European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 117 No 1
Jan, 2014

Empowerment of Medical and Paramedical Health Providers Role for Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of Reducing Maternal Mortality in Egypt
7-22

Ammal M. Metwally, Ghada A. Abdel-Latif, Rehan M. Saleh, Dalia M. Elmosalami, Nihad A. Ibrahim and Hanaa M. Imam
Abstract:
Empowerment of health care providers with adequate knowledge and skills is important to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality in Egypt. The study aimed to build strong community structures able to provide efficient and effective quality care and management. The study is an interventional evaluation study which was conducted in 21 villages in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates of Egypt targeting both the medical and paramedical health providers to assess and measure the changes in the awareness, attitude and performance (KAP) of the targeted groups for taking action to reduce the time a patient must wait to receive medical attention. This study was prospective study conducted along two and half years starting from August 2010 till Feb 2013. The study showed that KAP of 54 nurses and 62 community health workers (CHWs) about issues related to maternal health was greatly improved after maternal health education courses with positive attitudes towards early referral of critical conditions to the nearest health facility while providing timely obstetric care to save women's life. The training of health providers would facilitate outreach activities, increase access to medical facilities, and providing first aid measures for managing bleeding, preeclampsia and puerperal Sepsis.
Keywords: Millennium Development Goal - medical and paramedical health providers - knowledge - practices – attitudes - maternal health - maternal Mortality.

Identify Entrepreneurship Opportunities (Case Study: Fishery Industry)
23-34
Tayebeh Abdoli Mohammad Abadi, Mahmood Ahmadpour Daryani, Asef, Karimi and Matinfar, Abbas
Abstract:
New job opportunities and entrepreneurship in the field of fishery, and considering business economic aspects in Fishery, as well as promotional legal supports, creating entrepreneurship centers, and promoting general culture of entrepreneurship, is a context for entrepreneurship in the field of fisheries and aquaculture. The dominant approach in this research is mixed (qualitative – quantitative), and the information required to conduct the study was collected through interviewing 10 experts in the field of fishery and distributing questionnaires among 85 entrepreneurs. Finally the information was analyzed using SPSS software. The results obtained from findings of this study indicate that entrepreneurial opportunities in fishery industry are attractive. These opportunities include farming of a variety of aquatics, including mollusk , crustaceans (only shrimp is farmed in Iran), warm water fish (only four species are farmed in Iran), different kinds of cold water fish, aquatic plants, aquatic animals such as frog, crocodile and, new methods of fishing and aquaculture, such as cage culture, combined production of aquatic species, fishing of species with export value from the waters of the South (Lantern fish, Trachurus), the creation of additional aquatics processing industries and aquatics distribution.
Keywords: Opportunity, Entrepreneurship, Fishing Industry.

Contribution to the Formal Specification and Verification of a Multi-Agent Robotic System
35-55
Nadeem Akhtar and Malik M. Saad Missen
Abstract:
It is important to have multi-agent robotic system specifications that ensure correctness properties of safety and liveness. As these systems have concurrency, and often have dynamic environment, the formal specification and verification of these systems along with step-wise refinement from abstract to concrete concepts play a major role in system correctness. Formal verification is used for exhaustive investigation of the system space thus ensuring that undetected failures in the behavior are excluded. We construct the system incrementally from subcomponents, based on software architecture. The challenge is to develop a safe multi-agent robotic system, more specifically to ensure the correctness properties of safety and liveness. Formal specifications based on model-checking are flexible, have a concrete syntax, and play vital role in correctness of a multi-agent robotic system. To formally verify safety and liveness of such systems is important because they have high concurrency and in most of the cases have dynamic environment. We have considered a case-study of a multi-agent robotic system for the transport of stock between storehouses to exemplify our formal approach. Our proposed development approach allows for formal verification during specification definition. The development process has been classified in to four major phases of requirement specifications, verification specifications, architecture specifications and implementation.
Keywords: Formal methods, Correctness properties, Safety property, Liveness property, Formal verification, Multi-agent robotic system, Formal architecture, Finite State Process (FSP), Labelled Transition System (LTS), Architecture Description Language (ADL).

