European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 117 No 4
Jan, 2014

Presenting a Conceptual Model for Evaluation of Economic Development Programs in Iran
470-477

Mohammad Mokhber
Abstract:
The present paper aims at evaluation of the first four economic development programs of Iran during years 1992 through 2008 by use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) method. Examination of non-parametric methods indicates that selection of decision-making units (DMU) efficiency depends on nature of data either cardinal or ordinal in both inputs and outputs. In the present research, to determine inputs and outputs coefficients the Atrophy Shannon model was proposed, then, according to the research conceptual model (OCRI) , independent variables ( inputs) and outputs ( rate of relative efficiency of each program in each year) were specified. Next, based on available variables inputs and outputs, and coefficients the major research model for maximization of the goal function was designed. Finally, for expansion of model some related applications were introduced. The main purpose of the current research is application of quantitative methods and instruments (mathematics) for evaluation of the economic development programs in Iran.
Keywords: Evaluation, Economic Development, Data Envelopment Analysis (Dea).

The Effect of Water Content of Waste Material on Gas Generation
478-485
Tri Budi Prayogo, Yutaka Dote and Tomoo Sekito
Abstract:
There are several physical, chemical and physiological factors in the environment that affect biodegradation of organic materials. The effect of the water content has been widely studied as a factor that influences biodegradation. This paper deals with the effect of the water content of waste material on gas generation that indicates the level of biodegradation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of water content on biodegradation considering dry season condition in Southeast Asia region. A batch experiment with organic material as the sample was conducted in an anaerobic condition. Six materials were used; rice, carrots, bananas, meat, chicken meat and fish, as substrate material. Each sample was dried using the freeze drying method to maintain a condition of zero water content. The condition of the water content for each substrate batch experiment bottle was 30% to 80%. Liquid inocula were added up to as much as 25% of the weight of each sample. The batch bottle was stored in an incubator at 30oC. The results show that gas generation was increased with the increase in the water content. The result shows that Maximum Gas Generation Rate in every substrate was increased with an increase in water content and different rates at a water content of 80% was found in the different substrate. The critical water content for every substrate was the same value of 50%. It was shown that the gas generation was influenced by not only the water content but also the type of the material in the substrate.
Keywords: Batch Experiment, Gas Generation, Water Content

The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Training on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction among Jordanian Nurses
486-494
Ibrahim Al Faouri, Nahla Al Ali and Buthyna Al Shorman
Abstract:
Background: Emotional Intelligence plays a significant role leading to improved organization outcomes. Previous studies offer limited evidence regarding the impact of emotional intelligence training on nurses’ job satisfaction. Aim: To examine the impact of emotional intelligence training on nurses’ job satisfaction at a Jordanian Hospital. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental - one group before-after study. A stratified random sample of 70 nurses completed Genos EI Assessment Scale and Job Satisfaction Survey pre and post training. Results: there were significant positive correlations between job satisfaction level and emotional intelligence scores pre and post training. In addition, the training significantly increased emotional intelligence scores and job satisfaction level. Conclusion: Based on the findings, it is suggested that emotional intelligence could be used as an intervention to enhance nurses’ job satisfaction which in turn leads to improved quality of nursing care, lead to create an organizational culture that is conducive for teamwork, autonomy, sense of motivation and empowerment.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, Training, Nurse, Jordan.
JEL Classification code: (Health: General I10)

The Effect of English - Arabic Code Switching on Teaching English Language and Literature at Mu'tah University
495-498
Ahmad Al-Khatatneh
Abstract:
This study investigates the functions that the phenomenon of code switching show and the reasons that students of English language and literature at Mu'tah University switch from English to Arabic. The study compromises 15 male and female students at the department of English in Mu'tah University. There ages are ranged between (18-22). Student of English language and literature were chosen because of their assumed proficiency in English. The researcher used random sampling processing in choosing participants and collecting data. The finding of the study showed that students of English language and literature tend to use code switching for many reasons such as matching the sequence of talk, also it showed that there is an emphasize a direct previous message, to improve their English proficiency, to replace Arabic words that are considered taboo as English words seem less offensive, use English habitually and to deliver message briefly when learning. To conclude this, the study recommends that further research studies be conducted to confine the findings. This study recommends that we shouldn't have negative attitude toward code switching. More researches are recommended to find another motivations for code switching or to find out whether the period of exposure to English may influences the variation in reasons towards switching.
Keywords: Code-switching, English language and literature.

