European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 118 No 4
February, 2014

Investigation of Life Script-Based Learning `Effectiveness on Increased Marital Adjustment
455-461

Somayeh Effati and Reihaneh Ghaljoughi
Abstract:
This study aimed at studying the effectiveness of life-script instructions in enhancing marital satisfaction among couples. Methodology included semi-experimental research designwithpretestandposttest, and covariance analysis research method was also used. Population consisted of all couples referring to Roozbeh Counseling Center in Tehran, among whom 20 couples were selected using convenient sampling. They were assigned randomly into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups. Dyadic AdjustmentScale (DAS) was used in this study which has internal consistency of r = 0.94. Data analysis indicated that life script instruction has significant effect on increased martial adjustment as well as on marital adjustment elements (P = 0.001). According to findings, effectiveness of life scriptin increasing marital adjustment is supported and it can be useful in pre-marriage counseling.
Keywords: Life script, Marital Adjustment, Couples.

CNS Depressant, Analgesic and Antidiarrheal Effects of Different Solvent Extracts of Peel of Dimocarpus Longan Lour.Fruits in Rats
462-472
Farhana Alam Ripa, Nishat Zareen Khair, Rezwana Nasrin Chowdhury and Imon Rahman
Abstract:
The results of phytochemical screening test of crude extracts of peel of Dimocarpus longan Lour. in different solvent media provoked the authors to check for its possible CNS depressant, analgesic and antidiarrheal activities in animal models. In present investigation we find out the above mentioned pharmacological activities of ethanol (ENLP), petroleum ether (PELP), chloroform (CHLP) and ethyl acetate (EALP) extracts of D. longan fruits peel. The CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the reduction of locomotor and exploratory behavior in the open field and hole cross tests; analgesic activity was examined using acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin induce licking test and anti-diarrheal efficacy was checked by castor oil and magnesium induced diarrhea. All tests were accomplished after oral administration of crude extracts in rat model at doses 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The statistical analysis of these results showed that the plant extracts had significant (p<0.01) dose dependent CNS depressant, analgesic and anti-diarrheal activities comparing with the standard drugs.The findings prove that the above experimented extracts have potent pharmacological effects due to different bioactive constituents but further researches are required to explore mechanisms of action responsible for the above mentioned activities.
Keywords: Dimocarpus longan, Analgesic, CNS depression, Anti-diarrheal.

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence of Students Islamic Azad University Iran, Tehran Medical Unit
473-479
Mahbobeh Safavi, Seyed Hossein Yahyavi and Nafiseh Meraji Nasab
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence, Islamic Azad University of Tehran in Iran. Statistical population of this research was the population of all students in baccalaureate degree in Nursing, Midwifery, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Branch (N = 789). According to Morgan, 140 students were selected as sample (n=140), after approvaling face and content validity of the questionnaire (bar –on ) and Spiritual Intelligence Scale (King) by experts, the reliability In a pilot study, and Cronbach's alpha earned respectively α= 0.82, α =0.84. For data analysis, Spearman correlation coefficient between the mean P = 0.05 was used. Results showed a positive correlation between students' emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence and there is a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence with all the components of spiritual intelligence and also between all the components of emotional intelligence with all the components of spiritual intelligence, there is a significant positive relationship. According to research findings, with increasing scores on emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence scores and its components increase.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence.

Developing Strategic Internal and External Cooperation for Environment Funds Mobilization for Countries in West Africa
480-492
John A. Enahoro
Abstract:
Unrestrained industrial production for economic development as well as the continuous depletion of the biodiversity where there have been conversion of communal swampland into agricultural farmlands, depletion of the forests through excess logging and hunting and continuous mining have brought about increased environment pollution and degradation resulting in social costs. Pertinent aspects of environment degradation and costs are those of emissions into the air, water and land and consequently, perhaps contribute to climate change. Critical challenge is that many nations’ governments, finance capital expenditure of environmental programmes through reliance on shrinking public budgets which results from non-optimization of resources. This has proved uphill task. Also, experience of nations show fewer donor financing assistance which are not accessed, and little participation from the private sector of the nations’ economies. Consequently, building on gains of environmental programmes has not been sustainable. The study methodology was desk-based research which explored trend in global financing approach for environmental projects and criteria applied to evaluate mechanisms used to finance environmental investments in developing countries. Focus was also on the public sector and private sector participation. Findings reveal that environment financing has continued to feature as an important issue in both developed and developing nations, and probably more acute in most sub-Saharan Africa nations including Liberia. Donations or loan funds for various environmental activities can be available from developed countries, multi-lateral financial institutions and regional development funds. The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) has coordinated some funding facilities of developed donor nations. Donor nations and financing institutions have relevant policies and funding can be accessed by beneficiary nations also depending on their environmental policies and priorities. Findings also reveal that although urban communities may be beneficiaries of donor assistance, they were not targeted. It is encouraged that environmental urban projects should be internalized within broader development activities of nations. It is considered that there should be an appropriate mix of policy, institutional and investment actions to address environmental problems in the most effective and efficient way. There is a shifting away from project-specific assistance to sectoral budgets for economic independence which is considered more sustaining.
Keywords: Environmental Projects and Services, Public Financing, Private Financing, Co-operations, Global Environmental Facility, Operational Strategy.