Formal Specification and Verification of an Internet Marketing System Using Timed-Automata Based Uppaal
56-64
Nadeem Akhtar and Muhammad Nauman
Abstract:
A self-adaptive system proposes an effective method to cope with the complexity of the modern day software systems. There have been significant improvements in the manner in which adaptive systems are analyzed, designed, implemented, and formally verified. This paper presents our Internet Marketing System that has been successfully formally modeled and verified by using timed-automata based model-checking. We have also formally specified and verified the correctness properties of liveness and safety of our self-adaptive system. We are using timed automata and Timed Computation Tree Logic for the formal specification, and formal verification of correctness properties.
Keywords: Self-Adaptive system, Formal verification, Model checking, Timed-automata, IMS (Internet Marketing System), Timed Computation Tree Logic (TCTL), Architecture Description Language (ADL).

Pipat Traditions in Music Culture in the Mekong River Basin Practice and Phenomena in the Early 21st Century
65-75
Manop Wisuttipat
Abstract:
“Pipat”, or “Pinpeat” in Cambodian and “Pinpat” in Lao, is a specific word used to define a traditional ensemble from the musical culture of the three countries. The instruments in the ensemble mostly consist of melody making, punctuating instruments. Pipat music has long been used during theatrical performances, royal ceremonies and ritual functions. The compositions played are highly regarded and considered sacred. There are many common elements between the Pipat Traditions in the three countries mentioned above, for example, the instruments used in the ensemble are similar in name and physical appearance. The differences between repertoires from the different regions, while obviously recognizable by the musicians, have not been closely studied in terms of their interrelationships. Research needs to be undertaken to find out and understand more about this shared tradition. The results would serve as the agent that links their present interrelationship to their history and finally their individual origins. The purposes of this research were: 1. To clarify and explain the phenomena of the contemporary Pipat traditions in the three countries. 2. To interpret the role and status of the contemporary Pipat traditions in the society in the three countries. 3. To find out the interrelationships between the Pipat traditions in the region from the point of view of instruments, repertoires, theories, and performance practices. Results found that the present phenomena and situation of the Pipat tradition in the three countries appears to be different. The Pipat tradition in Thailand seems to be more active than in Cambodia and Laos. From an insider’s point of view, the concerned authorities do not give adequate support or raise cultural issues to the national agenda in a practical way. Research and academic work is mostly conducted by scholars in educational institutions. The sustainable policy in cultural affairs is not clearly seen on a national level as the policies change with changes in personnel. The Pinpeat tradition in Cambodia has support from organizations and NGOs. However, the Pinpeat tradition has lost the majority of musicians and so encouraging the younger generations into Pinpeat music must be pursued. The Pinpat in Laos needs urgent revival. A vast number of Pinpat music repertoires have been lost along with instruments and musicians. Authorities need to monitor the transition from the old to the revolutionary tradition and help preserve the old tuning system. Keywords: Pipat tradition, Pinpeat tradition, Pinpat tradition

Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Olea Europea Var.Oleaster Oil and Determination of its Effects on Blood Parameters
76-85
Gherib A, Merzougui I and Henchiri C
Abstract:
This present study has allowed to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and the hypolipidemic effect of Oleaster oil Olea europea var. Oleaster, from the area of El Kala, "eastern Algeria" on rats "Wistar albinos". The physicochemical characteristics: acidity (0, 73%), peroxide value (14, 16 meqO2/kg oil) and iodine value (74, 08 g iodine / 100 g of oil) are consistent with international standards. The dosage of FA revealed a wealth of oil with UFA (76, 7%), mainly composed of 65.43% of MUFA whose major fatty acid is oleic acid (63, 57%). The experiment on rats receiving a diet rich in saturated fats and hydrogenated oils revealed that the consumption of Oleaster oil at the dose of 10g and 20g for 15 and 30 days improves plasma lipid profile by decreasing the rates of TC, TG, TL and LDL-C with an increase in the rate of HDL-C serum. The importance of these effects depends on the dose and period of treatment.
Keywords: Oleaster oil, fatty acid, olea europea, oleic acid, lipid profile.

