European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 118 No 3
February, 2014

On Upper and Lower d- ß Continuous Multifunctions

Arafa A. Nasef and R. Mareay
In this paper we introduce and study d-ß-continuous multifunctions as a generalization of ß-continuous multifunctions due to Popa and Noiri [R. Anal, Exchange 22(1996), 262-276]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning upper (lower) d-ß-continuous multifunctions are obtained. The relationships between upper (lower) d-ß-continuous multifunctions and some known concepts are also discussed.
Keywords: d-ß-continuous multifunction, upper (lower) d-ß-continuous multifunction.
Jel Classification: 54C10, 54C08, secondary: 54H05, 54C05.

Union-Dipole Theory, UDT
Abdulsalam Al-Mayahi
The birth of a Theory of Everything (ToE), the Union-Dipole Theory (UDT), is discussed through the discovery of Union-Dipole Particle (UDP), the only building block of everything in Nature. This Particle consists of two, united, empty spheres, accentuating one another, each of Planck Length (1.618033989 10-35 metre), within the Permeable Medium, which fills everything excepting the UDP spheres. UDP are perceived as the opposing charges via the motion of the surrounding Permeable Medium as an electric disturbance, which generates complementary magnetic disturbance, forcing the whole UDP to move within the Permeable Medium at Maxell Speed of Light (3.049922215 108 metre.sec-1). The UDP has finite, consistent and measurable physical properties, such as a charge and an equivalent mass that change by the quantisation process only, and all these properties are bounded between lowest and highest values. Discovery of these properties unlocks the door for all secrets and mysteries of Nature from the starting point to the end, unifying all Forces, including gravity, in one "Electromagnetic Force". The straightforward methodology of UDT is based on the fixed shape of the UDP, which holds hidden secrets of the Golden Ratio, Planck Length and a non-geometrical Time, showing that Nature has only two Constants everywhere; the Planck Length and Maxell Speed of Light. After verifying and accepting UDT, a new era of understanding in science and a comprehension of Nature will begin, and huge changes and impacts will follow. Nature is exclusively composed from joined spheres made of nothing visible and a Permeable Medium that has an effective disturbance acting through quantisation.
Keywords: Theory of Everything (ToE), Permeable Medium, Union Dipole Theory (UDT), Union Dipole Particle (UDP), Electromagnetism, Universe, Planck Units, Planck Length, Plank Constant, Golden Ratio, Time, Quantization, Maxwell Speed of Light, Gravity, Nature Forces.

Study on the Effect of Hydrophilic Polymers and Diluents in the Development of Oral Sustained Drug Delivery System of Febuxostat
Venkata Srikanth Meka, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Ravi Sheshala and Adinarayana Gorajana
The present study evaluated the possibilities of developing desirable sustained-release delivery systems for Febuxostat by using hydrophilic polymers, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and xanthan gum with different diluents. Sustained-release formulations of Febuxostat tablets were prepared by direct compression method and their physiochemical properties (mean weight, thickness and hardness) were evaluated. In-vitro dissolution study was performed in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 12 hours. The dissolution data showed that lactose was the best diluents to be used in the formulation of sustained-release Febuxostat. In-vitro dissolution studies showed that formulations with 2:1 Febuxostat: HPMC ratio and 1:0.75 Febuxostat:xanthan gum ratio have the potential to be developed into a successful sustained-release formulation. The kinetic release study showed that formulations incorporated with HPMC followed erosion mechanism whilst formulations with xanthan gum followed diffusion mechanism. FTIR and DSC studies indicated that there is no possible drug-excipients interaction present.
Keywords: Sustained release delivery system, Febuxostat, HPMC, xanthan gum, release kinetics.