Higher Education and Job Attitudes: Satisfaction Commitment and Turnover Intention of University Degree Holder and Non-Holder Police Officers
493-506
Hidayet Tasdoven, Sedat Kula and Mustafa Donmez
Abstract:
The aim of this study is (a) to investigate the effect of organizational commitment on turnover intention and (b) to compare job attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention) levels of university degree holder and non-holder police officers. Participants were selected from active members of Turkish National Police (TNP) working in different seven cities of Turkey. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and t-test were used for statistical analysis. Findings revealed that organizational commitment had a negative effect on turnover intention, while job satisfaction and turnover intention found to be not significantly related. The study also determined that the university educated officers have a lower level of organizational commitment and higher level of turnover intention than their non-degree holder colleagues. Job satisfaction levels of two groups were not significantly different from each other. Based on the study results, recommendations were made on human resources management policies.
Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, University Degree, Police Education.

BPO Employees Work Stress Analysis Using Data Mining Methods
507-513
K. Tamizharasi and UmaRani
Abstract:
Work stress is defined as the harmful physicaland emotional responses that occur when jobrequirements do not match the worker’s capabilities, resources, and needs (National Institute ofOccupational Safety and Health 1999).Especially more attention given to the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). In modern world, BPO task is increasing in Business based on their client. So employers in this organization are increased. In this situation employee must boost up their energy and role in this organization, and they confused to do in their role. It leads to stress, strain, and nervousness to the employee.To find out the stress for BPO employee the data are processed by the application of data mining methods: logistic regression, decision trees and neural networks.These models are built according to the SEMMA methodology. Finally this paper provides the better accuracy by decision tree imputation.
Keywords: BPO, Employee, Stress, Tree Imputation, Neural.

Fire Recurrence Effects on the Resilience Capacity of Cork Oak (Quercus Suber) Forests in Northeast Algeria
514-522
Soumaya Chouahda and Slim Benyacoub
Abstract:
In this study, we investigated the fire recurrence effects on the resilience capacity of cork oak (Quercus suber) forests in the EL-Kala National Park in northeast Algeria. We realized a synchronic study on sites burned in 2008, 2000, 1993, 1983, and those left un-burned for the last 30 years. We also analyzed the structure of Quercus suber trees, then the abundance and the height of three woody species (Erica arborea, Calicotome villosa et Phillyrea latifolia subsp. media). The results showed that density, diameter, crown cover and stand basal area of cork oak decreased with the fire recurrence, whereas the abundance of three woody species increased. Diameter and crown cover were the most affected by the recurrent fire. The short time between fires (3 fires during a period of 17 years) was the most dangerous of the cork oak forest because it was insuf?cient for them to build reserves and weakened their capacity of the resilience. Collectively, the cork oak forest requires a moderate fire regime, with a sufficient duration to return to its optimal growth.
Keywords: Fire Recurrence, Resilience, cork oak Forests (Quercus suber), Algeria

The Factors Influencing the Development of Employee Performance and the Employee Development in Secondary School
523-533
Thuchapon Yodthong, Chalieo Vitoorapakorn, Nichanan Chanchoengrob, Prapas Siripap and Nitcharat Sangthong
Abstract:
The purposes of this research were (a) to study the factors influencing the development of employee performance and find the employee development in secondary school,and (b) to study the employee development in secondary school according to demographic profiles. The result of this study showed that the factors influencing the development of employee performance is at high level. The first is the target of the development, followed by the internal environment, the innovation and technology, the directions development and the communication respectively. The development of employee in secondary school is entirely at highest level. Work and life management skills are the most important, followed by confidence and honesty, knowledge management skills, teamwork skills and the leadership skills respectively.The result of hypotheses testing showed that there is a statistically significant difference in factors affecting the development of employees of secondary school classified by demographic profile. Factors influening the development of employee performance i.e the target of the development, the directions development, the innovation and technology, the communication had no significant difference in the development of employees in secondary school. On the other hand, the internal environment had significant difference in the development of employees in secondary school which is relevant to the proposed hypothesis.The result of covariance of the model predicts the factors of the development of employee in secondary school at 0.01 level of significance which the five factors can explain well about a variance of the development of employees in secondary school.
Keywords: Factors Influencing, Development, Performance, Employee, Secondary School.