The Effect of Instructional Techniques, Flash Cards and Word Lists on Teaching Vocabulary for Speakers of English as a Second Language
499-504
Mohammad Al-Tarawneh
Abstract:
This experimental paper is mainly about the effects of flashcards and wordlists on teaching second language vocabulary. The study was carried out at Khalid Ben Alwleed elementary school for boys in Al-Mzar southern district, Jordan. 45 students were selected into three groups A, B and C. group A learnt L2 vocabulary through only flash cards , group B through only wordlists and group C through flash cards and wordlists .To investigate the results of teaching vocabulary using flash cards and word lists, the necessary instructions were given for the three groups. After finishing the procedure an exam was given to the groups to show the effects of these techniques and which one is better than the other. Strikingly, the results that the researcher found show that there are no significant differences in the efficiency of these techniques and they are very useful for second language learners to learn and expand their L2 vocabulary.
Keywords: Instructional Techniques, Flash Cards, Word Lists, Vocabulary.

Improvement of Performance Parameters of Microstrip Antennas with Criss-Cross Metamaterial Based Artificial Substrate
505-515
Kirti Inamdar, Y. P. Kosta and S. Patnaik
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the design of a metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna, optimized for bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. A Criss-Cross structure has been proposed, this shape has been inspired from the famous Jerusalem Cross. The theory and design formulas to calculate various parameters of the proposed antenna have been presented. The software analysis of the proposed unit cell structure has been validated experimentally thus giving negative response of e and µ. Following this, a metamaterial-based-microstrip-patch-antenna is designed. A detailed comparative study is conducted exploring the response of the designed patch made of metamaterial and that of the conventional patch. Finally, antenna parameters such as gain, bandwidth, radiation pattern and multiple frequency responses are investigated and optimised for the same and presented in table and response-graphs. It is also observed that the physical dimension of the metamaterial based patch antenna is smaller compared to its conventional counterpart operating at the same fundamental frequency. The challenging part was to develop metamaterial based on some signature structures and techniques that would offer advantage in terms of bandwidth and multiple frequency operation, which is demonstrated in this paper. The unique shape proposed in this paper gives improvement in bandwidth without reducing the gain of the antenna.
Keywords: Metamaterial, Criss-cross-meta-structure, parameter retrieval, negative index.

Determinants of FDI in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Countries
516-524
Adnan Ahmed and Naeem Ullah
Abstract:
This study is conducted to see the different macroeconomic and infrastructure variables on FDI in SAARC countries. The study use panel data analysis and has 40 country year observations for each variable. The data would be obtained from 2003-2012 periods. The study concludes that macroeconomic variable of GDP, GFCF, Inflation shown significant impact on FDI while an infrastructure, the variable of change in electrical power production has significant role in attracting FDI in SAARC countries. These results are very useful for the government and helpful for the authorities to allocate fund and resources that would help to attract FDI.
Keywords: International Investment, Direct Investment, Developing Countries, Determinants.

Performance of Different Aggregates in Concrete Structures Located in Marine, Rural and Urban Environment in Argentina
525-541
C. Priano and L. Señas
Abstract:
Aggregates used in concrete of several structures located in Bahía Blanca city (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina) were analyzed. Their petrographic and mineralogical composition was determined, as well as, the relation with the alkali-aggregate reaction. The reactive components were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Coarse and fine aggregates of the analyzed structures show similar lithological composition. From a petrographic point of view they can be qualified as potentially reactives with respect to the alkali-silica reaction. Despite this, most of the studied structures are not affected by this pathology. Cases where the reaction was noticed are related to the use of a concrete type with high level of alkali and the microclimate in the surroundings of the affected structure. From the use cases, it was possible to establish that in some of the constructions there was not a proper material selection since potentially reactive materials were used, considering the ASR, without measuring the level of alkali content of the concrete or/and the environmental factors.
Keywords: Re active Aggregate, Concrete, Microclimate.

Performance of Clustering Evaluation Measures in Massive Online Analysis Framework
556-567
P. K. Srimani and Malini M. Patil
Abstract:
The present study aims at generation, validation and visualization of clusters in data streams using clustering algorithms under massive online analysis framework with different instance sizes. Data stream mining using clustering approach has gained lot of scope in the recent research. Clustering is one of the important data mining problem and clustering validation is a challenging task because of the ubiquitous nature of data streams. Though the cluster evaluation or validation is not well developed, but even then it is possible to compare the evaluation measures of clusters using two different algorithms in a massive online analysis (MOA) frame work. The evaluation part of the paper mainly aims at study of the 26 cluster evaluation measures. It is found that different validation measures may be appropriate for different clustering algorithms, it is necessary to have a focused study of cluster validation measures on a specified clustering algorithm at one time. Study reveals that different validation measures have been developed for evaluating the performance of clustering algorithms but the present work provide a guide line to select the most suitable validation measures for STREAMKM and CLUSTREAM algorithms in massive online analysis framework.
Keywords: Data Stream, Clustering, Evaluation Measure, Validation, StreamKM, Clustream, Massive Online Analysis, Massive Data Mining.