The Effectiveness of Capacitive Resistive Diathermy (Tecartherapy®) in Acute and Chronic Musculoskeletal Lesions and Pathologies
Mohannad Hawamdeh
To assess the clinical effectiveness of capacitive resistive diathermy (Tecartherapy®) in treatment of musculoskeletal lesions and pathologies based on clinical researches. Data Sources: Major medical databases, including Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Study selection: Articels that contained data on the treatment of acute and chronic pathologies in sports with TecarTherapy®. Data Synthesis: Seven articles studied the effectiveness of Tecartherapy® apparatus in athletes presenting acute and chronic pathologies of the musculoskeletal. Conclusion: We concluded that Capacitive resistive Diathermy Tecartherapy® is able to treat knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, spinal column, hand, muscle injuries rapidly,and efficiently, in addition to painful inflammatory, osteoarticular and muscular disorders (arthrosis, lumbago, sciatica).
Keywords: Tecartherapy®, Pathologies, Acute and Chronic musculoskeletal injuries.

Invasive Weeds Algorithm Based Tuning PID Controller for Marine Diesel Engine's Speed
Ali Shaban Hasooni
This paper will be proposed on the application of the invasive weeds algorithm (IWO) into one of the popular problem setups in the engineering application area of control systems as controller for Marine Diesel Engine's Speed. This algorithm is a new approach which allows the weeds to be more diverse by making better exploration of the local search space instead of global search space investigated by previous researchers such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The paper deals with optimal tuning of a Proportional-Integral- Derivative (PID) controller used in a high performance of Marine Diesel Engine's Speed system for controlling the output obtained and hence to minimize the Integral Square Error (ISE). The proposed algorithm holds on the properties of simple structure, fast convergence, and at the same time enhances the variety of the population, and extends the search space. It is applied to self-tuning of proportional-integral-derivative-(PID) controlled in the speed control system which represents a system of complex industrial processes. Weeds algorithm is best algorithm, faster in convergence and the obtained results are proved to have higher fitness than other algorithms. Hence the results establishes that tuning the PID controller using IWO technique gives less overshoot, system is less sluggish and reduces the ISE.
Keywords: Invasive weeds algorithm (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), PID Control, engine's speed System, and ISE criterion.

Etude Qualitative Des Liqueurs de Dakin Utilisées à Brazzaville
Victor N’goka and Jean Grégoire Ossebi
La qualité des liqueurs de Dakin utilisées, dans les services hospitaliers du Congo, notamment dans la ville de Brazzaville, a été contrôlée. Cette étude effectuée sur des échantillons de préparations officinales et sur les préparations hospitalières, a permis de déterminer la quantité de chlore actif et de permanganate de potassium dans les solutés de Dakin. Cette étude se proposait de vérifier l’attitude négative des cliniciens à l’égard des préparations locales. Les résultats obtenus, montrent que le titre en chlore présente d’énormes fluctuations avec des valeurs de 0,07; 0,4; 0,7; 1,4; 1,5 et 5,0 grammes par litre et que les quantités de permanganate de potassium sont largement au dessus de la norme prescrite. On observe ainsi que les préparations locales de Dakin, objet de cette étude, ne sont pas conformes avec la pharmacopée française en vigueur au Congo.
Motsclés: Hypochlorite de sodium, permanganate de potassium, Dakin, antiseptique.

The Effect of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on Learning with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet among Pishtazan Primary School Learners
Azar Bagheri Massoudzade, Ali Asghar Rostami Abousaeedi and Neda Fatehi Rad
Sixty primary English learners from Pishtazan primary school of Kerman, participated in this study in order to examine the ICT usage (computer and internet) in educational systems, and indicated possible relationship between the use of ICT and language learning. Mentioned school was an electronic one that equipped with ICT tools such as computer. Internet, electronic board and etc. female respondents were selected randomly to answer the survey questionnaire. The questionnaire has been covered ICT usage concerning the English learners’ attitudes. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted. Ultimately, the research findings indicated the great relationship between the use of ICT and language learning. After all, it concluded that ICT method offers opportunities to enhance learning among Pishtazan primary English learners.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology (ICT), EFL learners, Electronic school.