Seroepidemiological Study of Helicobacter Pylori in Asymptomatic People in Saudi Arabia
534-542
Yousif Fadlalla Hamedelnil and Sarah Salah Fadlallah
Abstract:
Helicobacter Pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic spiral rod-shaped bacteria that live just beneath the antral gastric mucous layer, on the surface of the epithelial cells. The aim of this study is to detect H. pylori infection and to assessed the seropositive of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic healthy people in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using different methods, 160 healthy participants were selected randomly to participate in the study, stool antigen, anti-H. Pylori IgA, IgG antibodies using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), Immunofluorescence IgG and western blot tests IgG were used to determine the seropositive of H. pylori infection. One hundred-sixty participants (85 male, 75 female) were registered. Significant directly proportional relationship was found between age and H. pylori infection (p<0.05). Seventy-six (47.5%) out of the 160 patients were positive for H. pylori according to stool antigen test. H. pylori IgG seropositivity was 85.6%, IgA seropositivity (50.0%). western blot showed that IgG seropositivity was positive in seventeen subjects out of thirty (56.7%). Immunofluorescence detected IgG antibodies in (77.7%). Most of the tests had a sensitivity and specificity above 80%.The seropositivity prevalence were considered high among healthy people who live in Saudi Arabia, all these commercial tests seems clinically useful for H. pylori detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity.
Keywords: Helicobacter Pylori, Infection, Peptic Ulcer, Gastric Adenocarcinoma, MALT Lymphoma, Immunoassay, Immunofluorescence.

Alcohol Related Health Problems and Alcohol Consumption among Primary Health Care Patients Inrural Area of Lower Northern Thailand
543-549
Narongsak Noosorn, Phudit Tejativaddhana, Vimala Chayodom, Nuengruetai Srichaipor and Sayjhit Suknoo
Abstract:
Alcohol consumption can cause a negative impact that has been documented well in the literature on health and behavior.The objective of this study were to explore alcohol-related health problem and alcohol consumption behavioramong primary health care patients in rural area of lower northThailandA matched case-control study was conducted at the ratio of 1:2. The sample size was 187 subjects in the case group and 385 subjects in the control groups. Questionnaires were used to collect data by face-to-face questionnaire and then to analyze frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, odds ratio, and conditional logistic regression. The Results showedthat: Alcohol drinkers were likely to suffer from gastritis4.82 times more than those who did not drink alcohol. Alcohol drinkers had association with gastritis (OR =4.82, 95%CI 2.5 – 4.9), mental diseases (OR = 2.48, 95%CI 1.2 – 4.9), and injury (OR = 2.73, 95%CI 1.3 -5.5).Regarding drinking behavior of the sample group, the study shows that most of subjects (31.5%) drank 1 time/week. Most of the sample group (35.8%) drank for association purpose. Alcohol drinkers were at higher risk than non-drinkers for health problems. These findings should be considered in clinical assessment of disease.
Keywords: Alcohol-Related Health Problems, Alcohol Consumption, Rural Area.

Application of Wavelet Neural Network for Kinematics Analysis of Hybrid 2(6-UPU) Manipulators
550-561
Arash Rahmani, Ahmad Ghanbari and Mehran Mahboubkhah
Abstract:
This paper presents forward and inverse Kinematics analysis of a specific class of series–parallel manipulators, known as 2(6-UPU) manipulators, which composed of two modules which consist of elementary manipulators with the parallel structure of the Stewart Platform. At first, the Kinematics Model of the hybrid manipulator is obtained. Then, As Inverse kinematics problem of this kind of manipulators is a very difficult problem to solve because of their highly nonlinear relations between joint variables and position and orientation of the end effectors. Therefore, wavelet based neural network (wave-net) with its inherent learning ability as a strong method, was used to solve the inverse kinematics problem. Also, proposed wavelet neural network (WNN) is applied to approximate the paths of mid and upper plate in circle and spiral path respectively. The results show high accurate performance of proposed WNN.
Keywords: Hybrid Manipulators, Kinematics Analysis, Network Training, Nonlinear System, Wavelet Neural Network.