Impact du Pigeon Urbain Sur la Pollution Microbiologique de L’environnement
86-94
Amina Salhi-Mesbahi, Wafa Amoura, Moussa Houhamd I and Zihad Bouslama
Abstract:
Notre étude consiste à l’analyse bactériologique des fientes de pigeons urbains dans le but de mettre en évidence les microorganismes bactériens qu’elles contiennent et évaluer leur résistance aux antibiotiques imposés par les normes médicales. Notre travail a été réalisé au niveau de la wilaya d’Annaba, le site est en plein centre ville .la technique utilisée est celle des cultures sur milieux sélectifs suivie de l’antibiogramme par écouvillonnage. Dans notre site, nous avons identifies six espèces qui sont : E.coli, citobacter, freundii, enterobacter amnigenus, klebsiella pneumoniae, S.aureus et S.intermeduis. Elles sont résistantes à 35,85% des antibiotiques, sensibles à 43,66% et intermédiaires à 20,76%. Toutes ces bactéries sont relativement pathogènes et assez résistantes aux anibiotiques. Ceci nous amène à déclarer les fientes de pigeons comme un biocontaminant de l’environnement urbain. Les risques d’infections bactérienne sont vérifiés et bien présents dans notre site d’étude.De plus ces mêmes fientes sont susceptibles d’induire l’émergence ou réémergence d’épisode zoonotique dont le réservoir et/ou vecteur pourrait être le pigeon urbain.
Keywords: Pigeon urbain (Columba livia domesica), Annaba, fientes, bactérie, résistances aux antibiotique, santé.

Relationship of Leisure (Sports Activities) between Male and Female Students in Province of Mazandaran": Sport Psychology
95-101
Habibollah.Naderi and Maryam.Mohammadpour
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leisure (sport activities) among male and female students in Mazandaran province. The statistical population were Students between the ages of 14-18 years old and with using Cochran formula, 401 subjects were selected. Results show that the amount of interest in how to spend leisure time (sports activities) Soccer (sig=0.000), basketball (sig=0.03), wrestling (sig= 0.000), table tennis (sig=0.000), Cycling (sig=0.000), ancient sports (sig=0.000), swimming (sig=0.000) and Martial Arts (sig=0.000) there is a significant difference between male and female but in sports volleyball (sig=0/354), hiking (sig=0/543), Chess (sig=0/387) there is no significant difference between male and female and suggest investigate at the other different ages.

Keywords: Leisure, Sports activities, Sport Psychology.

Reducing the Magnetic Field Density Generated Around Transmission Line Conductors by Changing the Conductors Layout Configuration
102-109
Mohammed Omar
Abstract:
In the vicinity of the transmission network lines arises magnetic fields which its intensity depends on the amount of currents that flowing in the conductors and the distance from the conductors. In this trabajo utilizando el método de elementos finitos, se calcula laresearch, the magnetic flux density generated by the 132 KV double vertical line de doble circuito y se comparan los resultados con los medido configuration has been investigated by using shadow method . Obtained results indicate that by changing the Standard dual vertical channel configuration into a new modified phase layoutreduce the magnetic flux density on the ground surface in mid- channel (X = 0) to about (78.3 %).Also the obtained results indicate that the strength of the magnetic field is far below the threshold of magnetic field levels defined bythe International Commission for Protection Against la Radiación no Ionizante (ICNIRP).Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).
Keywords: HV Transmission Lines, Magnetic Field, Channel Configuration Changing.

A Study to Examine the Level of Employability Skills among Business Students
110-115
Aamir Sarwar, Hira Aftab and Aqsa Arshad
Abstract:
This paper investigated the concept of employability skills and its level among the business students. The main purpose of this study was to highlight the employability skills of business students with respect to gender composition, age grouping, universities, area of specialization, current CGPA, internship experience and etc. For this purpose 12 hypothesis were developed. The questionnaire was developed on the framework of ACCI/BCA with some modifications. The random sampling technique was used in selecting 300 respondents. The Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in order to perform statistical analysis like Mean, Standard Deviation, t-test analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The major finding was that business students had all those skills that the employers seek.
Keywords: Employability Skills, Higher Education, Personal Attributes.