Subject-Independent EEG-Based Discrimination Between Imagined and Executed, Right and Left Fists Movements
Mohammad H. Alomari, Emad A. Awada and Ola Younis
The main objective of this research work is to study the potential use of electroencephalography (EEG) signals as a channel of communication between humans and computers by analyzing the EEG signals associated with imagined and executed fists movements. EEG signals, which represent the brain activity by the electrical voltage fluctuations along the scalp, were filtered and processed using a hybrid system that uses wavelet transform analysis and machine learning algorithms. The proposed system enables the differentiation between imagined, executed, left, and right fist movements for the purpose of controlling computer applications via imagination and real fist movements. The EEG dataset used in this research was created and contributed to PhysioNet by the developers of the BCI2000 instrumentation system. Many Daubechies orthogonal wavelets were used to analyze the extracted events and then different feature extraction methods were applied to the wavelet coefficients in three detail levels. Neural Networks (NNs) were applied to the feature vectors and optimized by carrying out an intensive learning and testing experiments. Optimum classification performances of 81.5% and 88.93% were obtained for the discrimination between imagined/executed and left/right fists activities, respectively. Compared with the related research work reported in the literature, our system showed a good performance for the classification of fists movements, which enables the use of EEG signals as a remote control for many computer applications.
Keywords: EEG, BCI, Machine Learning, Neural Networks, Daubechies Wavelets.

A Model for Development of Organizational Capability Maturity of Gas Company Employees in West Azerbaijan
Mohsenzadeh Hanieh, Beikzad Jafar and Molavi Mehran
The overall goal of this research is to identify factors that influence the development of organizational capability maturity in order to design and development of organizational capability maturity model of Gas Company employees in West Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, organizational capability maturity defined and factors affecting organizational capability maturity model 54 factors initially were identified by studying books, articles and previous researches and using experts’ point of view.The research population is 207 West Azerbaijan Province Gas Company employees. The sample size based on Cochran method is estimated 135 and classified through stratified random sampling. Means of data collection are two questionnaires, organizational capability maturity questionnaire and factor affecting organizational capability maturity scale questionnaire using factor analysis which was given to population after ensuring and assessing the reliability and validity. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. Thus for classification, summarization and interpretation statistical data were used. In inferential statistics for measuring organizational capability maturity single sample t-test was used; and to respond to questions, identify and prioritize the factors affecting organizational capability maturity the factor analysis with SPSS software was used and to confirm the proposed structural equation modeling lisrel8.7 software was used. The results showed that level of organizational capability maturity of West Azerbaijan employees is located in favorable condition.Also using factor analysis, 26 factors were identified as influencing factors on development of employees’ organizational capability maturity and were categorized in 4 groups of structural factors, human resource management, way of working factors and organizational factors and ultimately designed a pattern for developing employees’ organizational capability maturity.
Keywords: Organizational capability maturity, structural factors, management of human resources factors, way of working factors, organizational factors.

Determinant of Operational Effectiveness System in Nigeria Cashew Nuts Processing Industry (A Linear Programming-Sensitivity Analysis Approach)
Salami, Akeem Olanrewaju
Cashew is among the leading export crops in Nigeria, but very little is known about the cost benefit returns to cashew production for many smallholders who produce it and depend on it as source of income. The thrust of this study is to determine the optimal input mix that will maximize profit in cashew nut processing industry using linear programming (LP) approach. Input/output data were gathered from secondary sources to construct linear programming model. Analysis from LP model formulated shows that if the company wants to maximize the yield from the processed cashew nut, it should procure 4 tons of the cashew nut with 44 K.O.R grade and ½ ton of cashew nut with 45 Kernel output ratios (K.O.R) grade so as to maximize a profit of N750 per ton. Cashew nut with 46 K.O.R grade is not recommended because the result of the sensitivity analysis carried out shows that it would reduce profit by N25, if procured and sold. It thus concluded that to improve the quality of cashew nuts, farmers should be educated on proper harvest techniques, storage method, drying method and the need for spraying of trees at regular intervals to prevent damage to the nuts by insects.
Keywords: Optimization Techniques, Kernel output ratio, Efficiency, Profit maximization.

