields observation along the surface of the crater must be known. If the magnetic fields are not focused, then this might affect the force created in the ferromagnetic materials. The main objectives of the paper are: 1. To show the effect of current on the magnetic force. 2. To show the strength of the magnetic field distribution. The scope to be focused in the paper is the study of magnetic forces generation from a current carrying conductor. To view the results of changing the current on the magnetic force MATLAB will be selected to program the plot of magnetic force under various current magnitudes. From the results, one can know the optimum values of the current required to set up a desire magnetic force.

Keywords: Crater, Magnetic fields, Magnetic force, Ferromagnetic Materials.

Design of In-line Test Structure for MOSFET Strain Measurements
151-162
Ziyad Ahmed Al Tarawneh
Abstract:
An important requirement for the microelectronics industry is the ability to measure the channel strain of MOSFET during chip manufacturing. To achieve this it is necessary to have a method which is rapid, cheap and does not require any modifications to the wafer. Techniques such as TEM (break wafer to prepare sample), X-ray diffraction (very expensive) or the current Raman measurements (sample preparation needed) would all prevent wafers being returned to the line after measurement and so are inappropriate. Therefore it is necessary to design a suitable test structure and suggest a test strategy in order to undertake in-line channel strain measurements. Most of the studies were not able to quantify the stress in the device channel, mainly because the Raman laser cannot penetrate non-transparent materials such as metals, polysilicons and silicides. In this paper, we investigate methods used to deliver a Raman laser into the device channel in order to measure the stress distribution using ANSYS, a three dimensional finite element simulator
Keywords: Strained Silicon, MOSFET, In line test structure, Stress Modeling, ANSYS.

Optimal Location of Protecting Devices in Distribution Systems Containing DGs
163-176
Ataollah Abbasi, Seyyed Hamid Fathi, Ahmad Gholami Hamidreza Abbasi and Ali Reza Dehghani
Abstract:
It is important to find the optimal number and optimal location of protection devices to increase the reliability and cost of the investment in distribution networks. In this paper, a novel approach is inspired from the discrete version of a powerful heuristic algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), and it is developed and presented to determine the optimum number and location of two types of switches (sectionalizers and breakers) in radial distribution systems in presence of distributed generation (DG) sources. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is to consider distributed generators and two switches with complete different functions in the distribution networks. In the proposed algorithm, after placement of DG units, the number and location of switches is optimized. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed and illustrated by multiple case studies on a radial distribution system.
Keywords: Distribution Network, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Optimal Location, Protection Devices, Distribution Network Reliability, Distributed Generation (DG).