Using Concentrated Solar Power Techniques to Generate Electric Power in Iraq, a Review on Present Status and Future Directions
562-573
Sameer S. Al-Juboori, Rana H. Abduljabbar and Nidham M. Abdulmajeed
Abstract:
Present reserves of oil and natural gas can only cover consumption at this rate for the next 50 years in the case of oil, and for the next 70 years in the case of natural gas. Therefore, one of the fundamental priorities for a country such as Iraq is to use several renewable energies (RE) sources and environmentally friendly energy conversion technologies. Iraq is endowed with large reserves of energy sources, mainly hydrocarbons and a considerable potential for the utilization of RE sources especially with respect to solar energy. The aim of this work is to study the effect of using concentrated solar power system to reduce the deficiency in electric power in Iraq and to reduce CO2 emissions. The proposed system is to establish 7 hybrid solar plants each of 50 MW in 7 selected locations in Iraq to get 350MW of electric power. The proposed solar system type is Parabolic Trough. This study explores the technical and economic feasibility of thermal solar power generation plant using parabolic trough collectors.
Keywords: Concentrated Solar Power, Hybrid Solar Plants, Parabolic Trough, Thermal Solar Power.

Using Video as a Health Educational Intervention to Elicit Changes in Knowledge about Physical Activity and Coronary Artery Disease
574-582
Reem Ahmad Jarrad and Lourance Abdel Razzaq Al Hadid
Abstract:
Objectives This small scale study evaluated the effect of an educational video on short term knowledge of coronary artery disease risk factors and how physical activity can reduce some of them. Methods This is a pretest, post test quasi-experimental, conveniently sampled study conducted on 153 patients visiting two large public cardiac clinics in Amman, Jordan. Participants completed an extensive literature based demographic data sheet and an intensive literature based pre-test. They watched a specially tailored literature based educational video about coronary artery disease risk factors and how physical activity can reduce some of them. Then, they were asked to complete a posttest (the same pretest questions) which was composed of 20 true and false questions. The individual score was out of 20. The pretest scores were compared to the post test scores for each question in part, and for the total score as well. Paired t test was used to compare test scores, while ANOVA was used to test demographic variables effects on the pretest and post test scores. Results The total mean scores of the participants have improved significantly in the posttest (16.88) compared with the pretest (14.8). The participants’ demographic characteristics had no statistically significant impact on both: the pretest and the posttest mean scores. Conclusion Educational videos can make an example of using modern technology to serve health educational purposes. They have both: low cost and effective knowledge outcomes. Health care policy planners are encouraged to adopt this technology and increase its applications among cardiac patients and may be over wider spectrums as well.
Keywords: Coronary Artery Disease, Jordan, Knowledge, Physical Activity, Educational program.

Two-Commodity Continuous Review Substitutable Inventory System with N Policy
583-599
B. Vignehwaran, N. Anbazhagan and V. Perumal
Abstract:
This paper considers a two commodity continuous review inventory system with Markovian demands. The two commodities are assumed to be substitutable. That is, if the inventory level of one commodity reaches zero, then a demand for this commodity will be satisfied by an item of the other commodity. Reordering for supply is initiated as soon as the sum of the on-hand inventory levels of the two commodities are less than or equal to their respective reorder levels, and there is a lead time until the reorder arrives. For this model, an associated Markovian model is derived which is then investigated in detail. If the item is not available for substitution, then this demand is backlogged up to a certain level Ni ,(i=1,2) for the i-th commodity. Whenever the inventory level reaches N1 or N2 , both inventory evels are consequently pulled back to their maximum levels instantaneously by local purchase and the previous order gets cancelled. The limiting probability distribution for the joint inventory levels is computed, and various operational characteristics are derived. The results are illustrated with numerical examples.
Keywords: Two-commodity Inventory System, Continuous Review, N-policy, Substitutable, Markov Process.

Robust Asynchronous Authentication Protocol for Secure Cognitive Spectrum Sharing
600-611
Fatty M. Salem, Maged H. Ibrahim and I. I. Ibrahim
Abstract:
Cognitive Radio is a regulated technique for opportunistic access of idle resources and it is expected that the golden service of spectrum sharing to be achieved via the TV white space. The successful deployment of cognitive radio networks and the realization of their benefits depend on the assignment of essential security challenges to resist the system misuses. In this paper, to prevent Primary User Emulation attack, we propose an authentication protocol based on the deployment of multiple stages of stationary “helper” nodes. Helper nodes are serving as bridges, they can detect the presence of the primary user, and enable secondary users to verify the cryptographic signatures included in their signals. However, we propose to distinguish each TV tower with a unique ID to be used to prevent wormhole attack asynchronously. We also illustrate the secure interactions between cognitive radio’s entities to solve the problem of replay and wormhole attacks, and Byzantine failures problem.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio Networks; Primary User Emulation; Wormhole Attack; Replay Attack; Byzantine Failures.