Design of CNTFET-Based Radiation Hardened Latches
116-126
Sneh Lata Murotiya and Anu Gupta
Abstract:
Nanoscale CMOS circuits are more susceptible to externally induced radiation phenomena that are likely to cause the occurrence of transient faults or soft errors. Therefore, Radiation Hardening is a strict requirement in addition with other design matrices of performance, energy, and area for novel high performance nanoscale circuits particularly storage cells (such as latch and memory circuits). This paper presents novel hardened latch designs based on Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (CNTFETs) that utilize different threshold voltages for superior performance. As figures of merit, critical charge, power consumption and propagation delay are considered when selecting the optimum chirality of N-type and P-type transistors for the best combined performance. Extensive simulations using HSPICE are performed to show that the proposed dual chirality CNTFET based latches provide higher soft error tolerance and significantly lower power delay product than the conventional CMOS design counterparts, having the same configurations. The CNTFET based Standard latch has three times higher critical charge than its CMOS counterpart. Monte Carlo simulation results have confirmed that the proposed CNTFET hardened latches are less susceptible to process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations with respect to the CMOS based designs.
Keywords: CNT, CNTFETs, Critical charge, Dual chirality, PDP, SER.

Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile
127-136
Merzougui I, Gherib A and Henchiri C
Abstract:
This study has allowed to confirm the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physicochemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84%), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01% of total fatty acids and PUFAs represented by linoleic acid (19,26%). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats .We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).
Keywords: Pistacia Lentiscus, oil, lipid profile, monounsaturated fatty acids,polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Discrete Wavelet Transform for Image-to-Image Steganography
137-152
Reyadh Naoum, Marwan Shaker, Ahmed Shihab and Mudhafar Al-Jarrah
Abstract:
Information hiding using steganography techniques is the science of transmitting a message between two parties in a manner that an attacker will not be aware that the message exists. The proposed system aims to hide a color image inside another larger color image. The research aims to use transformation domain methods to deal with complexity, security and robustness. The proposed Steganography scheme uses a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method to provide better imperceptibility, in harmony with the human visual system, and with higher robustness against signal processing attacks. The DWT method is implemented for storing the embedded image in the cover image, while finding locations to hide information is realized on using a threshold method. The proposed steganography system includes five stages: test stage; transformation stage, key generation and substitution stage, inverse transformation stage and key encryption and hiding stage. The paper shows promising results in securely hiding an image within another image, achieving a capacity ratio of 1/4 between the two images, while maintaining a strong similarity between cover and stego images. The presented discussion emphasizes the improved security that resulted from using encryption with steganogarphy to hide the secret key.
Keywords: Steganography, Secret Image, Cover Image, Embedded Image, Stego Image, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Steganalysis, Cryptography.

Deformation Retractions of N-Dimensional Cylinder and its Foldings
153-161
A. E. El-Ahmady and N. Al-Hazmi
Abstract:
Our aim in the present article is to introduce and study the relation between the deformation retract of the n- dimensional cylinder Ln and the deformation retract of the tangent space Tp(Ln). Also, this relation discussed after and before the isometric and topological folding of Ln into itself. New types of conditional folding are presented. Some commutative diagrams are obtained.
Keywords: Retraction, Deformation retract, Folding, N-dimensional cylinder Ln.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 51H10, 57N10.
Fuzzy Deformation Retract of Fuzzy Reissner NordstrÖm Spacetime
162-175
A. E. El-Ahmady and A. Al-Rdade
Abstract:
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study a new type of metric, namely fuzzy Reissner–NordstrÖm spacetime metric. New types of retractions of fuzzy Reissner–Nordstr m spacetime Ñ4 are deduced. Types of the deformation retracts of fuzzy Reissner–NordstrÖm spacetime Ñ4 are presented. The relation between the folding and the deformation retracts of fuzzy Reissner–NordstrÖm spacetime Ñ4 are deduced. Types of minimal retractions of fuzzy Reissner–NordstrÖm spacetime Ñ4 are presented. Also, the isometric and topological folding in each case and the relations between the deformation retracts after and before folding have been obtained. New types of homotopy maps are deduced. Some theorems which describe these relations are achieved. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy retractions, Fuzzy foldings, Fuzzy deformation retracts, Fuzzy Reissner–Nordstr m spacetime Ñ4