Studying the Effect of Adding Alloying Elements to Aluminum on its Thermal Conductivity and Mechanical Properties
Nawzad Jalal Mahmood, Aysha Shawkat Hassan and Nooruldeen Fatholah Soliman
Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which results in deterioration of their surface quality and mechanical strength. In this study, the influence of copper addition to commercially pure aluminum on microstructure, hardness, grain size, compression and thermal conductivity was studied. Six different Al-Cu alloys of 1,2,3,4,5 and 6% Cu content were prepared and experimentally tested, it was found that the copper adding's increases Brinell hardness, compression strength and reduces the values of thermal conductivity it was also noticed that adding copper resulted to a grain refinement on the microstructure.

A Systematic Approach for Feedback and Analysis of an Enhanced Model for Iraqi e-Government
Reyadh S. Naoum and Zaid Ahmed Nadhim
The application of the e-Government systems is developed by the countries according to their strategies and limitations. Also, countries build their e-Government systems based on the analysis, features, and complexity. In this paper a new proposed conceptual model for the e-Government was developed. Besides that, all possible technical factors of e-Government system are considered. The enhancement process was built on a systematic approach "Meta Analysis". Also, the previous conceptual models are studied and taken into considerations in the enhancement process. For this purpose, the researcher distributed questionnaires on a random sample of 500 Iraqi citizens where 450 were collected, just to ensure that if the Iraqi citizens are satisfied or not. The results of the collected questionnaires indicated that most of Iraqi citizens are not satisfied with the current e-Government system in many technical aspects: User Interface, Security, Services, and Overall Performance. Based on the previous indications, the current Iraqi's e-Government system model is developed in order to fulfill the Iraqi requirements. The new model is introduced, database management system is also indicated besides to represent strategies of system in dealing with official documents instead of traditional methods. Moreover, the systematic approach (Meta-Analysis) which discussed many previous e-Government frameworks and models, which are introduced and analyzed as well as benefit from them in the enhancement process for the new model of Iraq e-Government system through the avoidance of their weaknesses. The new Iraq e-Government model will be suitable for all applications because it has enhanced all issues that the Iraqi citizens faced and experienced.
Index Terms: Systematic Approach, Framework, Conceptual Model.

Multilevel Converter with Reduced Number of Switches for Photovoltaic System Employing MPPT Technique
K. Prasada Rao and Sukhdeo Sao
In multilevel converters the power quality is improved as the number of levels increase at the output voltage. However, it increases the number of switching devices and other components, as a results increases the cost and control complexity and tends to reduce the overall reliability and efficiency of the converter. A new topology for cascaded multilevel converter with less number components and maximum power point tracking(MPPT) based photo voltaic (PV) Systems is proposed in this paper. As the number of output voltage levels increase, it has been observed that the proposed topology significantly reduces the number of PV panels, switches, IGBTs, and power diodes. In addition an algorithm to determine dc voltage sources magnitudes is also proposed. To synthesize maximum levels at the output voltage, the proposed topology is optimized for various objectives, such as the minimization of the number of switches, gate driver circuits, capacitors and blocking voltage on switches. The proposed topology utilizes MPPT based PV system as dc source and reduces the number of switches, losses, installation area and converter cost. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is employed to ensure that the PV array is operating at its maximum power. Finally, the simulation results are provided to validate the proposed theory. The operation and performance of the proposed multilevel converter have been evaluated by Mat Lab/Simulink.
Keywords: Multilevel converter, Less number of components, PV system, MPPT, Algorithm, Mat lab/Simulink.

Estimation of Bank Financial Losses because of Problem Situations for Supporting of Banking System Stability
Mykhail Goykhman
The author is developed a method of an estimation of bank financial losses for national banking system stability on example of the National banking system of Ukraine. This article has demonstrated the real possibility of its use to receive some dynamic estimates in money and some different other equivalents as a result of the negative problem situations, such as decreasing of the economic and financial indicators of a banking activity, bankruptcy, illiquidity of payments, etc. In addition, this method of estimating bank financial losses can be used to receive an interpretation of levels of risks for banking system or separated banks. Moreover, it presents an example for calculating of bank financial losses based upon real values (real banks in Ukraine) and shows results of dynamic changes for variables of this method, which allowing to calculate these losses based on technological basis.
Keywords: Method, estimation, banking system, bank financial losses, negative problem situations, banking system stability, risks.