Review on Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
568-584
Khalid W. Al-Ani, Salman Yussof, Hussein M. Haglan and Hothefa Shaker
Abstract:
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that has no fixed infrastructure and can be rapidly deployed in any environment when needed. Nodes in MANET can be organized themselves randomly and are free to move in any direction. Hence, the topology of this network is changing frequently and dynamically. Due to the attribute of dynamic topology, routing in MANET is a lot more difficult than routing in a fixed wired network. In this paper, we provide an overview of routing protocols by presenting their characteristics and functionality and also describe the limitation for each of them.
Keywords: MANET, Proactive Routing, Reactive Routing, Hybrid Routing.

Improving the Multibiometric Recognition Based on Fuzzy Vault Scheme Using Multiple Polynomials
585-594
Gandhimathi Amirthalingam and Radhamani.G
Abstract:
Single modal Biometric systems stumble upon a noisy sensor acquisition, non-universality performance rate and a variety of security problems. The multimodal biometric system may be inclined to different attacks like a man-in-the-middle attack, Trojan horse attack, collision attack and replay attack. Template security and privacy are essential issues to be addressed for assuring successful biometric deployment. In this paper, a method to face and ear multimodal biometric template security is proposed. The extracted feature set of multimodal face and ear are applied to the multi biocryptosystem fuzzy vault technique using multi polynomial to avoid the possible degradation of the security. Template security and accuracy of multibiometric system fuzzy vault depends on the infeasibility of the polynomial reconstruction problem. The experimental results of the proposed method are evaluated using False Matching Rate (FMR) and Genuine Acceptance Rate (GAR) with the degree of polynomials. The performance of suggested method shows the promising growth in the multimodal biometric recognition and template security.
Keywords: Multimodal biometric, Biometric recognition, Fuzzy vault, Multiple Polynomials, Ear recognition

Knowledge Sharing: A Pedagogical Approach Towards Innovation in Integrated Management Systems an Explorative Analysis
595-600
Wasim Abbas, Asad Afzal Humayon and Abdul Razzaq Azad

Impact of Value System on Personality Development among Tiv Teenagers in Nigeria
601-610
Mary Basil Nwoke
Abstract:
The study investigated the impact of value system on personality development among Tiv teenagers. Participants were two groups. The first was sixteen, eight males and eight females. Three boys and three girls, age range (13-19) years, a mean age of 16 years; three men and three women age range (20-54) years, mean age of 37 years and four old-old men and women age, (55-71) years, mean age of 63 years; provided information about Tiv value system. Second group was 1,500 secondary school students randomly sampled from the tribe. Tivland was zoned into A, B & C. From each zone, five secondary schools were stratified. From each school hundred students were randomly sampled, fifty (JSS II) age (12-14) years, a mean age of 13 years and fifty (SS II) age (15-17) years, a mean age of 16 years on equal gender. Results showed significant impact of value system, F (2, 1488) = 21.3 p< .001, age was significant, F (1, 1488) = 10. 5 p< .001.Value system x age interaction was significant, F(2, 1488) = 4.6 p<.04 value system x gender interaction was significant, F(2,1488)= 5.08 p<.03 value system x age x gender was significant F(2, 1488)= 4.56 p<.05. Implication of the study was discussed.
Keywords: Personality Development. Tiv Teenagers.Value System.

Investigating the Ultrasonic Vibration of Quench Environment before Cryogenic Heat Treatment
611-618
Kamran Amini, Amin Akhbarizadeh, Sirus Javadpour and Sina Matin
Abstract:
In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic vibration of the quench environment before the deep cryogenic heat treatment on the microstructure, hardness and wear behavior of the 1.2082 tool steel was investigated via the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness and pin-on-disk wear test. For this purpose, the samples were quenched in water and oil while the quenching environment was being vibrated ultrasonically. The ultrasonic vibration affects the retained austenite percentage and subsequently changes the microstructure and hardness of the samples. Results show that the ultrasonic vibration induces a higher content of martensite into the steel structure. Hence, a more uniform carbide distribution with a higher percentage was achieved after the deep cryogenic heat treatment. These microstructural changes slightly improve the hardness of the samples but did not affect the wear behavior intensely. Furthermore, some nano-sized carbides were also produced in the structure, improving the hardness and wear resistance further.
Keywords: Cryogenic; carbides; steel; ultrasonic.